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their empire. With such queries, as well as individualism in education, was a strong besuch demeanor, he so aroused their admira- liever in the education of character to be tion that they came to think that, after all, attained through personal association. The the cleverness of Philip, about which they cultivation of noble friendships among the had heard so much, counted but little in young he held to be a most potent means of comparison with the energy and the nobility forming in them cleanliness and healthiness of purpose they discovered in his son.” of character. Hence a group of young men,

Alexander was between twelve and thirteen mostly noblemen's sons, was assembled to years of age when Aristotle, then a man of share with Alexander the school at Mieza. forty, or one-and-forty, took him in hand. The great staple of the elementary education Aristotle's birthplace, Stagira, was in Thrace, was evidently what we should to-day call a very near Macedonian soil, and his father, “thorough schooling in Shakspere and the Nicomachus, had been the court physician of English Bible." Alexander's literary trainAmyntas, Alexander's grandfather. His birth ing we should certainly not expect to be outside the pale of old Greece spared him the neglected in the hands of the author of the curse of provincialism, and made him the “Poetics." It evidently was not, as his later natural teacher of the one in whom the bar- interest in literature, and particularly his riers of the old provincialism were to come enthusiasm for Homer, shows. Among the to naught. It was indeed a most significant books sent him to relieve the tedium of the fate that brought the two in this relation to- long campaign in the literary desert of gether. In the words of Zell: “The one had Bactria were the tragedies of Euripides, the power and the call to master and rule Sophocles, and Æschylus, and the dithyrambs the world. The other had discovered and of Telestes and Philoxenus. But Homer was subjugated a new world for the human mind always his chief delight. The Iliad was and for science."

the “ vade-mecum of soldierly spirit," i. e., As a seat for Aristotle's school, the city the soldier's Bible, and a copy of it was alof Mieza, in the Macedonian province of ways placed under his pillow along with his Emathia, southwest of the capital city Pella, sword. Achilles, the young champion of the near the boundaries of Thessaly, was selected; West against the East, he loved to claim as and there in the Grove of the Nymphs, hard his prototype, and when he paid honors to by the town, the place where he taught, with the hero's tomb, near Troy, he pronounced its great chair of stone on which the master him “happy that in life he had found a faithsat, and the shady paths in which he was ful friend, Patroclus, and in death a mighty wont, as in later years in the peripatoi of herald." the Lyceum at Athens, to walk with his Probably we have in the “Poetics " a fair pupils, was shown as a “chief attraction " to sample of some of the lectures that Alexander visitors even in the days of Plutarch, five was likely to have heard in connection with his centuries later.

study of Homer and the tragedians. It appears Aristotle remained here in all about eight from this that it was the esthetic or artistic years, i. e., from 344-343 to 335. Shortly side, rather than the moral or ethical, which after Alexander ascended the throne (336), Aristotle emphasized, and grammar we know Aristotle removed to Athens, and there, he taught, not as an end in itself, but as a more or less aided by the favoring cur- means to the interpretation solely. Neither rent of Macedonianism, established his fa- emotional warmth nor a high degree of permous school in the Lyceum, in the eastern sonal attractiveness or magnetism was to be suburbs of Athens. Of his eight years in expected of the matter-of-fact and rather Macedonia not more than four could have cold blooded savant-philosopher. He never been given to the immediate personal instruc- had the reputation of being a very agreeable tion of the prince;from his seventeenth year man: but he was in his best years; he was on, Alexander became too much absorbed in far in advance of the best learning of his military and political interests to admit of days; he was thinking and constructing for exclusive attention to study, but no particu- himself; and he could not well help conveylar date prior to 336 marked an abrupt ces- ing to his pupils, however chilling his mansation of his relations to his tutor. In these ner, an impression of that most genuine of years the bent of his moral and intellectual all enthusiasms-that which attends the life was set. To his father, he said, he owed formation of new ideas and the uncovering his life; to Aristotle, the knowledge of how of new truths. We cannot be sure how far to live worthily.

