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put forward may, no doubt, be erroneous ; but it is, at all events, the result of an honest searching after truth, of unsparing labour, of patient and anxious reflection. Conclusions arrived at in this way, are not to be overturned by stating that they endanger some other conclusions ; nor can they be even affected by allegations against their supposed tendency. The principles which I advocate, are based upon distinct arguments, supported by wellascertained facts. The only points, therefore, to be ascertained, are, whether the arguments are fair, and whether the facts are eertain. If these two conditions have been obeyed, the principles follow by an inevitable inference. Their demonstration is, in the present volume, necessarily incomplete; and the reader must suspend his final judgment until the close of this Introduction, when the subject in all its bearings will be laid before him. The remaining part of the Introduction will be occupied, as I have already intimated, with an investigation of the civilizations of Germany, America, Scotland, and Spain ; each of which presents a different type of intellectual development, and has, therefore, followed a different direction in its religious, scientific social, and political history. The causes of these differences 1 shall attempt to ascertain. The next step will be to generalize the causes themselves; and having thus referred them to certain principles common to all, we shall be possessed of what may be called the fundamental laws of European thought; the divergence of the different countries being regulated either by the direction those laws take, or else by their comparative energy. To discover these fundamental laws will be the business of the Introduction ; while, in the body of the work, I shall apply them to the history of England, and endeavour by their aid to work out the epochs through which we have successively passed, fix the basis of our present civilization, and indicate the path of our future progress.




Buckle's introduction, subjects remaining to be

discussed in, 672.
Abbé Primi, imprisoned by Louis XIV., page Buffon, 637 ;-compelled to recant, 534.

Burke, Edmund, view of, 326 ;-never in the
Agassis, ichthyological system of, 643.

British cabinet, 831;-relation to the Ameri.
Agriculturiste, superstition of, 271.

can war, 833 ;-mental hallucination of, 884;
Aim of the work, 4.

-on the French Revolution, 838.
American Revolution, advantage to England,

846;-influenco upon the French revolu-

tion, 667.
America, South, physical influences of, 72. Calvinism and Arminianism, contrast of, 618
Anne, Queen, 801.

Calrinistic doctrines democratic, 611.
Antiquaries, estimate of, 585.

Cardinal de Retz, liberality of, $35.
Arabs, 34.

Catholic hurch, secularization of, in France
Archdeacon of Monmouth, 233.

Aristocracy, tendency of, 462.

Causes of the French Revolution, recapitulation
Arminianism, a doctrine for the rich, 612.

of, 668.
Arnold, Dr., 259 ;-on toleration, 250.

Chance, doctrine of, 8.
Armorial bearings invented, 443.

Chantilly, the French actress, 539.
Aspects of nature, influence of, 85.

Charlemagne, 230.
Art and Science, 69.

Charles I., effect of his execution, 260.
Art, intluence of governmental protection of, Charles 11., his period commonly misunder

stood, 274;-his personal character, 275-250;
Art, science, and method, gradation of, 646.

misgovernment of, 275;-benef. cent meas-
Arthur, king, history of, 232.

ures of his time, 276;-cause of these leg.
Atheism, first promulgation of, in France, 619; islative reforms, 279:--good influence of his
-prevalence of, in France, 620.

faults, 280;-treatment of the clergy, 250;-
Atheists indifferent to religion, 619;-interested his respect for Hobbes, 281;-treatment of
in government, 619.

the church, 282.
Audigier on the origin of the French, 556. Charles XII., Voltaire's opinion of, 576.
Authors begin to be independent, 814.

Character, hereditary descent of, 127.
Charron, treatise on wisdom, 875.

Chemistry and geology, comparison of, 629.

Chillinguorth's" religion of Protestants' 251.

Chicairy, origin and effects of, 456 ; compara-
Bacon, Francis, as a historian, 5.

tive influence in France and England, 458.
Ballads, the groundwork of historical knowl. Christianity, crusade against, in France, 542;-
edge, 212.

early corruption of, 187.
Barrow, Isaac, how treated by Charles II., 283. Chronicle of Turpin, 230.
Baron d'Holbach and David Hume, 621. Church, early strength of, in France, 864;-early
Bichat, labors and estimate of, 639.

benefits of, 365.
Biography, separation from history, 594. Cities, influence of, 112.
Boileau, 565.

