תמונות בעמוד
PDF
ePub

attempt at defense, but gave herself over to most extreme and dangerous one-was made the mercy of the king. And scant mercy it to arm the slaves of the silver-mines, as well was! Thebes had played him false and be- as the free alien residents, thus securing an trayed him. Therefore his feeling toward additional force of one hundred and fifty her was radically different from that toward thousand men. Many gave of their substance Athens, which had cordially and consistently as free-will offering to the state. Stringent hated him. Thebes he proceeded to chastise laws forbade any one to flee the city; to do thoroughly. He took from her the control so was treason. All capable of bearing arms of other Baotian towns, set a garrison in the were enrolled in the army; all others became citadel, called back the Macedonian sympa- laborers on the public works, according as

[graphic][graphic][subsumed]

ALEXANDER THE GREAT AS HERCULES, ONE OF THE GOLD MEDALLIONS OF TARSUS. The reverse is the same as the medallion on page 4, which see. The obverse shows Alexander as a descendant of Hercules, wearing the lion's scalp. The Hercules figuring on the silver coins of Alexander as his ancestor is of the same type as this Tarsus medallion and the Tyrian Hercules (see previous page). In many specimens the resemblance to Alexander is marked; and the" Alexandre d'argent," so to speak, of Ptolemy, on which Alexander's head wears an elephant's scalp, is good evidence, in default of trustworthy literary tradition, that Alexander's contemporaries regarded the lion's-scalp profile of his own coins as the king's profile; in fact, the sidon sareopbagus confirms the ancient tradition that Macedonian kings wore the lion's scalp as a badge of their louse and office. The lion's-scalp profile of the gold medallion of Tarsus would seem to confirm the portrait theory in regard to the silver coins.

Magical virtues were ascribed to Alexander's portrait in the days of the Roman emperors. The presence of the medallion of Alexander Severus with the Philip (see page 24) and Alexander medallions would seem to indicate that the Roman emperor had given them, in reward for services, to the person in whose grave they were found at Tarsus. These invaluable medallions would appear to be older than the reign of Severus, but the script shows them to be later than Alexander himself. thizers who had been banished, made them the authorities might direct. The walls were the government, and condemned to death repaired, and new fortifications constructed. leaders who had been responsible for the The energy of the work is echoed in the city's action in forming the alliance with words of Lycurgus: “In those hours no age Athens.

held itself aloof from the service of the state. Toward Athens, on the other hand, he It was a time when the earth contributed its showed a mildness of temper that seems to trees, the dead their tombs, the temples their have been to the Athenians as great a sur- stores of dedicated armor. Some toiled in prise as it was agreeable. The first dismay restoring the walls; some dug in the trenches; at the tidings of the battle had been followed some were building palisades. There was no by a resolute determination to defend the one idle in the city.” 1 city to the utmost. It was the resolution of The Athenians were, however, entirely desperation. The women and children were astray regarding Philip's purposes. He did brought from the country districts within not purpose to spend months and years in the shelter of the walls. Frontier guards besieging a city whose cordial coöperation, were posted. An army of home defense was and not whose destruction, he ultimately organized. Money was raised. Demosthenes sought. Through the orator Demades, who was sent abroad to secure supplies of corn, happened to be among the captives, he found in prospect of a siege. The proposition-a 1 Oration against Leocrates, sec. 44.

[graphic][subsumed][merged small]

PHILIP ASSASSINATED IN THE PROCESSION TO THE THEATER.

(SEE PAGE 24.)

a convenient way of intimating to the as conditioning his later dealings with conAthenians their mistake. The result was an quered peoples. By generosity in little and embassy to Philip, composed of Demades, relatively unessential things, he made willing Phocion, and Æschines, all representatives subjects and achieved his great essential of the Tory-Macedonian party. This Demades purposes. We are not informed precisely was the one who had rebuked the king as, in what part Alexander bore in framing the his drunken revel of triumph on the night of terms of the peace, but we are inclined, from the battle, he lowered himself to jeer his their character, to infer that it was no uncaptives. “King, fate hath assigned thee important part. In the events of this period the rôle of Agamemnon, but thou doest the we seem to mark a transition from the canny deeds of Thersites."