Dion Chrysostomus may have relied on his Aristotle, though a valiant champion of imagination for his facts, but he cannot have

been far out of the way when, in his second es- philosophic strand that runs through his life say “On the Kingship," he represents Philip, marks its presence in the breadth of his at the conclusion of his conversation with sympathies, in the wider scope and higher his son, as exclaiming, in admiration at what purpose of his plans, as well as in his noble he had heard: “Verily not in vain have we aversion to every form of pettiness and honored Aristotle, and have allowed him to meanness, his efforts toward moderation rebuild his native town; for a man is deserv- and self-control, and his quickened moral ing of highest reward who has given thee sensitiveness. Judged by the finest test of such doctrine concerning the duties and self-control, his treatment of woman and his functions of kings, be it that he gave this attitude toward sexual morality, he was in through the interpretation of Homer, or in advance of the best of his day. A statement any other way."

we have from Plutarch seems also to imply Among the special subjects of study in that some metaphysics, and perhaps theology, the school of Mieza, natural history certainly was not excluded from the pupil's curriculum: formed a part, as we may judge not only from “There can be no doubt that Alexander enthe interests of the great author of the “ Ani- joyed the benefit not only of Aristotle's inmal History," but from the later interests struction in ethics and politics, but also in of Alexander, who at one time contributed the secret and more profound branches of eight hundred talents to forward his former science which the teachers call acroamatic teacher's investigations in zoology, placed at (esoteric) and epoptic (for initiates only), and his disposal a thousand men throughout Asia which they do not communicate to the orand Greece, with instructions to follow out dinary pupil. For after Alexander had gone Aristotle's directions in collecting and re- abroad, on learning that Aristotle had pubporting details concerning the life-conditions lished in book form certain treatises on these and habits of animals, and in every way made subjects, he wrote him a letter in phihis campaigns serve the purposes of scientific losophy's behalf, blaming him outright for investigation.

the course he had taken. This is the text of Alexander in later life, we find, had some the letter: Alexander to Aristotle, Greeting. repute as a medicine-man, and Plutarch gives You did wrong in publishing the acroamatic Aristotle credit for it. The possession of doctrines. In what shall we differ from some medical and therapeutic knowledge was others if the doctrines in which we were an almost inevitable consequence of Aris- trained shall become the common property totle's instruction, and the distinction of of everybody? I, for my part, had rather having studied under him naturally endowed excel men by possession of the higher learnone, like an old-fashioned college diploma, ing than by the possession of power and with universal learned right of way.

dominion. Farewell.'” Though our hero's The influence of the teacher's philosophi- naïveté presents him to us here as one of cal teaching showed itself most markedly in the earliest opponents of university extenthe joint field of ethics and politics, for these sion, we cannot deny a certain grateful adare in Aristotle but two phases of one subject. miration for a man of affairs, and a stripling Not that Alexander adopted his master's at that, whose academic enthusiasm was formal views on statecraft and government; centered in something other than athletics. his political experience in a new and a larger Alexander had his first experience in pubpolitical world than even Aristotle had lic affairs in the year 340. In the summer of dreamed of made that impossible: but his that year Philip set out on a famous entercareer throughout is that of a practically prise, the attack on Byzantium, and left his trained philosophic mind- of an educated sixteen-year-old son, as Plutarch puts it, “ in man, a man of ideas, guided by rational con- charge of affairs and of the seal.” The son, siderations. What he learned from his teacher it appears, made a better summer of it than concerning virtue was that it rested on de- his father; for while Philip utterly failed of liberate choices conforming to temperance his purpose, and, what is more, drew a war and good sense. We cannot expect his con- with Athens down upon his head, Alexander, duct to show that his education abolished not wrapping his seal in a napkin, tried his natural impulses. He was a strong personal- hand at disciplining the insubordination of a ity. Passions, impulses, ambitions, will, were restless mountain tribe on the Upper Stryall, in him, at the highest tension. All the mon. He did it thoroughly. He took their more distinctly in the record of his actions chief town by storm, drove out the inhabidoes the philosophic Alexander stand out in tants, replaced them by loyalists, and named relief against the natural Alexander. The the place, after himself, Alexandropolis.

