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letter.” This employment roused sharp for him. He expects something to be done criticism both from Franklin's fellow-com- as a reward for his services." Again, he missioners and from members of Congress, used all his influence to have the grandson based partly on the questionableness of giv- made secretary of the Federal Convention ing the position to a relative, partly on the in 1787, and was keenly disappointed when lad's youthfulness, and partly on the fact that body selected some one else. No sooner that he was the son of an open and avowed was the national government organized than Tory. A motion was even offered in Con- he applied to Washington for some office for gress that he should be dismissed, which the young man, and seriously resented a reso exasperated Franklin that he declared fusal to gratify his wish. In the meantime warmly:

he had already in effect purchased and given

to Temple his father's farm in New Jersey, I am surprised to hear that my grandson, valued at four thousand pounds sterling, and Temple Franklin, being with me, should be an in his will he left him other property, includobjection against me, and that there is a cabal for removing him. Methinks it is rather some ing his library, and made him his literary merit that I have rescued a valuable young man

executor. from the danger of being a Tory, and fixed him in In Franklin's paper, the “Pennsylvania honest republican Whig principles; as I think, from Gazette,” under date of December 13, 1736, the integrity of his disposition, his industry, his appeared the following advertisement: early sagacity, and uncommon abilities for business, he may in time become of UNDERSTANDING 'tis a current great service to his coun

Report, that my Son Francis, who died lately of the try. It is enough that I

Small Pox, had it by Inoculation ; and being desired to satisfy have lost my son; would

the Publick in that particular; inafmach as fome People they add my grandson! An old man of seventy,

are, by thar Repórt (join'd with others of the like kind, and I undertook a winter voy perhaps equally groundiefs) deterd from having that Operaage at the command of the tion perform'd on their Children, I do hereby forcerely deCongress, and for the pub clare, that he was not inoculared, bor receivd the Diftemper lic service, with no other in the common Way of Infe&ion: And I fuppofe the Reattendant to take care of

port could only arise from its being my known'pinion, that me. I am continued here

Inoculation was a safe and berreficial Practice; and from my in foreign country, where, if I am sick, his

having said among my Acquaintance, that I intended to filial attention comforts

have my Child inoculated, as foun us hc Thoald have reme, and if I die, I have a covered sufficient Strength from a Fiux with which he had child to close my eyes and been long affli&ted.

B. FRANKLIR. take care of my remains. His dutiful behavior towards me, and his diligence and fidelity in busi- The son thus referred to, Francis Folger, ness, are both pleasing and useful to me. His con- who died when only four years of age, seems duct, as my private secretary, has been unexcep- to have been his father's favorite. Long tionable, and I am confident the Congress will after, in referring to a grandson, who was never think of separating us.

declared to be “an uncommonly fine boy,”

Franklin said that the child "brings often A mere retention in this minor office did afresh to my mind the idea of my son not content Franklin, and he lost no oppor- Franky, though now dead thirty-six years, tunity in endeavoring to secure his grandson whom I have seldom since seen equalled in political preferment. In 1783 he made per- everything, and whom to this day I cannot sonal appeals to each one of the Peace Com- think of without a sigh." missioners to have Temple made secretary The last of Franklin's three children was of the commission. He wrote to the Con- his daughter Sally, born in 1744, in whom tinental Congress, asking, “as a favour to her father took unconcealed pride, assuring me,” that the “young gentleman” should be his mother that “your' granddaughter is the made a secretary of legation, or a chargé. greatest lover of her book and school of any To reinforce this application, he wrote to child I ever knew, and is very dutiful to her members known to him, making the same mistress as well as to us." Half jokingly, request, and Jefferson tells us that “the Franklin proposed a match, when she was a Doctor” was “extremely wounded by the child of six, between her and the son of his inattention of Congress to his application friend William Strahan, and, the offer being


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accepted in the same vein, he frequently sent presently thanked him, and said that “noword of her progress to “my son-in-law.” thing was ever more admired than my new “Please to acquaint him that his spouse gown." Yet at no time did Franklin encourgrows finely," he requested, continuing, “and age this desire for dress, and when, in 1779, . will probably have an agreeable person; that Sally asked him to send her some clothes with the best natural disposition in the world, from Paris, he wrote so reprovingly of her she discovers daily the seeds and tokens of extravagance that she replied:

