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we find him, with his pen in his forms of prayer'which he addressed to his band, addressing the States of Hol- herd, who by the blood of the everlasting land, stating
covenant hast been brought again from “ In regard to the confession or de- the dead, Jesus, my Lord and Saviour, be claration which he had delivered belore present with me, a sheep of thine that is them, so far was he from entertaining weak and afflicted!' any doubts concerning it, that, on the • O Lord Jesus, thou faithful and mercontrary, in his deliberate judgment he ciful High Priest, who wast pleased in all considered it to agree in every particular things to be tempted as we are, yet withwith the word of God. He therefore per out sin, that, being taught by such expesisted in it; and with the faith which he rience how hard and painful a thing it is to had then professed he was prepared to obey, God in sufferings, thou mightest be appear, at that very moment, before the touched with the feelings of our infirmijudgment-seat of Jesus Christ, the Son of ties,-have mercy upon me, succour me God, and the Judge of both the living and thy servant, who am now laid on a bed the dead.” Arminius, pp. 41, 42.
of sickness and oppressed with these nu
merous maladies." O thou God of my salAs the charity of his opponents, vation, render my soul fit for thy heavenly during this period, was interpreting kingdom and prepare my body for the every symptom of his disorder into a resurrection.'" Arminius, pp. 44, 45. fulfilment of God's curse against the The faithful Uitenbogardt and enemies of Jerusalem (Zech. xiv. 12; Adrian Borrius, both united to him xi. 17) *, so
in the strictest bonds of ancient "Arminius still preserved his usual firm- friendship and mutual participation ness of mind and placidity of temper. During the whole of his indisposition, he
of dangers, performed for him the abated nothing of his cheerful converse
last rites of Christian friendship. and pleasing manners; he continued to
« Borrius was most assiduous in per. shew' his accustomed hilarity of counte- forming the daily office of prayers for the nance, and to manifest the same courteous and gentle disposition,—while he ceased
At length, on the nine
dying saint. not to approach to God with most ardent
teenth day of October, about noon, after prayers for himself and for the concord fulfilled all the duties of his warfare, had
this faithful servant of God had valiantly of the church of Christ. How frequent finished his course, had fought the good and how fervent were the ejaculations fight, and had kept the faith,—with his which he breathed forth to Jesus Christ his Lord, under the pressure of his mul
eyes lifted up to heaven, amidst the eartiplied pains and distempers! What hea
nest prayers of those who were present,
he calmly_rendered up his spirit unto venly joys did he promise to himself! With what persevering faith did he expect his
Redeemer, and to the Holy Ghost his
God the Father his Creator, to the Son and long for the last day which he would Sanctifier, while
each of the spectators exbe permitted to spend upon earth! If his claimed, O my soul
, let me die
the death brethren knelt down to prayer in his pre- of the righteous! In this placid manner sence, and if he were prevented from Arminius resigned his spirít, tired as it uniting with them in devotion on account
was of the cares of this world, and satiated of the strong pains which at that instant assailed him, he often desired them to
with toils and afflictions ;-but it had bewait till he had recovered from the pas already favoured with a blessed foretaste
gun greatly to long for its liberation, was roxysm and regained his composure, that he might with them discharge this solemn
of the joys of the saints, and seemed to
behold Christ its God and its Redeemer." and fraternal duty. “ The following are a few of the many
Arminius, p. 46.
