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manding officer. The next step, in respect to tenant, who seemed to take matters more visits, is for the commanding officer of the philosophically, and of a German lieutenant, arriving vessel to call on the commanding the naval officer who had arrived first apofficers senior in rank to him in the navy peared to lose his embarrassment. I made of the nation to which the port belongs. all the visits required of me by usage, and These visits must be returned, by conven- was everywhere received with courtesy. It tion, within twenty-four hours. It is also is hardly to the point whether there was any customary to visit the highest civil officer great amount of actual friendliness for us and the highest military officer. By these beneath the surface. The Spanish officials forms of naval ceremony I was required to on every hand gave us absolutely all the make visits at Havana to the captain-general courtesy to which we were entitled by usage, (who is also governor-general), the Spanish and they gave it with all the grace of manadmiral in charge of the station, the captain ner which is characteristic of their nation. of the port, and the captain of the Alfonso I accepted it as genuine. XII. Visits are also exchanged in the United It is not essential to enter here into the States service between the captain of an details of usage in connection with salutes. arriving man-of-war and the consular repre- It is enough to say that convention required sentative of the United States. General the Maine to salute the Spanish national Fitzhugh Lee, as consul-general, was en- flag and also to salute Admiral Manterola. titled to the first visit from me.
But such salutes are given only when it is In command of the Maine at Havana, I had known that they will be returned. I therebut one wish, which was to be friendly to fore deemed it prudent to determine this the Spanish authorities, as required by my point, although the visit of a Spanish orders. I took pleasure in carrying out my officer to the ship would ordinarily be orders in this respect. The first Spanish thought sufficiently convincing. In the officer to come on board was a naval lieu- course of conversation with the Spanish tenant who represented the captain of the naval officer who was the first to visit the port. His bearing was both dignified and Maine, I said: “I am about to give myself polite (which, by the way, is invariably the the honor of saluting your national flag; rule with Spanish naval officers), but I from which battery will the salute be rethought he looked embarrassed and even turned ?” He replied: “From the Cabaña.” humiliated in carrying out his duty. I greatly With that assurance both salutes were fired regretted that such should be the case, and and returned. The salute to the Spanish did all that I could to make him feel at ease. admiral was returned by his flagship, the After the arrival of a second Spanish lieu- Alfonso XII.
Shortly after the arrival of the Maine, I Parrado through the Maine, and he seemed sent myaid, Naval Cadet J.H. Holden, ashore much pleased. to report to General Lee, and announce that It had been announced in the local newsI would soon follow. I promptly gave orders papers that there would be a series of bullthat no officers or men of the vessel should go fights in Havana, in which would appear ashore, unless by my express order. I de- Mazzantini, the famous “gentleman bullsired first to test public feeling, private and fighter of Spain.” I had decided to go to official, with reference to the Maine's visit. I the bull-fight, notwithstanding the day of made my visit to Admiral Manterola in full its celebration was Sunday. I was anxious dress, with cocked hat, epaulets, etc. I to know from my own observation the true landed at the Machina, the man-of-war land- feeling of the people of Havana toward the ing, which is virtually at the Spanish ad- Maine. Knowing that the common people miral's residence. There was a crowd as- were likely to be greatly excited at the bullsembled, but only of moderate size. There fight, I decided that my presence there would was no demonstration of any kind; the crowd afford the very best opportunity for my closed in about me slightly. I thought the purpose. I told General Parrado of my inpeople stolid and sullen, so far as I could tention, and he at once offered me a box. I gather from an occasional glance, but I took declined the offer, saying that some of the very little notice of anybody. On my return, officers of the Maine and I would go simply however, I noted carefully the bearing of the as ordinary observers. However, within a various groups of Spanish soldiers that I day or two, General Parrado sent me tickets passed. They saluted me, as a rule, but with for a box, which was an act of kindness so much expression of apathy that the salute greatly appreciated by us. really went for nothing. They made no On the first Sunday after the arrival of demonstration against me, however, not the Maine at Havana, General Lee gave a even by look.