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industry, economy, and, in short, of every But how could my dear Papa give me so severe female virtue, which her parents will en- a reprimand for wishing a little finery. He would deavour to cultivate for him.” Six years not, I am sure, if he knew how much I have felt later he said: “Our daughter Sally is in- it. . . . You would have been the last person, deed a very good girl, affectionate, dutiful

I am sure, to have wished to see me dressed with and industrious, has one of the best hearts, as to wish to be particularly fine, yet I never will

singularity; though I never loved dress so much and though not a wit, is, for one of her go out when I cannot appear so as to do credit to years, by no means deficient in understand

my family and husband. ing." The imposed task of cultivating simple habits of frugality was not an altogether Even in death Franklin consistently sought easy one, the girl's mother complaining that to teach her simplicity and economy, for in

Sally had nothing fit to wear suitable” for bequeathing to Sally“ the king of France's the Philadelphia society into which she be- picture, set with four hundred and eight diagan to be drawn, while Sally herself wrote monds," which had been presented to him “ to ask my Papa for some things that I can- upon his leaving the French court, he renot get here : . . 't is some gloves, both quested “that she would not form any of white and mourning, the last to be of the those diamonds into ornaments, either for largest"; and he seems to have yielded to the herself or daughters, and thereby introduce double pressure for finery, for the daughter or countenance the expensive, vain and use

less fashion of wearing jewels in this coun- various French commercial houses. Mrs. try." Throughout his whole life the father Bache, according to Marbois, took a promiendeavored to train his daughter, in his own nent part in the Revolution“ in exertions to words, so that “she will, in the true sense of rouse the zeal of the Pennsylvania ladies; the word, be worth a great deal of money, and she made on this occasion such a happy and, consequently, a great fortune," to her use of the eloquence which you know she husband.

possesses that a large part of the American The match with the Strahan boy never got army was provided with shirts bought with further than the wishes of the parents, and their money or made with their own hands”; presently Franklin was notified that his and the Frenchman continued: “If there are daughter had chosen Richard Bache, à in Europe any women who need a model of Philadelphia merchant, of whom Franklin attachment to domestic duties and love for knew “very little,” but of whom he hoped their country, Mrs. Bache may be pointed out that: “His expectations are not great of to them as such.” The Marquis de Chastelany fortune to be had with our daughter lux echoed this praise by a description which before our death"; and then explained: spoke of her as “simple in her manners”; I can only say that if he proves a good husband his benevolence.” She is said, furthermore,

"Jike her respectable father, she possesses to her and a good son to me, he shall find me as good a father as I can be; but at present I sup

to have much resembled Franklin, and was pose you would agree with me that we cannot do referred to by Manasseh Cutler, in 1787, as more than fit her out handsomely in clothes and “a very gross and rather homely lady.” On furniture, not exceeding in the whole five hundred Franklin's final return to America, “My sonpounds of value. For the rest, they must depend, in-law came in a boat for us; we landed at as you and I did, on their own industry and care, Market Street wharf, where we were reas what remains in our hands will be barely ceived by a crowd of people with huzzas, sufficient for our support, and not enough for and accompanied with acclamations quite to them, when it comes to be divided at our decease.

my door.” During the few remaining years Having made this explanation, Franklin left of his life the Baches and he made one the decision entirely to his wife, who gave family, and the father told a friend that " I, her consent to the marriage. The course of too, have got into my niche after being kept true love, however, did not run altogether out of it twenty-four years by foreign emsmoothly, for Bache shortly became bank- ployments," and "am again surrounded by rupt in his business, upon which the father my friends, with a large family of grandadvised a postponement of the wedding. He children about my knees, an affectionate, was, however, by some influence, speedily won good daughter and son-in-law to take care over; but the marriage was not favorably of me." viewed by some, for William Franklin wrote Of the Bache children, the eldest, and his that “Mrs. Franklin became angry with our namesake, was the most endeared to Frankfriends for not approving the match," and lin, and even before he had ever seen the there even seems to have been some ill feel. boy, his frequent inquiries showed his intering within the family over it.