His will was found to testify to an obstruction in the optic nerve of the that for which his life was resigned, left eye, which produced great dimness.” his desire to understand, advance, A formidable catalogue, but all now well and propagate, according to his known to attend that one primary and knowledge (for we are neither ad. not unfrequent accompaniment of a broken vocating nor refuting his doctrinal beart.
system), Christian truth, piety, and One of the more amusing efforts of holiness. The following is an extract his posthumous adversaries was ANAGRAM- from this document. MATISING his name for his epitaph, and making JACOBUS ARMINIUS into VANI “ Above all, I commend my soul, on ORBIS AMICUS : which his friends at least its departure out of the body, into the matched by converting Jacobus HARMI. hands of God, who is its Creator and nts into HABUI CURAM SIONIS.
faithful Saviour; before whom also I tesCHRIST. OBSERV, No. 810.
tify, that I have walked with simplicity, if we were to proceed into the merits and sincerity, and in all good conscience,'
of those doctrinal questions which in my office and vocation; that I have guarded with the greatest solicitude and seem too big for suppression at this care, against advancing or teaching any moment, we should say, that both thing, which, after a diligent search into these divines were led into the nothe Scriptures, I had not found exactly to velties of their system, by the overagree with those sacred records ; all the doctrines advanced by me, have been whelming dread they felt at the such as might conduce to the propagation excessive and perverted uses of the and increase of the truth of the Christian doctrine of election. These were religion, of the true worship of God, of such as to overlay the simple, unsoamong men, -and such as might contri- phisticated and scriptural generalibute, according to the word of God, to a ties of Germanic, Helvetic, or Belgic state of tranquillity and peace well be- Confessions. They were such these benefits I have excluded the Papacy, justly to be described as “needing with which no unity of faith, no bond of
a toleration, far more than the most piety or of Christian peace, can be pre- palpable anti-Calvinism of their opserved.” Arminius, pp. 45, 46.
ponents." They were often summed Thus have we done what justice up in a few crude particulars, which Mr. Nichols, we presume, would re- some advocates of those days hoquire of us; that which we consider nestly avowed, or openly asserted, also the debt of truth to his hero as the necessary results of their Arminius. We rank him very high doctrine. And when positions the in placing him, not merely above most revolting (such as those which his enemies in temper, for that were
made God more or less the author small praise; but in placing him of fore-ordained sin, and man more among the peace-makers, to the best or less the helpless victim of foreof his ability, and the peace-lovers. ordained punishment), were susHe was a courageous and unflinch- tained by metaphysics the most ing confessor of what he deemed to contemptible (such as severed the be truth: but it was in a spirit of justice of God from His mercy), humility, and in the meek abiding these real philosophers, and their of Christian eharity. In doctrine followers, could not but remonstrate shall we place him low, if we place against such abuses.— They remonhim much on a level with his exact predecessor in age, the melancholy deed beyond them all. I add, that, with and interesting Melanchthon? We regard to what belongs to common places, believe the points of resemblance his Institutes must be read after the Catebetween them will be found greater But to all this
I subjoin the remark, that
chism, as a more ample interpretation. than is ordinarily supposed *. And, they must be perused with cautious choice,
like all other human compositions.” ArmiParticularly, and very remarkably we nius, pp. 295, 296.- Is this thy voice, Armight say, in their general approbation, minius? Even so! in a letter dated May 3, use, and even profound admiration of Cal- 1607, not two years before his death. vin's works, and Calvin's mind.-“ After Hooker might say the same. But the mothe holy Scriptures (the perusal of which dern anti-Calvinist would hold it unfit to I earnestly inculcate more than any other praise Calvin for a preface, or even for bis person, as the whole university as well well known elegant Latin. See Dean Kipas the consciences of my colleagues will ling. We need not speak of Melanchthon in testify), I exhort the students to read this particular, whose later agreement, nethe Commentaries of Calvin, on whom I vertheless, with Arminius's views on elecbestow higher praise than Helmichius tion seems well nigh admitted on all bands. ever did, as he confessed to me himself. Arminius has stated the whole question of For 'I tell them, that he is incomparable election thus : “Do we believe because we in the interpretation of Scripture; and have been elected?” or, “ Are we elected that his Commentaries ought to be held in because we believe ?" How delightful the greater estimation, than all that is deli- knowledge of those questions now posvered to us in the writings of the ancient sessed by such spirits as those of Calvin, Christian fathers : so that, in a certain Arminius, and Melanchthon, whilst they eminent spirit of prophecy, 1 give the pre- clasp inseparable hands with joy and eminence to him beyond most others, int. bliss in one measure for ever!”
