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PHILADELPHIA:
LEONARD SCOTT PUBLICATION CO..

501 CHESTNUT STREET.

1888.

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Mary landed at Leith on the to dancing,—"her common speech 19th of August 1561; she was in secret was, she saw nothing in married to her cousin Henry Stuart, Scotland but gravitie, which she Lord Darnley, on the 29th of July could not agree weill with, for she 1565. During these years her life, was brought up in joyousitie-so though uneventful, was not un- termed she dancing and other happy. Holyrood was the head- things thereto belonging ;” and quarters of the Court, and the there were frequent sports and sombre old pile, which had more masques among the courtiers and than once been gutted by the the ladies of the Court, after the auld enemy," put on something somewhat ponderous fashions of of summer brightness during her the time. Yet graver matters stay. Mary had the easy manners were not neglected, - she read of her race; she cared little for Livy “daily " with Buchanan, she ceremony or ceremonial state; had sat in Council with her nobles, the she been a man she would have envoys of foreign princes were duly sought adventure like her father, welcomed and hospitably enter"riding out through any part of tained. She did not, however, I the realm him alone, unknown that believe, care much for Holyrood ; he was king." She dined with the palace lay low among

its the wealthier citizens; for the marshes; and the turbulent Calpoorest she had a ready smile and vinism of the capital was a cona pleasant word. Thé Reformers stant menace to a Catholic queen. complained that she was addicted It was at Falkland and St Andrews

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that she felt most at home. She of Ross; and returning leisurely loved the hardy outdoor life with by the east coast, reached Holyrood hawk and hound. During the on the 26th of September. She four years preceding her marriage, was at Wemyss Castle in Fife passing, as I have said elsewhere, when, on 16th February 1565, she whole days in the saddle, she had met Darnley for the first time; ridden through every part of her and it is probable that she was kingdom, except the wild and in- 'with Athol at Dunkeld some time accessible district between the in June of the same year, for it Cromarty and the Pentland Firths. was on her return from the HighBefore she had been a month in lands that, hearing of the plot of Scotland she had visited Linlith- the disaffected nobles to kidnap gow, Stirling, Perth, and St An- her lover and herself, she rode drews. The spring of 1562 was from Perth by the Queensferry in spent in Fife; the autumn in the one day to Lord Livingston's northern counties.

She was

at house of Callendar-a ride of not Castle Campbell in January 1563; less than forty miles. when the Lady Margaret was During most of this time Maitmarried to Sir James Stewart of land, as the Prime Minister of the Doune. She went back for a few Queen, was the most conspicuous weeks to Holyrood, but she left figure in the Scottish Court. In again in February, and did not re- all Scotland, indeed, no man, Knox turn till the end of May. She had only excepted, was more widely promised to go to Inverary early known, or, upon the whole, more in June; but Lethington, who had widely liked. He had attained a been in France, was still absent, great political position; and Mary, and she was anxious to confer one of the most generous of women, with him before she left. “We was even extravagantly munificent have now looked so long for the to her favourite ministers. She Lord of Lethington that we are created her brother, the Lord almost at our wits'-end.

The James, Earl of Moray, enriching Queen thinketh it long, and hath him with the spoil of half-a-score stayed her journey towards Argyle of abbeys; the revenues of Crossthese seven days, with purpose raguel were given to Buchanan; whether he come or not to depart and out of the Church lands round upon Tuesday next.” On the 29th Haddington ample provision was of June (Lethington having in the made for Maitland. meantime returned) she started arrival at Dunbar, I heard that for Inverary, where she arrived on the Lord of Ledington was at Ledthe 22d July. Crossing the Clyde ington, taking possession of the and making a long round through whole abbacy which the Queen Ayrshire and the Stewartry to St had given him, so that he is now Mary's Isle, it was the late autumn equal with any man that hath his before she regained the capital. whole lands lying in Lothian. I The spring of 1564 was passed in chanced upon him there, and acFife; then in July, Parliament companied him the next day to having been dissolved, she went to Edinburgh.”

Edinburgh.” Many of the men the great deer-hunt in Athol, where who had been the recipients of " three hundred and sixty deer, Mary's bounty came by-and-by to with five wolves, and some roes,' conspire against her: Buchanan were slain ; crossed the “ Mounth took away her good name, Moray to Inverness; visited the Chanonry her crown; but Maitland, as I ex

1

"At my

was

pect to be able to show, was never The most charming and sponungrateful to his liberal mistress. taneous of German lyrists insists, The relations between them were in his essay on the Romantic refrom first to last (with hardly a vival, that Leo X. was just as bleak) intimate and cordial. There zealous a Protestant as Luther. can be no doubt, I think, that Luther's protest at Wittenberg Maitland was warmly attached to was in Latin prose ; Leo's at Rome Mary. He vindicated her title; in stone and colour and ottava he advocated her claims; he be- rhymes. "Do not the vigorous lieved quite sincerely that, sup- marbles of Michael Angelo, Giulio ported as she was by the great Romano's laughing nymph-faces, nobles and the mass of the common and the life-intoxicated merriment people in either realm, she was in in the verses of Master Ludovico, the end bound to win; and though offer a protesting contrast to the his confidence must have been old gloomy withered Catholicism ?" sometimes severely tried, yet even And he concludes that the painters when her fortunes grew hopeless, of Italy, “plunging into the sea of he clung to the cause which he had Grecian mirthfulness,” combated made his own with obstinate fidel- priestdom more effectively than the ity, and he laid down his life in Saxon theologians; and that the a service which had become des- Venus of Titian a better perate. The personal fascination treatise against an ascetic spiritof the Queen unquestionably ac- uality than that nailed to the counts for several incidents in his church door of Wittenberg. career which, on any other theory The bubbles blown by a jester of the motives by he was in- like Heine are sometimes more fluenced, would appear inexplica- suggestive than the weightiest ble. It must be frankly admitted argument of the moralist. No that on more than one occasion his one knew better than Heine did policy, as her minister, could not that the passage from which I have been dictated by political have quoted was in one sense (the considerations only; and we are Italian renascence being in comdriven to conclude that even the parison with the German sterile if cool and wary diplomatist had not not corrupt) extravagantly unfair. been insusceptible to

" the

en- But it is not to be denied that chantment whereby men are be. in another and possibly a larger witched."

sense it is the simplest statement Of the policy, civil and eccle- of fact. The Reformation, in its siastical, which Maitland pursued, initiation and in its essence, was a of his attitude to the great politi- measure of enfranchisement. It cal and religious problems of the was a mental, as well as a moral age, I have now to speak; and I and spiritual, revolt; the aspirashall endeavour to do so as clearly tion of the intellect for an amand briefly as is practicable. It is pler ether," as well as the aspiration necessary that the arguments which of the conscience for "a diviner weighed with the men to whom he air." was opposed should be fairly stated; The Church of Rome, which had, and I propose to state them, as far once done much for the freedom as need be, in their own words. In of mankind, had latterly become a this paper, therefore, the chief fig. burden too heavy to be borne. A ures will be Maitland and—Knox; colossal system of priestcraft, of in the next, Maitland and_Cecil. sacerdotal pretences and

sacra

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