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traiture of the synod, for a precious “ When the opinions of the British monument of their respects to my demption were read, it was observed that

divines upon the extent of Christ's repoor endeavours.” It is more to our

they omitted the distinction between the point to observe, on taking similar sufficiency and efficacy of it; nor did they leave of the synod, with Dean Hall touch upon the limitation of those passages himself, that the mode of admitting of Scripture, which, speaking of Christ's our English divines to that synod

to retire, than for their judges to occupy was in express violation of its own

themselves for whole days afterwards in rule, only to admit the deputies of declaiming against them, and in boldly rechurches, not political agents; and futing their arguments? That is an occuwas obtained surreptitiously, and pation which does not appear to me of with much management, by its for the sake of joining in it, to undertake secret conductors. It is stated, that a long and late journey in the very depth their instructions went so far in pri- of winter. But this is the sort of provate from King James, as to tie ceedings of which those who attended

have been witnesses. At our them up to vote in the synod for autumnal fair, I expect to see exposed for general redemption, which

may serve

sale the satirical remarks of the Papists, to explain and introduce the follow the protestations of the Remonstrants,

and the refutations of the Synod. May ing quotation from Hall's Life, in allusion to the transactions at Dort *. only hope of safety which remained, was

God have mercy upon his church! The by some of his portraitures, came into the in the reverend fathers of the synod shewpossession of the family of Jermy, of Bay- ing themselves desirous to reconcile parties field Hall, near Holt, in the county of and to unite discordant spirits: when I Norfolk; and was bequeathed by William was disappointed in this, I entertained no Jermy, Esq. at his death, which happened expectations of any thing safe or benein January 1750 (Gent. Magazine), to Em- ficial.” Arminius, p. 420. manuel College, Cambridge. See Master's The friendly intentions of the Synod History of Bene't College, Cambridge, p. beforehand expressed, as early as the 367.— We should be glad if some Cam- nomination of Hall's successor, Dr. Goad, bridge friend would ascertain the fact of are contained in the following page, in a this medal's safe custody, which we have letter from the English Ambassador to grounds to doubt.

King James. . These transactions we may appositely “* When the synod hath done with the close with a quotation by Mr. Nichols, Remonstrants' opinions, this course will from one who was as glad to escape the be taken with their persons: That the office of deputy to the synod as Dean Hall. chief ringleaders (as Uitenbogardt, Epis

“I rejoice that I am not present at the copius, Grevinchovius, and Vorstius, with Dutch Synod (says Bergius, who had some others), will be branded with some been appointed a Brandenburg deputy); note of infamy, and thrust out both of for I can see nothing transacted in that church and state: some others of the chief assembly which is worthy of such immense will have their entertainments (salaries] preparations, labour, and expense. Agri- continued, but [will] be suspended in their cola bas acquainted me by letter with al- functions : the rest, by reason of want of most all the particulars. I am not only fit men to supply their charges, will be certain that no benefit will accrue from continued, in hope the example of others the synod, but that the flames of a greater will keep them within their bounds. This evil will be excited by it; which, although course is like to be taken, rebus sic stantibus now perhaps suppressed by the power of [in the present posture of affairs). But if adversaries, lies hidden in the embers, the French ambassador's endeavours for and will burst forth in a short time with the delivery of our prisoners, (about which the greater impetuosity. And undoubted- they have now had two public audiences) ly it is impossible for us to deny, that the or if their private practices in favour of the Remonstrants have been treated with too Arminian party should take any place, we much unfairness. What man will ever must then expect a mutation.' By those think of charging it against them as a persons whom the ambassador bere calls crime, that they would not acknowledge our prisoners, are to be understood Barnefor their presidents and judges, the Boger- veldt, Grotius, and Hogerbeets, three of mans, the Gomars, the Sibrands, and the most eminent men and upright statesothers, whom they have always accounted men of the Low Countries, wbo had altheir most bitter enemies? How can we ways patronized the cause of Armi[the Lutherans] bring such an accusation nianism, and who, for their patriotic seragainst them, when we refuse to have vices to their native country, had, in defi. pontiffs and cardinals for our judges? ance of all law, been arrested and impriBut what act could be more ridiculous, soned by the orders of Prince Maurice." after the Remonstrants were commanded Arminius, p. 421.

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dying for the whole world, are frequently and exterminate religious opponents.
interpreted of the world of the elect. Dr. Hence the Arminians at home take
Davenant and some of his brethren in-
clined to the doctrine of universal redemp- up the weapons of the Dort Cal-
tion : he and Dr. Ward were for a middle vinists abroad.