Civilization, dependence upon soil and climate,
Botany, progress of, 505;-early generalizations 37;-influenced by food, 47;-European, 59;
in, 652;-natural system of, 659.

-Egyptian, 59:-in Central America, 67;-
Bossuet's universal history, 569 ;-contempt for influenced by trade winds, 73 ;-of Mexico

human nature, 574;-compared with Vol- and Peru, 80;-European and non-European,
taire, 575.

characteristics of, 109;-European, the hu.
Boyle, 251 ;-achievements in science, 265;-his man mind predominates in, 110:-why the
"Skeptical Chemist,” 267.

inquiry was restricted to English, 167;-in
Brazil, 75 ;-civilization in, 75;-in Peru, 77. Germany, 171;-in America, 174 ;-Scotch
Brain, does its capacity improve from age to 177;-affected by religion, literature, and
age ? 127.

government, 188;-literature, 193;-infla-
Brown, Sir Thomas, inquiries into vulgar and ence of government, 197;-starting point of
common errors, 263 ;--superstition of, 264. modern, 441.

VOL. 1,-43


Classical study, effect upon history, 686;-effect | English bishops, policy of, in the time of wil.
in corrupting the vernacular, 587.

liam III.. 292.
Classical fables, 588.

English government, despotic measures of, ista
Clergy, repositories of learning, 222 ;-English, in 18th century, 849.

decline of, 299;-in France, degeneracy of, English church, arrogance of, in times of James
after Louis XIV., 546 ;-confounded with II., 285.
Christianity in France, 547.

English intellect, influence of upon France, 519.
Climate and soil, comparative influence of, 87. English freedom of government, effect of, upaa
Clubs, institution of, in France, 664;-effects of, France after Louis XIV., 527.

English rebellion, disposition of classes in
Comines, 236.

46 ;-a war of classes, 471;-a demoerstie
Commercial restrictions, 201,

movement, 478.
Consciousness, nature of, 11.

English national progress, 168.
Conditions of civilized advancement, 162. English nobility begin to travel, 169.
Condillac's treatise on sensation, 624;-his rela- European aristocracy, beginning of, 443.
tion to Locke, 625.

Europe, intellectual regeneration of, begins, 288
Condorcet, 337.

Events controlled by law, 6.
Conservative and stationary spirit, 83.
Conquest of England by the Duke of Nor-
mandy, 414.

Convocation falls into disrepute, 298.
Corn laws, repeal of, 198.

Fenelon, banishment of, 564.
Country people, superstition of, 278.

Ferrier, persecution of, 403.
Credulity, early historic, 223.

Fewal system, origin of, 442;-in France, 447.
Crystallography, progress of, 655.

Feudalists and the church, 442.
Cuvier, labors of, 633.

Final causes, 427.
classification of, 638.

Foud, effects of, 40;-in hot climates, 42;-in

fluences population, 40;-in cold climates,

43;-cheap national, effect of, 56 ;-physio

logical effects of, (note) 106.

Foco, Charles James, estimate of, 322.
Dates, as food, 60.

France, provocation to revolution, 539;-infata-
first introduced into French history, 558.

ation of the government previous to the
Daubenton, 634.

revolution, 540;-extent of legislative inta
Declaration of American Independence, 666.

ference, 450 ;-second epoch of 18th century
influence of, upon France, 666.

desperate condition of, 551;-depth of the
Deistical writers of the 18th century, excuse Franklin, ambassador to France, 664i.

loyal sentiment, 543.
for, 549.
Deluge predicted in 1524, 239.

French, why backward in the production of
Descartes, physical discoveries of, 417,-25. a French and English aristocracies, differeat ef-

history, 555.
metaphysician, 420 ;--compared with Chil-
lingworth, 424 ;-as & reformer, 421 ;-his French and English intellects, connexion of,

fects of, 446.
mothod, 422;--foundation of his philosophy,

425;-on the idea of God, 426,influence French church, subordinate to the croFD, 34.
upon theology, 427 ;-analogy to Richelieu, French intellect, history of 363.

428 ;--significance of his career, 429.
Dhorra, as food, 62.

French government invades the church, 606;-
Diderot, persecution and imprisonment of, 537.

adopts the policy of toleration, 607.
Dissenter8, persecution of, 802.