luncheon-party to the officers of the ship, at The same day I made my visit to General the Havana Yacht Club at Marianao, a Lee, and arranged with him for my visit to place on the sea-shore, about eight miles the acting captain- and governor-general, west of Havana. There we met some Cuban who at that time was General Parrado, Cap- gentlemen, a few members of foreign contain-General Blanco being absent on a tour of sulates, and a number of press corresponthe island. It is customary in the case of dents. In going there I was taken by the high officials to make the visit at an ap- sea route, in a small steam-launch owned by pointed time. When I made my visit, on one of the Cuban gentlemen. We went close January 27, accompanied by General Lee, alongshore, past all the batteries west of the there seemed at first to be a probability of entrance. There was no impropriety in this, embarrassment. We called at the palace of because one could see the batteries to better General Blanco at the appointed time, and advantage merely by driving along one of apparently nobody at the palace knew any- the most frequented driveways of the city. thing about our appointment. The ever- At Marianao there was a small Spanish garpresent American newspaper-man relieved rison. Sentries were posted at various places, the situation; he ascertained that General and at one time, I believe, they had occupied Parrado was in a residence across the way, the roof of the club-house. There was no where he was expecting us. We promptly excitement or even special interest shown repaired the mistake, and were received by by the soldiers at the appearance there of General Parrado with great courtesy. He United States officers. The entertainment had a table spread with refreshments for passed off very pleasantly. General Lee our benefit. All of my official visits were re- toasted the naval party, and we toasted turned promptly. General Parrado returned General Lee. Complimentary speeches were my visit in person, and was given the sa- made on each side. lute of a captain-and governor-general; that The box at the bull-fight which had been is to say, of the governor of a colony-seven- provided us by the courtesy of General Parteen guns, the same salute which is pre- rado contained six seats. I reserved one scribed for the governor of one of the United ticket for General Lee, one for Naval Cadet States.
Holden, and one for myself. The other three All visits were made without friction and I sent to the ward-room and the junior offiwith courtesy on both sides, and apparently cers' mess, to be chosen by lot. The party with all the freedom of conversation and therefore consisted of six people. We reaction usually observed. I showed General turned to Havana from the yacht club by
¡VIVA ESPAÑA CON HONRA!
¿Qué haceis que os dejais insultar de esa manera? ¿No veis lo que nos han hecho retirando á nuestro valiente y querido Weyler, que á estas horas ya hubiéramos acabado con esta indigua canalla insurrecta que pisotea nuestra bandera y nuestro honor?
Nos imponen la Autonomía para echarnos á un lado y dar los puestos de honor y mando á aquellos que iniciaron esta rebelion, estos mal nacidos autonomistas, hijos ingratos de nuestra querida patria!
Y por último, estos cochinos yankees que se mezclan en nuestros asuntos, humillándonos hasta el último grado, y para más vejámen nos mandan uno de los barcos de guerra de su podrida escuadra, despues de insultarnos en sus diarios
desde uuestra casa!
Mueran los americanos! Muera la Autonomía!
FACSIMILE OF THE COPY OF THE CIRCULAR SENT TO CAPTAIN SIGSBEE THROUGH THE HAVANA
POST-OFFICE. (FOR A TRANSLATION SEE THE OPPOSITE PAGE.)
train, and could not help remarking the action that was permitted to officers of other suitability of the country for guerrilla war- navies; therefore, I reasserted our intention fare. While we were yet in the train, an to go. Our friend said: “Well, if they will American gentleman discussed with us the allow you there, they will allow you anypropriety of going to the bull-fight. He ex- where.” plained that the common people on such oc As we emerged from the train and passed casions were generally greatly excited, and out of the station on our arrival at Havana, as our visit to Havana was not well regarded I was handed by somebody (I think by one by the populace, there was a probability that of the newspaper correspondents) the belone single cry against us might set the licose circular which has since been pubaudience aflame. I believed that it was in- lished in the newspapers. It was a small consistent with the friendly visit of the printed slip containing a protest to the pubMaine that her officers should not be ac- lic against submission to a visit from the corded the same freedom of appearance and Maine, and, translated, reads as follows:
I felt very
in front of our box. General Parrado bowed
to me pleasantly, but I thought that he and LONG LIVE SPAIN WITH HONOR!
the officers about him were not entirely free What are you doing that you allow yourselves from embarrassment because of our presence. to be insulted in this way ? Do you not see what General Parrado was always especially kind they have done to us in withdrawing our brave
in his intercourse with me. and beloved Weyler, who at this very time would have finished with this unworthy, rebellious rabble friendly toward him. Occasionally on looking who are trampling on our flag and on our honor ? up suddenly I detected glances at me that
Autonomy is imposed on us to cast us aside and were far from friendly. give places of honor and authority to those who Six bulls were killed during the day. Our initiated this rebellion, these low-bred autono- party arrived as the first one was being mists, ungrateful sons of our beloved country !