est in him; indeed, his American corresponOnce his daughter was wedded, the father dents quickly learned that they could write was not wholly consistent in compelling the nothing which would please him more than young people to depend entirely on them- news of the “Little King Bird,” or “your selves. He gave Bache two hundred pounds young Hercules," as he was called. “I came toward setting him up in business, very to town with Betsey," wrote William Frankquickly found a berth for him in the post- lin to his father, “in order to stand for my office, - which ever proved in Franklin's young nephew. He is not so fat and lusty as hands to have an elastic capacity as re some children at his time are, but he is altogarded his relatives, - presently made him gether a pretty little fellow and improves in Deputy Postmaster-General, and for many his looks every day. Mr. Baynton stood as years let the couple live in his house in proxy for you and named Benj'n Franklin Philadelphia, “at no expense for rent.” Fur- and my mother and Betsey were the godthermore, when Congress removed Bache mothers.” His wife's letters, toc, constantly from his office of Postmaster-General, and he brought the sponsor news of the godchild. was compelled once more to start in business, The grandmother viewing him as “an exFranklin, with questionable delicacy, con- traordinary little fellow," Franklin welcomed sidering his official position in France, ex- her news, telling her “I am much pleased erted influence to secure him business from with your little histories of our grandson and

happy in thinking how much amusement he If Benjamin, from this long intimacy, was must afford you,” and confessing that they his favorite of the Bache children, Franklin made “me long to be at home to play with was unquestionably fond of them all, though Ben.” He rarely failed to send his love to the rest were too young to have been more the child, and often “some little things for than playthings to him. In writing of his Benny Boy,” and once he complained that home toward the end of his life, he described " you have so used me to have something his pleasure in “a dutiful and affectionate pretty about the boy that I am a little dis- daughter, who, together with her husband appointed in finding nothing more of him and six children, compose my family. The than that he is gone up to Burlington. Pray children are all promising, and even the give me in your next as usual a little of his youngest, who is but four years old, contribhistory.” At a dinner in London he reports utes to my amusement”; and only two years that “the chief toast of the day was Master before his death he noted “the addition of Benjamin Bache, which the venerable old a little good-natured girl, whom I begin to lady began in a tumbler of mountain. The love as well as the rest." Bishop's lady politely added, 'And that he Nor was the affection of the grandfather may be as good a man as his grandfather.' I unreciprocated, one of Franklin's callers said I hoped he would be much better. The recording that Mrs. Bache “had three of Bishop, still more complaisant than his lady, her children about her, over whom she said, 'We will compound the matter and be seemed to have no kind of command, but contented if he should not prove quite so who appeared to be excessively fond of good.

their Grandpapa." Franklin himself tells When Franklin went to France in 1776, he a story of a child that is worth repeating took this grandson with him, to give him a as showing the grandsire's feeling. His little French language and address.” With wife had written of Mrs. Bache's over-severe still other ends in view, so soon as he was punishment of one of the children, and the settled in Paris, he “sent him to finish his husband had replied: education at Geneva,” as “I intend him for a Presbyterian as well as a republican.” It was very prudently done of you not to interHere the boy remained four years, and then fere when his mother thought fit to correct him; returned to live with his grandfather, who which pleased me the more, as I feared, from your wrote the mother: “I have had a great deal fondness of him, that he would be too much of pleasure in Ben. He is a good honest lad, of two little boys in the street; one was crying