In the mean time,
way between the two extremes; they a worthy Jesuit attacks the whole
maintained the certainty of the salvation Protestant body, Arminian and
sent not only to all who should believe Calvinist, with a charge of errors
and repent, bút to all who hear the Gospel; substantially drawn from the tenets
and that grace sufficient to convince and of the Synod of Dort, on the subject
persuade the impenitent (so as to lay the of predestination.
blame of their condemnation upon calls“
selves,) went along with these offers :

a new Gag for the Old Go. that the redemption of Christ and his spel,” is rebutted by Mr. Monmerits were applicable to these, and con- tagu's “New Gag for an Old Goose;" sequently there was a possibility of their where, in Dr. Hall's lively language, salvation. They however complied with which shall supersede our own, the Synod, and agreed to their confession, as in general agreeable to the word of God. But some years after, a report arose

“ Mr. Montague's tart and vehement that they had deserted the doctrine of the assertions of some positions, near of kin Church of England; upon which Dr. Hall

to the Remonstrants of Netherland, gave expressed his concern to Dr. Davenant in occasion raising no small broil in the these words I will live and die in the church. Sides were taken : pulpits every suffrage of that Synod of Dort; and I do where rang of these opinions : but parliaconfidently avow, that those other opinions ments took notice of the division, and ques(of Arminius) cannot stand

with the doc- tioned the occasioner. Now, as one that detrine of the Church of England.' To sired to do all good offices to our dear and which Dr. Davenant replied, ' I know common mother, I set my thoughts on that no man can embrace Arminianism in work how so dangerous a quarrel might be the doctrines of predestination and grace, happily composed: and, finding that misbut he must desert the articles agreed taking was more guilty of this dissension upon by the Church of England; nor in than misbelieving (since it plainly appeared the point of perseverance, but he must to me, that Mr. Montague meant to exvary from the received opinions of our press, not Arminius, but B. Overal, a best approved doctors in the English more moderate and safe author, however Church." Hall, pp. 90–92.

he sped in delivery of him,) I wrote a lit

tle project of pacification, wherein I deThe Dean having failed in his sired to rectify the judgment of men congolden opportunity of making peace cerning this misapprehended controversy; abroad, returned to make it, if pos- seasonable plea : and, because B. Overal sible, at home. Very soon, in his

went a midway betwixt the two opinions quiet retreat åt Waltham, and his which he held extreme, and must needs deanery at Worcester, he finds “ the therefore somewhat differ from the comChurch of England become sick of monly received tenet in these points, I ga

thered out of B. Overal on the one side, the Belgic disease.” The transmis- and out of our English divines at Dort on sion and diffusion of this Arminian the other, such common propositions conepidemic through our own ill-fated cerning these five busy articles as wherein isle was unfortunately but too easy; being put together, seemed unto me to

both of them are fully agreed. All which The pragmatical airs of James had make up so sufficient a body of accorded well prepared the atmosphere of truth, that all other questions moved hereBritain for its reception. His sanc

abouts appeared merely superfluous; and tion to the violence of the dominant every moderate Christian might find where

to rest himself, without hazard of contraparty at the Synod of Dort was too

diction. These I made bold, by the hands tempting a precedent to be resisted of Dr. Young, the worthy Dean of Winby his courtly divines at home. chester, to present to his excellent MaThey forgot his Calvinism, and he jesty, together with an humble motion of

a peaceable silence to be enjoined to both himself likewise. Not so the im

parts, in those other collateral and needless mense Calvinistic party whom he disquisitions : which, if they might benefit had encouraged by his embassy to the schools of academical disputants, could Dort: whilst all that he and his own

not certainly sound well from the pulpits

of popular auditories. Those reconciliadivines remembered was the suc

tory papers fell under the eyes of some cessful issue of measures to silence grave divines on both parts. 'Mr. Monta

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gue professed that he had seen them, and sole will and absolute decree, hath
would subscribe to them very willingly; irrespectively resolved and inevitably
others, that were contrarily minded, both
English, Scottish, and French divines, prof- decreed some to be saved, some to
ferred their hands to a no less ready sub- be damned from all eternity;" Mon-
scription. So as much peace promised to tague proceeds:-
result out of that weak and poor enter-

“ Some Protestants, and no more
prise, had not the confused noise of the
misconstructions of those who never saw

than some, have considered God, the work, crying it down for the very for this effect of his will, in reference name's sake, meeting with the royal edict to Peter and Judas, thus ; that Peter of a general inhibition, buried it in a secure

was saved because that God would silence.” Hall, pp. 92–94.