The year of our hero's initiation into prac- mosthenes's Second Philippic is an echo of tical affairs was a most critical one in inter- the conflict. The next year Epirus was national politics. In order to start fairly absorbed. In Elis the Macedonian party with him, we must review the political gained the day. In Megara it barely failed. situation as it was when he first became a In 342 two of the leading cities of Eubea, factor in it. The peace of Philocrates, con- Oreus and Eretria, came under the control cluded June, 346, ended for the time Philip’s of political leaders, or“ bosses,” friendly to struggle with Athens, and removed an im- Philip. portant and long-standing check upon his In the summer of 342 Philip pushed his activity. In July he passed Thermopylæ, arms to the east through Thrace, and in the ended the Sacred War, and occupied Phocis. following year carried his conquests to the In August he was made a member of the shores of the Black Sea and as far north as Amphictyonic Council. In September he the modern Varna. Nothing separated him presided over the Pythian games. His claim now from his goal, the Bosporus, - goal of to recognition as a Greek was no longer conquerors ever since,-except Byzantium slight, seeing that he was now master of and the colonies that lined the Sea of MarDelphi, the national sanctuary, held a seat mora and the Dardanelles. If he succeeded in the most important state council, and had here, two supreme results were achieved: his been arbiter at the national games. His in- route to Asia would be opened; Athens would fluence steadily grew, and the sphere of his be cut off from her food-supply in southern activity rapidly widened. Up in the north, Russia, and robbed of one of her chief where now are Bulgaria, Montenegro, and grounds for political importance, the control Herzegovina, the force of his arms was felt. of the Chersonese. In 340 he laid siege to Thessaly, to the south, became his political Perinthus and Byzantium, and war with ally. The issue of Macedon and anti-Mace- Athens was begun. It was the war that don crept into the politics of all the Greek ended two years later at Chæronea. cities. In Athens it had been since the peace Philip would gladly have avoided war with of 346 the issue on which the party lines were Athens. His aim was the leadership of condrawn. The old conservative party, which solidated Greece against Persia. He wanted during the Peloponnesian war had opposed the coöperation of Athens as well as others, the imperial or war policy of Pericles and and he would have welcomed her as an ally. Cleon, and, in consequence, had borne the The concessions he offered to make to Athens odium of pro-Spartan tendencies, still held in the affair of the Halonnesus show clearly to its old platform of domesticity,-a city his desire, even though we hear of his progovernment for city interests, -and pre- posals only through the medium of Hegesipferred a friendly acceptance of Philip's pus's speech, delivered in the interest of leadership in the military and imperial rejecting them. Philip sought in and for affairs of Greece to a policy of imperial itself no infringement upon the liberties of self-assertion or aggression, for which, it the Greek towns in things pertaining to reasonably argued, the institutions of its their internal affairs ; but his policy did city-state were not suited or intended. mean that he was to be dominant in all Though representing in general the more matters pertaining to the relation of the settled and respectable elements of the popu- towns to the outside world. lation, the conservative party had again to This the party of Demosthenes, and in bear the odium of non-patriotism and even consequence Athens, would not tolerate. It of treason, and was called the Macedonian meant the merging of Athens in a governparty. The liberal party, with Demosthenes mental “trust," and that, Demosthenes was at its head, succeeding to the traditions of determined, should not be peacefully conPericles, was the party-according to the ceded. He was bent on war, for peace meant point of view of patriotism, or of Jingoism. the ultimate success of Philip's plan. But From 342 on it was in full control of the so did unsuccessful war. Yet it is well state.

that Athens fought. We know that the Steadily the Macedonian influence spread cause,- i.e., Greek particularism, as well as among the Greek cities, not by outward ag- the war in its behalf,- was from the start gression, but by silent methods such as hopeless, but we rejoice that the fight was mark the onward flow of Russia's influence fought, and that Athens did not suffer to-day in central Asia. In 345–344 Argos Greece to relinquish without a struggle and Messene turned to Philip as an offset that which had made her to be Greece. against Sparta's political aggressions. De During the year 339, as well as 340, Alex




ander probably remained at home, in charge and Alexander had been the regent. Four of the government. His father was occupied or five centuries after the battle, travelers before Byzantium and in the Chersonese the were still shown, as a reminiscence of Alexgreater part of the year. History, at any ander's participation in it, an old oak standrate, has nothing to tell of Alexander until ing out in the plain north of the battle-field, his appearance in the battle of Chæronea under which, tradition said, his tent had been (338). Here he made himself a name for his pitched. bravery, and won from Philip the highest The battle had resulted in a most decisive approval. Plutarch says that “this bravery victory for Philip. Thebes and Athens, with made Philip so delighted with him that he their Corinthian and Achæan allies, who had even took pleasure in hearing the Macedo- been arrayed against him, were the only nians say, ' Alexander is the king, Philip the states in Greece remaining hostile to him general,"”-a thing they were very apt to say, that had been able to express their opposiseeing that for the two previous years Philip tion in terms of armies. These armies were had been almost constantly away from home, now utterly crushed. Thebes made no further





MÉDAILLES, BIBLIOTHÈQUE NATIONALE, PARIS. This type of Hercules wearing the lion's scalp, unfamiliar to early Greek art, was familiar to Thasos, the Ægean island, near Macedonia, in the fifth century B.C., through old Phenician

colonization, and thence penetrated Macedonia.

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