hauled away dead. After the fifth bull had And, finally, these Yankee pigs who meddle in been despatched, it was decided, as a conour affairs, humiliating us to the last degree, and, siderate measure in favor of General Parfor a still greater taunt, order to us a man-ofwar of their rotten squadron, after insulting us in rado, that we should leave the building and their newspapers with articles sent from our return to Havana early, so as to avoid the own home!
crowd. We therefore left very quietly, just Spaniards! the moment of action has arrived. before the sixth bull entered the ring. We Do not go to sleep! Let us teach these vile tried to reach the ferry promptly, so that we traitors that we have not yet lost our pride, and might return to Havana on a steamer having that we know how to protest with the energy but few passengers. Three members of our befitting a nation worthy and strong, as our party were successful in this attempt, but Spain is, and always will be! Death to the Americans! Death to autonomy! failed. On our arrival a steamer had just
General Lee, Lieutenant Holman, and I Long live Spain! Long live Weyler!
left the landing. We then hailed a small pasI put it in my pocket, and we went to senger-boat, and were pulled to the Maine. the bull-fight, by means of the ferry plying While General Lee and I were conversing between Havana and Regla. I have been on the quarter-deck of the Maine, a ferry-boat asked many times what I thought of the cir- came across the bay, carrying back to Havana cular. At the time I thought it of no im- a large number of people from the audience. portance whatever, and I have not changed There was no demonstration of any kind. my opinion. It could only have been the The passengers were doubtless those who screaming appeal of some bigoted and im- had left early, hoping, like ourselves, to potent patriot. When a would-be conspira- avoid the crowd. The next ferry-boat was tor finds it necessary thus to go out into the densely crowded. Among the passengers public streets and beg anonymously for as- were a number of officers of the Spanish sistance, he demonstrates that he is without army and of the volunteers. As the ferryfriends. Circulars of that kind are not at all boat passed the Maine there were derisive uncommon in Havana. General Lee received calls and whistles. Apparently not more than them frequently. In his case, the date was fifty people participated in that demonstragenerally set for his destruction. He gave tion. It was not general, and might have himself no concern over them, but let it be occurred anywhere. I have never believed known generally that any one attempting to that the Spanish officers or soldiers took injure him bodily would be treated very sum- part. It is but fair to say that this was the marily by himself. His poise in matters of only demonstration of any kind made against that kind made murderous bulletins posi- the Maine or her officers, either collectively tively humorous.
or individually, so far as was made known to There had formerly been a bull-ring in me, during our visit. Adverse feeling toward Havana, a well-appointed one, but for some us was shown by the apathetic bearing of reason it was closed, and the smaller ring at soldiers when they saluted, or of tradesmen Regla had taken its place. When we arrived when they supplied our needs. After the at the ring, we found that our box was high Maine had been sunk, and when the Montup above the rows of seats, and close to the gomery and the Fern were in Havana, Spanbox occupied by General Parrado, who was ish passenger-boatmen exhibited bad temper the presiding official at the sport on that by withholding or delaying answers to our day. Members of his staff were with him. Sta- hails at night. The failure of the Spanish tioned at intervals throughout the audience authorities
to compel the boatmen to answer were individual soldiers, under arms, and our hails impressed me as being very closely there were about twenty in the seat directly akin to active unfriendliness. It was at the
time when the Vizcaya and the Oquendo were Sunday. Perhaps I should confess that I atin Havana, using picket-boats and occasion- tended two bull-fights in Havana, on succesally search-lights at night, apparently to safe- sive Sundays, that being the only day, I beguard themselves. Hails were made sharply lieve, on which bull-fights take place. On and answered promptly between the Spanish the second occasion I went with an Amerimen-of-war and the boats constantly plying can friend and a party of Cuban gentlemen. about the harbor at night. It must have been To comprehend the Spanish bull-fight it plain on board the Spanish men-of-war that should be considered as a savage sport the boatmen were trifling with us. This was passed down from generation to generation after the Vizcaya had visited New York. from a remote period when human nature
I have been taken to task on some sides in was far more cruel than at present. If the the United States for going to a bull-fight on sport had not so developed, it is a fair infer