have him saved absolutely; and reAmongst the obnoxious tenets im- solved to save him necessarily, beputed to the Protestants by the Je- cause he would so, and no further : suit Gagger, and rebutted by the that Judas was damned as necessaGoose Gagger, we find the follow- rily, because that God, as absolute ing, namely—That by the fall of to decree as omnipotent to effect, Adam we have lost all free will; and did primarily so resolve concerning that it is not in our own power either him, and so determine touching him, to choose good or evil : that it without respect of any thing but his is impossible to keep the com- own will : insomuch that Peter could mandments of God, though assist- not perish, though he would; nor ed with his grace, and the Holy Judas be saved, do what he could. Ghost : that only faith justifieth; This is not the doctrine of the Proand that good works are not abso- testants: the Lutherans in Germany lutely necessary to salvation : that detest and abhor it: it is the private no good works are meritorious: that fancies of some men, I grant: but faith once had cannot be lost : that what are opinions unto decisions ? God by his will and inevitable de- private opinions unto received and cree hath ordained from all eter- decided doctrines ? The Church of nity who shall be lost, and who England hath not taught it, doth not saved: that every man ought infal- believe it, hath opposed it. Wisely liby to assure himself of his salva- contenting herself with this quotion; and to hold that he is of the usque and limitation.' Article 17: number of the predestinate. How • We must receive God's promises far and whether Mr. Montague in such wise as they be generally set “hath sped” or not in the delivery forth to us in Holy Scripture; and of Bishop Overall, whilst he repels not presuming to determine of these several charges" against the where, how, wherefore, or whom; English Church, he certainly as- secrets reserved to God alone. So sumes ground far more legal and this Goose the Gagger may put his popish than Arminius dreamed of. gag into the bills of niany of his own On the other hand, he does not gaggle, as well as into other’slagges; adopt the hypothesis of a condi- who presume as far and wander as tionate election: at least, not totidem wide, sometimes as they do, though verbis, as Arminius did. For those more covertly in their terms. Our of our readers who wish for a note Bible in express words, saith what or two of this counter "gagging we believe : it teacheth not contrary we subjoin the following quotation to that which is resolved in the from the answer to one of these ar- Church of England: the positive ticles.-After marshalling the Je- doctrine whereof is no other but suits' position against Protestantism, what this wittal confirmeth out of that God by his will and inevitable Scripture ; that God at the begindecree hath ordained from all eter- ning made not death,' as Wisd. i. 13, nity who shall be damned and who because she hath learned out of saved; which, Montague says, should St. Paul, that through sin death rather be thus : “ that God, by his came into the world : whereof God

was neither author nor abettor ; but sequence, he humbly dedicates to he, the father of lies, a liar, a mur- his Majesty is, “not to betake himderer from the beginning,' in pro- self to his chariot to outride the curing the fall of man. Sin be- shower ;” but to interpose “his ing entered, and by sin death, and Majesty's seasonable prevention." so all mankind in the mass of per- Only the powerful breath of your dition, God fitted and prepared a sovereign authority,he adds, “ can Restorer, a Mediator, the man Christ dispel those clouds, and clear our Jesus ; that so 'whosoever believeth heaven, and reduce a happy calm.” in him should not perish, but have Language such as this echoing on everlasting life;' out of his mercy all sides of that servile court, was both free and mere, because he was that which, in fact, hastened and not willing that any should perish, matured the storm. There was, but all should come to repentance, however, something worse than this; as 2 Pet. iii. 9, and be saved. So for, a little onward in this « Via large was his mercy, so enlarged his Media,” this " by way of peace,” love, that out of his good pleasure after warning men against controit was his will, all men to be versy, since “never did that Bel. saved, and to come to knowledge of gic quarrel grow to extremity, till the truth.' Shew a contrary resolu. after the solemn conference before tion of the Church of England, and the States at the Hague [in 1611] gag up my mouth, Sir Goose, for which was intended to appease it,"— ever : else go gaggle on the green." the good Dean proceeds, “ There is R. Montague's New Gagg for an no possible redress, but in a severe Old Goose, pp. 179, 180. 1624. folio. edict of restraint tocharm all tongues

The demon of discord was now and pens, upon the sharpest punishJet loose; nor was it easy to stay its ment, from passing those moderate progress of disaster and blood. It bounds, which the Church of Engwas not in the still small voice of the land, guided by the Scriptures, hath pacific and well meaning Hall, en- expressly set; or which, on both deavouring to take the middle course, sides, are fully accorded on." p. 827, the "via media," between extremes vol. ii. Hall's Works.-The advice to accomplish that object. He fore- was followed: and, first, by strangsaw the storm which perhaps he had ling, as he gives us to understand, contributed originally, though unin- his own Via Media ; next, by sitentionally, to raise by the pre- lencing all Puritanism,—that is, Calcedents at Dort; but to lay it must vinism, doctrinal or disciplinarian; have been the work of some higher lastly, by giving full swing and full Prospero. In a tractate published preferment to all anti-Calvinism, of at this period, with the title as above, whatever class or degree. What of “Via Media," he gives the fol- opinions the Dean afterwards formed lowing exquisite passage, deeply af- respecting the “ charming” profecting as a too true presage of the ceedings in the Star Chamber, and storm, and yet itself exhibiting, at the Court of High Commission, we its close, its very spirit.