strated, it is true; but, it is to be more distinguished cure of Waltham, feared, too much on their own part under the patronage of the Earl of in that very spirit of philosophy which Norwich. This he entered as Dr. they had learned from the others; Hall in 1612: having previously skir, and thus, by little and little, devi- mished with the sect of the Brownists, ated into doctrines of an opposite who had of course a branch in troubled nature, and no less derogatory to the Holland, and having been taken up Divine Being, As the mere philo- by one Smith, whom Hall addresses, sopbic Calvinist thus tended towards and who, our biographer states, Manicheism, so the philosophic Ar" advanced and maintained the doctrines minian thus tended towards Pelagian of free-will and universal redemption, and and Socinian heresies; both, pro
similar tenets, afterwards espoused by
Arminius.” Hall, p. 55. perly considered, the result of irreverently or philosophically tampering
We have seen our Doctor at this with the mysteries of Revelation. time introduced to Royal favour by Explanations and defences of Divine his acquaintance with Prince Henry mysteries we have always thought at Richmond. In allusion to this his to be most bazardous, and never own narrative continues :more so than in treating of God's “ In the second year of mine attendance predestination. Simply to prove on his Highness, when I came for my disthat solemn doctrine from the de. mission from that monthly service, it clarations of Scripture is a course
pleased the prince to command me
longer stay; and, at last, upon mine of a very different tendency: and is allowed departure, by the mouth of Sir guarded at once by the undoubted Thomas Challoner, his governor, to tender fact, that unlimited mercy and con
unto me a motion of more honour and fa'ditional salvation (we use the phrase that it was his Highness' pleasure and
vour than I was worthy of: which was, for want of a better--not as altoge- purpose, to have me continually resident ther admiring it) are equally capable at the court as a constant attendant, while of demonstration from the same re
the rest held on their wonted vicissitudes : cords. If Calvinists had confined obtain for me such preferments as should
for which purpose, his Highness would themselves to this one ground of yield me full contentment. I returned my argument, we question much if they humblest thanks, and iny readiness to sawould ever have been shaken from crifice myself to the service of so gracious their once secure possession of the
a master; but, being conscious to myself
of my unanswerableness to so great exentire territory of the glorious Refor- pectation, and loath to forsake so dear mation. And if Arminius had ab- and noble a patron, who had placed much stained from his "twenty” meta
of his heart on me, I did modestly put physical reasons against, in answer
it off, and held close to my Waltham :
where, in a constant course, I preached a to the twenty metaphysical reasons long time, as I had done also at Halstead for, the suspected doctrine, we before, thrice in the week; yet never durst doubt if he would ever have fallen 1 climb into the pulpit to preach any sera premature victim to the rage of mon whereof I had not before, in my poor party, or dragged his few high- the same order wherein I hoped to deliver minded and independent associates it ; although, in the expression, I listed into ultimate proscription and ruin. not to be a slave to syllables." Hall, pp. Whilst the friends of Arminius were
57, 58. with tears of unavailing regret mark- The twenty-two years during ing his peaceful flight beyond the which Dr. Hall held this living, region of this lower and turbulent saw him successively Prebendary of atmosphere, and exclaiming with Wolverhampton, with more honour Bertius, in the language of Scripture, than emolument it would appear; “My father, my father, the chariots three times engaged in foreign traof Israel and the horsemen thereof!” vel under royal orders ; and finally the pious good humoured Hall was Dean of Worcester. This last dig. about, as we have seen, to exchange nity followed as a kind of recomthe obscurity of Halsted for the pense for his first expedition in atdiot) stosus 624 Review of the Life and Times of Arminius and Bishop Hall. [Oct. tendance on Lord Viscount Don- Royal command, was that in which caster, ambassador to France in
we are at present more immediately 1617, which ended very disastrously concerned; namely, his expedition in to the bodily feelings of our divine, company with Bishop Carleton of in a dysentery; and, to convey him Llandaff; Dr. Davenant, Margaret, home,
Professor and Master of Queen's
College, Cambridge; Dr. Ward, “A litter was provided; but of so littlo ease, that Simeon's penitential lodging, or
Master of Sydney College, and a malefactor's stocks, had been less penal.
