« הקודםהמשך »
put forward may, no doubt, be erroneous ; but it is, at all events, the result of an honest searching after truth, of unsparing labour, of patient and anxious reflection. Conclusions arrived at in this way, are not to be overturned by stating that they endanger some other conclusions ; nor can they be even affected by allegations against their supposed tendency. The principles which I advocate, are based upon distinct arguments, supported by wellascertained facts. The only points, therefore, to be ascertained, are, whether the arguments are fair, and whether the facts are eertain. If these two conditions have been obeyed, the principles follow by an inevitable inference. Their demonstration is, in the present volume, necessarily incomplete; and the reader must suspend his final judgment until the close of this Introduction, when the subject in all its bearings will be laid before him. The remaining part of the Introduction will be occupied, as I have already intimated, with an investigation of the civilizations of Germany, America, Scotland, and Spain ; each of which presents a different type of intellectual development, and has, therefore, followed a different direction in its religious, scientific social, and political history. The causes of these differences 1 shall attempt to ascertain. The next step will be to generalize the causes themselves; and having thus referred them to certain principles common to all, we shall be possessed of what may be called the fundamental laws of European thought; the divergence of the different countries being regulated either by the direction those laws take, or else by their comparative energy. To discover these fundamental laws will be the business of the Introduction ; while, in the body of the work, I shall apply them to the history of England, and endeavour by their aid to work out the epochs through which we have successively passed, fix the basis of our present civilization, and indicate the path of our future progress.
IND OF VOL. I.
Buckle's introduction, subjects remaining to be
discussed in, 672.
Burke, Edmund, view of, 326 ;-never in the
British cabinet, 831;-relation to the Ameri.
can war, 833 ;-mental hallucination of, 884;
-on the French Revolution, 838.
846;-influenco upon the French revolu-
Calrinistic doctrines democratic, 611.
Cardinal de Retz, liberality of, $35.
Catholic hurch, secularization of, in France
Causes of the French Revolution, recapitulation
Chance, doctrine of, 8.
Chantilly, the French actress, 539.
Charles I., effect of his execution, 260.
stood, 274;-his personal character, 275-250;
misgovernment of, 275;-benef. cent meas-
ures of his time, 276;-cause of these leg.
faults, 280;-treatment of the clergy, 250;-
the church, 282.
Character, hereditary descent of, 127.
Chemistry and geology, comparison of, 629.
Chillinguorth's" religion of Protestants' 251.
Chicairy, origin and effects of, 456 ; compara-
tive influence in France and England, 458.
early corruption of, 187.
benefits of, 365.
Civilization, dependence upon soil and climate,
-Egyptian, 59:-in Central America, 67;-
human nature, 574;-compared with Vol- and Peru, 80;-European and non-European,
characteristics of, 109;-European, the hu.
inquiry was restricted to English, 167;-in
government, 188;-literature, 193;-infla-
Classical study, effect upon history, 686;-effect | English bishops, policy of, in the time of wil.
liam III.. 292.
English government, despotic measures of, ista
decline of, 299;-in France, degeneracy of, English church, arrogance of, in times of James
English intellect, influence of upon France, 519.
English rebellion, disposition of classes in
46 ;-a war of classes, 471;-a demoerstie
English national progress, 168.
Europe, intellectual regeneration of, begins, 288
Events controlled by law, 6.
Fenelon, banishment of, 564.
Ferrier, persecution of, 403.
Fewal system, origin of, 442;-in France, 447.
Feudalists and the church, 442.
Final causes, 427.
Foud, effects of, 40;-in hot climates, 42;-in
fluences population, 40;-in cold climates,
43;-cheap national, effect of, 56 ;-physio
logical effects of, (note) 106.
Foco, Charles James, estimate of, 322.
France, provocation to revolution, 539;-infata-
ation of the government previous to the
revolution, 540;-extent of legislative inta
ference, 450 ;-second epoch of 18th century
desperate condition of, 551;-depth of the
loyal sentiment, 543.
French, why backward in the production of
fects of, 446.
428 ;--significance of his career, 429.
French government invades the church, 606;-
adopts the policy of toleration, 607.
French history changes its purpose, 581;-la-
fluence of Turgot upon, 596.
the 18th century, 530.
French nobility, frivolity of, 484;-porers of
Louis XIV., 518.
Frenchmen visit England after the death of
Louis XIV., 519.
French Protestants, intolerance of, 401;-their
interference in private affairs, 410-413.
French rebellion (war or the Fronde), condi.
tions of, 470;-why it was neutralized, 450
French revolution, effects of English inter-
ference concerning, 846 ;-how to have aroid.
ed it, 550;- antecedents, 659 ;-causes of,
after the middle of the 18th century, 399;-
its causes complicated, 600.
Free Press in France, 433,
Free-will, doctrine of, 610.