French history changes its purpose, 581;-la-
Distinction between certainty and precision in Frenchmen, eminent learned, persecated in

fluence of Turgot upon, 596.
history, 601.
Dirine right of kings, abandonment of, 494.

the 18th century, 530.
Doubt must precede investigation, 242.

French nobility, frivolity of, 484;-porers of

Dress, changes in, before the French revolution, French ignorance of the English in the time of

Du Haillan's history of the kings of France,

Louis XIV., 518.
555 ;-credulity of, 555.

Frenchmen visit England after the death of

Louis XIV., 519.
Dupleixo, history of France, 558.

French Protestants, intolerance of, 401;-their

interference in private affairs, 410-413.

French rebellion (war or the Fronde), condi.

tions of, 470;-why it was neutralized, 450
Earthquakes, influence of, upon the mind, 87.

French revolution, effects of English inter-
Ecclesiastical power, influence of, upon national

ference concerning, 846 ;-how to have aroid.

ed it, 550;- antecedents, 659 ;-causes of,
prosperity, 868.
Ecclesiastical spirit in France and England in

after the middle of the 18th century, 399;-
the middle of the 16th century, 366.

its causes complicated, 600.

Free Press in France, 433,
Education, its objects, 194.
Edict of Nantes, 372.

Free-will, doctrine of, 610.
Egypt, population of, 68.

Fronde, wars of, 485;-leaders of, 477;-objects
Elizabeth, Queen, religious toleration in her

aimed at, 479.
time, 244.

repression of the clergy by, 465 ;-char-
acter of her advisers, 465 ;-opposition to Geology and chemistry, comparison of, 629.
the nobles, 466.

George III., estimate of, 319;-fruits orhis pol-
Encyclopedia, French, prohibited, 582.

icy, 843
England, critical period of, 355.

German literature and thought, peculiarities
death of great scientific men in, 637.

of, 171.
English and French prejudices, 158.

Giboon, 308.
Eriglish advancement, conditions of, 438. Golden tooth, story of, 240.
English people, independence of character, 447.) Goethe, botanical discoveries of, 652

Jovernment, a hindrance to progress, 197;-

limitation of its functions, 203.
Governmental policy, French and English, con- La Fayette, Burke's opinion of, 887.
trasted, 453.

Laud, Archbishop, infamy of, 251.
Greek mind, influence of nature upon, 98. Lavoisier, 631.
Gunpowder, effect of the invention of, 146. Leaders of the English rebellion from the

working classes, 474.

Legislation, religious effect of, 204 ;-true policy

of, 361.
Hamilton, Sir William, 257.

Letters forgotten to be directed, 24.
Haüy, crystallography, system of, 656.

L'Hopital, 369.
Heut, distribution of, in America, 70.

Liberal opinions, effect of, 357.
Hebrero religion, progress of, 187.

Liberal treatment of the French Protestants,

Heloetius, philosophy of, 621.
Henry IV. of France, liberality of, 872 ;-policy

Liberties of England, guaranties of, 448.
of, towards the Protestants, 878;-effect of

Libraries and books, restraints upon, 351.
his death, 379;-Queen of, 379.

Life, animal and organic, 618.
Hero-worship, origin of, in Greece, 103.

Literature of India, 95;-function of, 193;-how
Heretical opinions, last burning for, in England,

it becomes injurious, 195;—in the middlo

ages, 195 ;-royal patronage of, 494 ;-should
ITistorical literature in France from end of 16th

not be rewarded by government, 496;--
to end of 18th century, 553.

French and English, relations of, 436.
Historians, death of, in time of Louis XIV., 562.

Longevity in the early ages, Indian view of, 97.
History, extent of its materials, 1;--their mis.

Louis XIV., his despotism, 490;-his policy, 491;
use, 3;-as a science, 5;-its key and basis,

-effects of his persecutions, 492 ;-patronago
24;- influence of physical science upon,

of literature, 499;-unfavorable to science,
25 ;-history of, 209;-European, origin of,

499 ;--to mechanical improvement, 502 ;-
211;-how its sources are corrupted, 218;

characteristics of his age, 508;- influence
fictions of, in the middle ages, 224;-84-

upon art, 511;-state of the masses in the
perior to theology, 573;--quality of, in time

timo of, 516;-death of, 517;-neglect of his
of Louis XIV., 565;-individuals of but lit-

education, 562 ;-his treatment of historians,
tle account in, 593;-in what real history

563;-mental characteristics of his reign, 568.
consists, 600;- distinction between certainty
and precision in, 601;- dignity of, 671;-
what the author hopes to have accomplish-

ed in, 671.
House of Commons, origin of, 446.