find no trace of in his Lifeor Writings. “There needs no prophetical spirit The terrible retaliation and reaction to discern by a small cloud that there of the suffering party, he has suffiis a storm coming towards our ciently detailed, as we shall hereafter church: such a one as shall not only have occasion to notice in his “Hard drench our plumes, but shake our Measure." peace. Already do we see the sky A single word, however, more, chicken, and hear the winds whistle before we proceed, respecting the hollow afar off, and feel all the pre- general contents of this important sages of a tempest, which the late « Via Media," as a go-between, we example of our neighbours bids us may call it, of Calvinism and Armifear.”........ The advice which, in con- nianism : and that particularly, in connexion with Mr. Nichols's Ar- upon this decree of God (to give minian Bishop Overall ; whose sen- special grace to the predestinate) is timents, it is moreover suggested grounded; but the mere and graby Hall, were those intended to be cious good will and pleasure of God echoed by the gagging Mr. Mon- from all eternity, appointing to save tague. It so happens, that for al- those whom he hath chosen in most every sentiment verging on Christ, as the head and foundation Calvinism in the Via Media, Dean of the elect. This decree of God's Hall expressly quotes Bishop Over. election is absolute, unchangeable, all; and, putting all together, we seem and from everlasting. God doth not for a moment to be in a goodly com- either actually damn or appoint any pany of harmonious doctrinists, be- soul to damnation, without the conginning with our somewhat Calvi- sideration in respect of sin.” p. 121. nistic Dean, and thence, through Ibid. Bishop Overall, clear round to the The reconciliation of these counambiguous Montague, and thus to ter statements we must leave to Mr. our avowed Arminian author, Mr. Ni. Nichols. For ourselves, if our opichols. The main point, on which nion is demanded respecting the dewe require far more light than Mr. crees of most writers in this “ midNichols has given us, nay, on which dle" school, we are ready to avow we thipk he has quite outrun his au- our feeling of an apparent, and, as thority, is this, namely, the part to some, a misleading ambiguity in actually taken by Bishop Overall in their several statements. In exthis concerted movement. Mr. Ni pressing their notions of predestinachols alleges Bishop Overall to his tion, so as to meet the views on both own favourite point of conditionate sides, they make, for instance, with predestination“ ex fide prævisa." studied accuracy, the rejection of

men from salvation the result of no “ In addition to the great divines here enumerated by Dr. Heylin, as favourers antecedent decree, but simply of sin and defenders of conditional predestination foreseen. In this they rebut the prior to the time in which Arminius tlou- charge of reprobating souls simply rished, we may specify the names of Eras- for is the good pleasure of God." mus, Bullinger, Sarcerius, Latimer, Duifhusius, Dr. Overal, Bishop Andrews, Dr.

The election of man is, nevertheless, Clayton, and last, but not least, the two and most simply given to “ the good mingius of Copenhagen, and Baro of Cam- result, not of faith foreseen, but simlearned professors, (formasi ambo!) Hem- pleasure of God;" and is made the bridge." Arminius, p. 89.

ply a decree. The want of duly apDean Hall as distinctly quotes preciating this distinction of the Overall, for all that we can see to « middle men,” gives an ambiguity the contrary, as holding with himself to all their statements in the view of unconditional election: and, in terms, the real anti-Calvinist, which is the we think, very difficult to be mistaken. primum mobile of all his mistakes It is not the precision of faith, or any respecting them ; and this from other grace or act of man", where- Heylin, down to Mr. Nichols, who

closely imitates the views of Heylin. Non er præscientia humana fidei aut

To assert, that man is lost without voluntatis sed ex proposito divinæ voluntatis et gratiæ, de his, quos Deus elegit in Christo decree, simply for his sin, leads at liberandis et salvandis. D. Overal de V. once the Heylin of the day to claim Art

. in Belgio Controversis. — The history, the assertor, as maintaining condiand character, and opinions of Bishop tionate election. To assert, on the Overall are most important, as bearing on those times. Coeval in birth with Armi- contrary, election as of grace, nius, but not surviving the Synod of Dort, without respect to faith foreseen, the friend of Grotius, most learned and most pious, supposed to be the true middle that Bishop Overall was among the favourway or stepping stone of the Anglican into ers and defenders of conditionate predestiArminian tenets—where, nevertheless,does nation ; and that, too, prior to the time in Mr. Nichols find or ground his assertion, whicla Arminius flourished ?

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