humored, and perhaps spoiled. There is a story and will make, I think, a valuable man.” “He bitterly; the other came to him to ask what was gains daily upon my affection,” and “we love the matter. “I have been,” says he, “for a penny: him very much.” Young Bache came to worth of vinegar, and I have broken the glass, and America with his grandfather, and by his spilled the vinegar, and my mother will whip me." aid was established as a printer, Franklin “No, she won't whip you,” says the other. “Indeed supplying all the equipment for 'the office, she will," says he. "What,” says the other, “have which he left him in his will, together with you then got ne'er a grandmother?” other property. In his behalf, also, he asked Washington for some public office, an appli At seventeen years of age the runaway cation which shared the same fate as that apprentice had left his family; from that he had made for his other grandson, by being time he saw but little of them. As agent refused. It was the common feeling of the for Pennsylvania, and as minister to France, time that Franklin had used civil office to Franklin was, save for two short home-comserve his family more than to serve the pub- ings, continuously in Europe from 1757 to lic, and so there was sufficient prejudice to 1785, and necessarily separated from his make exclusion of his relatives almost a wife, and, except as already narrated, from policy with the new government. This dis- his children and grandchildren. Yet of all crimination, in time, led to ill feeling, and his kith and kin he was undoubtedly truly eventually Benjamin Franklin Bache became fond, not merely as relatives, but as comthe standard-bearer of the journalists who panions, and not to one does he seem to abused Washington.

have been lacking in interest and kindness. (To be continued.)


SIR HENRY RAEBURN (1756-1823).


PHE best painter, in a technical time. Martin seems to have encouraged the

sense, among all our so-called youth and given him some of his own porEnglish masters was not an traits to copy; but they soon quarreled, -as Englishman, but a Scotchman - is the not infrequent habit of master and

Sir Henry Raeburn. Handling pupil, - and what instruction the young man --the power to use the brush with certainty had received is unknown. Martin could and ease-was his in large degree. He could scarcely have taught more than he himself hardly be called an imaginative artist, nor knew, and that was little. Nor does it apwas he a draftsman or a colorist beyond the pear that any after instruction came to ordinary; but, in the Manet sense, he was Raeburn. There was no other painter in quite a perfect painter. There are artists in Edinburgh at that time to teach him, and history who seem to have been born to the he did not leave the town until both his style brush rather than to the crayon-artists who and his reputation were in a measure estabtake to paint as instinctively, as swans to lished. Then he married a young widow with water. The names of Frans Hals and Velas- something of a fortune, and about 1785 went quez come to mind at once as the chiefs of up to London, and met Sir Joshua. the class; and yet, in a smaller way, Tiepolo, It is said that in London Raeburn worked Teniers, Goya, and Raeburn were just as in Sir Joshua's“ painting-room” for a couple truly to the manner born. Wilkie, when of months. The statement is questioned, studying Velasquez in Spain, was continually though the painter certainly was not slow reminded of the “square touch" of Raeburn. in adopting such methods of composition The resemblance in method- in a way of from the older man as he thought serviceseeing and doing things-could not fail of able. Reynolds was very gracious to the notice. The men were of the same brother- young Scotchman, advised him to go to hood, if not of the same rank, and in eye and Rome, and, of course, recommended a study hand they were both preëminently painters. of Michelangelo, with whose work Raeburn

Raeburn's birth and education throw no could have had little or no sympathy. It is light whatever on his peculiar technical abil- said that Sir Joshua, not knowing the young ity. He sprang from peasant stock, and painter's easy circumstances through marthough the Scotch have always had fine riage (an ignorance which would argue native feeling in art matters, it was not to against the painting-room" story), generbe supposed that one coming from the soil ously offered him money and letters of could overcome the final and most difficult introduction to painters in Rome. Raeburn phase of the painter's technic at the start. accepted the latter, went to Rome, and And yet that is what Raeburn apparently remained there two years. He seems to have did. There is no record that he ever learned brought back with him some good advice, facility of handling from any one. He was got from an art-dealer by the name of Byers, virtually self-taught. Born near Edinburgh which he spoke of frequently as being of in 1756, he was left an orphan, at six years great service to him. The advice was cheap, of age, in charge of an elder brother. It has and at this day is quite hackneyed. It was, been stated, and denied, that he received an in substance, to work from the model, elementary education at Heriot's school; but and not from memory. This was Raeburn's it seems well established that at fifteen he natural inclination, and of course he fell in was apprenticed to a goldsmith named Gilli- with it. There is no trace in his painting land. In the goldsmith's employ he developed that he brought back anything else from a talent for miniature-painting, and his mas- Rome. Evidently the old masters never perter, suspecting an incipient genius, took him suaded him, never made a dent of any kind to the studio of David Martin, who was the in his Scotch nature. What were all the fine local “face-painter" for Edinburgh at that linear compositions of the Vatican to one

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