cleverness of Philip to the imperial generosPhilip received the ambassadors gra- ity of Alexander. ciously. He agreed to release the Athenian Toward the end of the year (338) the Helcaptives without ransom, and to send to lenic Congress, assembled at Corinth, gave Athens the bodies of the dead, to be buried shape and formal organization to the new in their native soil. The terms of peace empire. Interstate peace and freedom of were proposed by a commission which he sent commerce constituted its basis. Each state later to Athens, consisting of no less impor- was freely to conduct its own local governtant persons than the son Alexander and the ment, and to pay no tribute. Existing forms favorite general and counselor Antipater. of government in the several states were to This commission arranged with the Athenians remain undisturbed. No Greek, even as a the following terms: Athens was to remain, mercenary, was to bear arms against Philip. so far as its internal affairs were concerned, For executing the purposes of the compact entirely autonomous and free. No Macedo- was created a National Council (synedrion), nian army was to enter its territory, no to be held at Corinth. The Amphictyonic Macedonian ship to enter its harbors. It was Council was appointed to serve as the supreme to be an ally of Philip. The parish of Oropus, judicial tribunal of the league. The quota of on the northeastern boundary of Attica, troops and ships to be furnished by each which it had always claimed, but which of state for the army and navy of the league late had belonged to Thebes, was to be added was definitely fixed, and Philip was made to its territory. On the other hand, it relin- commander-in-chief of the whole, with the quished its monopoly of protecting commerce special and immediate purpose of conducting in the Ægean, and retained of its island pos- against the Persians a war of reprisal for the sessions only Samos and Delos, Lemnos and desecrated sanctuaries of Hellenic gods. Imbros. Its naval hegemony and Ægean Macedonian garrisons occupied the two empire were thus at an end. Furthermore, great strategic points, Chalcis and the the clause which stated, in diplomatic citadel of Corinth, besides Ambracia and phraseology, that “if the Athenians wish, it Thebes. All the states of Greece proper, shall be permitted them to participate in except Sparta, participated in the compact. the general peace and in the National Coun- Sparta's refusal was mere helpless stubborncil which the king proposes to create," thinly ness. Girt about by strong states controlveiled the plain fact that the state was to be ling all the passes into the Eurotas valley, henceforth a member of a confederacy led and robbed of all her strength, she no longer and governed by Philip.

weighed in interstate affairs. Philip's work, These terms were accepted by the Athe- so far as international history is concerned, nians, in the reaction from their first fright, was now virtually complete. He had, with with little short of enthusiasm. The treaty a political sagacity such as the world has was also most satisfactory from the Mace- rarely seen, combined the perversely indidonian point of view. It must, indeed, be vidualistic elements of old Greece into a regarded as fair to both parties, for it ex- new coöperative body, and thereby created pressed reasonably the actual facts of the the pou sto from which Alexander was to situation.

move the world. Alexander's first diplomatic work had been In the year following the battle there an eminent success. It gave a presage of the arose a bitter family quarrel, which seriously success which was, throughout his career, to disturbed the hitherto kindly relations of attend his efforts in procuring accord and Philip and his son, and for a time threatened coöperation between diverse nationalities. the peace of the kingdom. It originated in But it was more than a presage: its success jealousies consequent upon Philip's new venwas based upon a principle which reappears tures in wedlock as well as love. “The dis

[graphic][merged small][merged small]