Fronde, wars of, 485;-leaders of, 477;-objects
aimed at, 479.
repression of the clergy by, 465 ;-char-
George III., estimate of, 319;-fruits orhis pol-
German literature and thought, peculiarities
Jovernment, a hindrance to progress, 197;-
Laud, Archbishop, infamy of, 251.
working classes, 474.
Legislation, religious effect of, 204 ;-true policy
Letters forgotten to be directed, 24.
Liberal opinions, effect of, 357.
Liberal treatment of the French Protestants,
Liberties of England, guaranties of, 448.
Libraries and books, restraints upon, 351.
Life, animal and organic, 618.
Literature of India, 95;-function of, 193;-how
it becomes injurious, 195;—in the middlo
ages, 195 ;-royal patronage of, 494 ;-should
not be rewarded by government, 496;--
French and English, relations of, 436.
Longevity in the early ages, Indian view of, 97.
Louis XIV., his despotism, 490;-his policy, 491;
-effects of his persecutions, 492 ;-patronago
of literature, 499;-unfavorable to science,
499 ;--to mechanical improvement, 502 ;-
characteristics of his age, 508;- influence
upon art, 511;-state of the masses in the
timo of, 516;-death of, 517;-neglect of his
education, 562 ;-his treatment of historians,
563;-mental characteristics of his reign, 568.
Macaulay, estimato of, 284.
Mahommed, supposed cause of his death, 228.
Mallot's “ History of Denmark,” 581.
Manufacturers, superstition of, 271;-effect of
the progress of, 274.
Marlborough as a civilian, 144.
Martin, bishop of Tours, Bossuet's view of, 572.
Marriages, proportion of, regulated by general
Mazarin succeeds Richelien and adopts his lib.
eral policy, 431.
Men influenced by physical agents, 29.
Mental and physical laws, 112.
Metaphysical method of inquiry, 109-113;-
difficulty of, 114.
Metaphysical school, modern French, 647.
Meteorology, superstition still connected with,
Method, value of, in science, 645.
Mexico, why civilized early, 71,
tion of, 563
Military commanders, ancient and modern, 143.
Military and ecclesiastical classes, decline of, 142
Mineralogy, position of, 654.
Missionaries, failure of, 184.
Montaigne, essays of, 873.
Montesquieu's, "Spirit of Laws," 592 ;-charno-
teristics of his method of treating history,
593 ;-first connects physical knowledge
with history, 595.
, French governmental, 450;-effect
Moral system immutable, 129.
Moral effects transitory, 131.
Moral and intellectual progress, 125.
Moral and intellectual laws, comparative in.
fluence of, 121.
81; state of, in America, 174; real, in what modern aitempt w disconnect from theolo.
Murder, rogularity of its commission, 18. Reform measures of the present generation, 360
-of ħuman setions
Reign of terror in England, 354.
fect of human improvement, change of
corrupts history, 219.
Religious persecutors well intentioned, 189,-
persecution, criminality of, 132, 136 ;-COD-
troversies, decline of, 256,-institutions si.
tacked in France before political, 542.
Rent in different countries, 54.
Rhyme, early love of, 218.
Richelieu, comparison with Napoleon, 881;
represses the spiritual classes, 882 ;-cos-
firms the edict of Nantes, 415.
Richard I. Ceur de Lion, 217.
Rivers, American, 69.
Rochelle, siege of, 415.
Roman emperors, persecutions by, 183.
Royal patronage, influence of upon literature,
of Elizabeth, 245 ;-of literary men in France Royal presence, right of sitting in France, 451.
Royal society, incorporation of, 268.
France, 659;--popularity of, before the rev- Sailors, superstition of, 271.
Scientific progress and social rebellion in
France, connexion of, 658.
Scientific adtancement in France during the
latter half of the 18th century, 627.
Scotland, religious intolerance in, 192.
Scotch history, 177.
errors of, 152;--French first studied, 602. Secces, proportion in the births of, how deter-
Shakspeare ignorant of ancient languages, 587.
Siva, the Hindoo deity, 101.
Skeptical book, first, in the French language, 557.
Skeptical movement, effect of, in 18th centary,
Skepticism, effect of, 243; the beginning of sci-
benefits of, 258;-what the author under
stands by, 258;-first example of, in France,
Smith's * Wealth of Nations," 154.
cism, 398;-effect of, 189;-arrest of, 190;-a Society, influence of legislation upon, 197.
Social forces, complex action of, 22.
literature by Louis XIV., 490 ;-reaction fore the revolution, 664.
Socrates, influence of, 258.
453;-of intellect impossible by government, Soldiers, superstition of, 271.
Spanish history, 177.
Steam as a pacificator, 160.
Style of writing changes early in 18th century,
Suicide, regularity of, 19; and climate, 159.
Superstition, results from physical surround.
ings, 87;-of sailors and soldiers, 271 ;-how
the 18th century, 815 ;-of the mind with towns-people, 278.
Superstitious worship, origin of, 90.
opinions in 18th century, 529.