Macaulay, estimato of, 284.
Ilouse of Lords, deterioration of, 323.

Machiavelli, 236.
House of Stuart, effect of expulsion of, 289.

Mahommed, supposed cause of his death, 228.
Hooker's ecclesiastical polity, 246.

Mallot's “ History of Denmark,” 581.

Maize, 78,
Hurxt, Dr., on the golden tooth, 240.
Human actions, mutability of standards of, 129.

Manufacturers, superstition of, 271;-effect of

the progress of, 274.

Marlborough as a civilian, 144.

Martin, bishop of Tours, Bossuet's view of, 572.
Idealism, 115.
Imagination and understanding, 85; -- most

Marriages, proportion of, regulated by general
powerful in the tropics, 87;--development Massillon, 617.

laws, 24.
of, in India, 96.

Mazarin succeeds Richelien and adopts his lib.
Independents, influence of their rule, 260.
India, wages in, 55;-condition of laborers (Su- Memory, regularity of its failures, 24.

eral policy, 431.
dras,) 56;-diet of, 01 ;-)iterature of, 95.

Men influenced by physical agents, 29.
Industry controlled by climate, 82.
Intellect, import of, in national progress, 609.

Mental and physical laws, 112.
Intellectual systems progressive, 130.

Metaphysical method of inquiry, 109-113;-
Intellectual achievements lasting, 131.

difficulty of, 114.
Interest in India, 54.

Metaphysical school, modern French, 647.
Intercommunication, ameliorating effect of, 158.

Meteorology, superstition still connected with,

Inquisitors pot morally bad, 135.

Method, value of, in science, 645.
Insanity, progress of knowledge of, 657.
Ireland, diet and population, 47.

Mexico, why civilized early, 71,
Mezeray's * History of France,” 560;-persecu.

tion of, 563

Military commanders, ancient and modern, 143.

Military and ecclesiastical classes, decline of, 142
James II., policy of, 285.

Mineralogy, position of, 654.

Missionaries, failure of, 184.
Jansenism, revival of, 614;-influences eminent

Montaigne, essays of, 873.
Jefferson and the French NationalAssembly, 667.

Montesquieu's, "Spirit of Laws," 592 ;-charno-
Jesuits serve civilization, 609; they are out-

teristics of his method of treating history,

593 ;-first connects physical knowledge
grown by it, 609.
Jesuite, repression of, in France, 615.

with history, 595.
Jorcel's apology for the church of England, 246. Monopolies

, French governmental, 450;-effect
Jews characterized, 570.

men, 615.

Moral system immutable, 129.
Judas, middle age view of, 229.

Moral effects transitory, 131.

Moral and intellectual progress, 125.

Moral and intellectual laws, comparative in.

fluence of, 121.
Knowledge preceded by accumulation of wealth, Morals, its separation from theology, 805;-first

81; state of, in America, 174; real, in what modern aitempt w disconnect from theolo.
it consists, 194

gy, 870.

Murder, rogularity of its commission, 18. Reform measures of the present generation, 360
Mythologies, Grecian and Indian, compared, 101. Regularity of nature, 635;

-of ħuman setions


Reign of terror in England, 354.
Religion, relation to civilization, 184;-the e

fect of human improvement, change of
Nature, aspects of, in Europe, favorable to the
understanding, 94.

corrupts history, 219.
Nature, mastery of, 100.

Religious persecutors well intentioned, 189,-
Napoleon restores ecclesiasticism, 647.

persecution, criminality of, 132, 136 ;-COD-
Necessity, doctrine of, favorable to the intel-

troversies, decline of, 256,-institutions si.
lect, 613,

tacked in France before political, 542.
Normal phenomena should be studied first, 363. Restoration, condition of the church at the 261.

Rent in different countries, 54.

Rhyme, early love of, 218.