temper of the harem," as Plutarch puts it, patra, in contrast to Olympias's Molottan “communicated itself to the kingdom.” We birth. That was more than Alexander could hardly require Plutarch's explanation that be asked to tolerate. Hurling his beaker at Olympias, Alexander's mother, was a “jeal- Attalus's head, “You scoundrel,” he cried, ous, high-strung woman” to account for “what do you think I am? Am I a bastard ?” what followed; but it really would appear, Philip rose from his couch to interpose, and from the account of Philip's attachments sprang against his son with drawn sword. which we have in the extant fragments of But his cups and his fury were too much for Satyrus's “Life of Philip,” that Olympias him. He slipped and fell. Then came Alextolerated it all until it came to his proposed ander's fearful taunt: “Here, gentlemen, is marriage with Cleopatra, “ of whom he was a man who has been preparing to cross from passionately enamoured.” It may be sus- Europe into Asia; but he has upset in crosspected that it was something more than the ing from one couch to another.” dynamics of Philip's ardor toward his new Immediately after this occurrence, Olymacquisition that stirred Olympias's wrath. pias, accompanied by her son, left the counCleopatra was a Macedonian princess, niece try, and withdrew to her brother, the King of the influential Attalus, and there was a of Epirus. From there Alexander went into chauvinistic spirit abroad that threatened to Illyria, with the probable purpose of securunsettle Alexander's claim to the succession ing support against Philip, should he need in the interest of a possible heir of pure it. Sympathy with Alexander was wideMacedonian blood. Here was explosive ma- spread also in Macedon, especially among terial in abundance; only a spark was needed. the younger men of the court and the army.

At the wedding-banquet, Attalus, heated While things were in this sorry state, with wine, had in his toast to the new pair Demaratus, the Corinthian statesman, came called on all good Macedonians to pray that to visit Philip at Pella, and to the king's the union might be blessed with the birth of first inquiry, whether the Greeks were living a genuine successor to the throne-this in in amity and accord, answered as a friend allusion to the Macedonian origin of Cleo- and straightforwardly: “It ill becomes thee,

Philip, to have solicitude about the Greeks, pected, not alone by Olympias, but generally when thou hast involved thine own house in among Alexander's friends. this great dissension, and filled it with evils." Philip was now ready to advance into

Philip profited by the rebuke. Demaratus Asia, but he was unwilling to leave the soil was commissioned to act the part of mediator. A reconciliation was effected, and Alexander returned to Pella. The causes of trouble had not, however, been removed. Olympias remained still in Epirus, implacable in her resentment of Philip's indignities, and hating with a hatred worthy of a woman both high-strung and strong-minded. She sought to move her brother to take up arms and avenge her insults. She kept her son's SILVER TETRADRACHM OF LYSIMACHUS (KING OF THRACE,

B. C. 306-281). OBVERSE: HEAD OF ALEXANDER THE suspicions alert. He must not tamely submit

GREAT WITH HORN OF AMMON, AS THE DEIFIED SON to being displaced in the succession by the son of one of the new favorites. It was a woman's jealousy.

[graphic]
[graphic]

OF THE GOD. THE PROFILE IS SUPPOSED TO BE
TAKEN FROM THE STATUE-PORTRAIT BY LYSIP-
PUS OR THE GEM-PORTRAIT BY PYRGOTELES.
REVERSE: PALLAS HOLDING VICTORY. THE
ORIGINAL IS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM.

[graphic]
[graphic]

of Europe before he had allayed the discontent of the Epirotes consequent upon his treatment of Olympias. This he undertook to do by arranging a marriage between his daughter, Alexander's own sister, and her uncle, the King of Epirus. The wedding

was appointed for August of the same year SILVER COIN OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT, SUPPOSED (336). It was to be held at Ægæ, the earlier TO HAVE BEEN STRUCK DURING HIS LIFETIME. OB

capital of Macedonia, and the ancestral home VERSE: HEAD OF HERCULES. HOLDING THE EAGLE, SEATED.

of its kings. It was made the occasion of a GINAL IS IN THE BRITISH MUSEUM.

gorgeous popular fête. Feasts, sports, and

dramatic exhibitions were added to the more We have no indication that Philip had any formal observances of receiving the guests real intention of displacing Alexander. It is and glorifying the king. Family feuds were hardly thinkable that he had. We have, how- ostensibly buried. Olympias returned from ever, abundant evidence that he was sus- Epirus. Invitations were sent everywhere

REVERSE : ZEUS

THE ORI

[graphic][graphic][subsumed][ocr errors]

PHILIP II, FATHER OF ALEXANDER THE GREAT, ONE OF THE GOLD MEDALLIONS OF TARSUS. OBVERSE: THE

HEAD OF PHILIP II. REVERSE: VICTORY IN A QUADRIGA.
The reader is also referred to the note to the medallion on page 19, and to the medallion on page 4.

« הקודםהמשך »