Richelieu, comparison with Napoleon, 881;

represses the spiritual classes, 882 ;-cos-
Oroon's odontography, 644.

firms the edict of Nantes, 415.
Rice, influence of, as food, 51.

Richard I. Ceur de Lion, 217.

Rivers, American, 69.

Rochelle, siege of, 415.
Parker, Theodore, 257.

Roman emperors, persecutions by, 183.
People, the, begin to figure in French history, Rousseau, influence of, 604;-proscription of, 553

Royal patronage, influence of upon literature,
Persecution, religious, in Spain, 134;—in times 494.

of Elizabeth, 245 ;-of literary men in France Royal presence, right of sitting in France, 451.
in 18th century, 635.

Royal society, incorporation of, 268.
Personal representation, doctrine of, in poli- Russia, military spirit in, 141.

tics, 812.
Physical phenomena, effect of giving attention
to, 619.

Physical Science invades the exclusive spirit in

France, 659;--popularity of, before the rev- Sailors, superstition of, 271.
olution, 660;-democratic tendencies of, 661; Science engages the greatest thinkers, 256;-ef.
cause of advancement of, in France before fect of its progress, 269.
the revolution, 627.

Scientific progress and social rebellion in
Pinel, treatise on insanity, 657.

France, connexion of, 658.
Pitt, William, 820.

Scientific adtancement in France during the
Poetry, origin of, 213.

latter half of the 18th century, 627.
Politics, condition of, 361.

Scotland, religious intolerance in, 192.
Politicians, occupation of, 510.

Scotch history, 177.
Political economy, a modern science, 151;-old Sensationalism, 116.

errors of, 152;--French first studied, 602. Secces, proportion in the births of, how deter-
Popeliniere's history of histories, 559.

mined, 121.
Pope's toe, kissing
of, 229.

Shakspeare ignorant of ancient languages, 587.
Potatoes as diet, 47.

Siva, the Hindoo deity, 101.
Powers of nature constant, 112.

Skeptical book, first, in the French language, 557.
Press, liberty of, 206.

Skeptical movement, effect of, in 18th centary,
Pride and vanity, distinction between, 480.

Private judgment, effect of, 464.

Skepticism, effect of, 243; the beginning of sci-
Proceedings of the legislature first reported, 312. ence, 250;-modern, precedes inquiry, 212,-
Predestination, doctrine of, 6.

benefits of, 258;-what the author under
Protestant reformation a rebellion, 463.

stands by, 258;-first example of, in France,
Protestants, effect of Richelieu's liberal policy 872 ;-spiritual, precedes literary,
towards, 394.

Smith's * Wealth of Nations," 154.
Protestantism, why more liberal than Catholi- Smugglers, 202.

cism, 398;-effect of, 189;-arrest of, 190;-a Society, influence of legislation upon, 197.
normal movement, 865.

Social forces, complex action of, 22.
Protective spirit, history of, 440 ;-carried into Social orders, amalgamation of, in France bee

literature by Louis XIV., 490 ;-reaction fore the revolution, 664.
against France, 517.

Socrates, influence of, 258.
Protection, effect of, 438;-on French character, Soil, influence of, 33.

453;-of intellect impossible by government, Soldiers, superstition of, 271.
509; -of intellect, course of events follow. Spain, skepticism in, 243.
ing, 510.

Spanish history, 177.
Publio meetings forbidden in England, 850. Stationary classes, 463.
Public political meetings begin in England, 311. Statistics applied to moral actions, 17;-yalne of
Public opinion, present authority of, 360.

Puritans, influence of, 261.

Steam as a pacificator, 160.
Stoffler, on astronomy, of Tubingen, predicts a

deluge, 239.

Style of writing changes early in 18th century,

Rabelais, 372.

Suicide, regularity of, 19; and climate, 159.
Races, distinctions of, 24.

Superstition, results from physical surround.
Racine, 565.

ings, 87;-of sailors and soldiers, 271 ;-how
Reaction against the intellectual movement of undermined, 269;-of country-people and

the 18th century, 815 ;-of the mind with towns-people, 278.
nature, 15.

Superstitious worship, origin of, 90.
Recoil of the French government at liberal Suppression of books in France in 18th ced-

opinions in 18th century, 529.

tury, 584

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