Archdeacon of Taunton, to attend I crawled down from my close chamber in King James's name the Synod of into that carriage: In quá videbaris mihi Dort. That King James, who had efferri, tanquam in sandapila, as Mr. Moulin wrote to me afterward. Hall, p. 65.
just before insulted at once the laws
or God and man by his blasphemous His second expedition was, im- Book of Sunday Sports; that he mediately afterwards, to Scotland, who had long since, under his own on the fruitless progress of King favourite motto, “ No bishop, no James; fruitless, except in the dis- king!” cried down every thing, not grace of broken commands and only Presbyterian in discipline, but slighted authority; from which Dr. Puritan in doctrine, and (we had Hall made a speedy and rather ques- almost said) really pious in practice; tionable retreat, on the excuse of and whose favour, like that of his his services being not required north son Charles, mainly displayed itself of Edinburgh, -but, perhaps, be- for the anti-Calvinist part of his cause they had been more accept- clergy ;-that King James should able throughout to the pious Scotch, have felt any burst of sudden and disthan to the worldly James. On this interested zeal in behalf of principles expedition, James proclaimed his ill. strictly Calvinistic and Presbyterian, fated Book of Sports, for the em- such as were in preparation for the ployment of the Sunday upon en- approaching National Synod of the lightened anti-puritanical principles: Dutch Churches, is an hypothesis on which, in conjunction with many to which happily we need not resort, other measures of those times of for the explanation of his complaigathering,' it were only needful for sant mission to that Synod. The us to say, that they seemed the circumstances of the whole transacresult of infatuation. We are, in- tion, from first to last, were political. deed, entirely released from the King James was too wary, as well necessity of saying more, by the as self-sufficient a politician, not to seasonable silence of our worthy accept the flattering and important bishop on the same subject : in all invitation from the master spirit of whose works
the Dutch Republic: and the tem" we find no allusion to, or any remarks per of the divines sent by him, as made upon, this declaration for sports. The well as of his instructions given, good bishop probably passed over such a clearly prove his intention from the violation of God's law in silence, out of first to have been not opposition, but respect, and from obedience, to the powers that be for conscience' sake. But it would acquiescence; not discussion, but have been well, if he had left us a testi- decision. mony of his decided disapprobation of such A short return must here be made a violation of the Sabbath; or that he had to the circumstances of Holland written purposely on the morality of the after Arminius's death. About this Lord's day." Hall, pp. 143, 144.
period, or rather before, in 1608, We have to thank our biographer we meet with a very significant for very large extracts from Harris's historical notice in Brandt, which Charles I. and James I. on this and we shall give in his words, as a sort other subjects.
of key to all that followed. The The third expedition of our rising United Provinces, be it observed, and courtly divine, undertaken by were still struggling with their foreign
enemies, the Spaniards. Prince sides, when not suited with teachers Maurice, son to the late immortal to their mind in the church. He » Prince of Orange, was the com- becomes the Cromwell of the party; mander of their troops. The States with only this distinction, that neiGeneral accomplished a truce with ther at first not last does evidence their enemies for the space of twelve appear with respect to his religious years; under the hope that final tenets, that he knew either what he pacification, without more of blood. said or whereof he affirmed. His shed and confusion, would be the ruling passion was ambition; his law result. “ This truce,” says Brandt, the sword. His plan was, war to “ brought about chiefly by the ma. extermination against all the enenagement of the Heer John Van mies of the Republic, and it was Olden. BARNEVELT, advocate of generally understood with the view Holland, contrary to the mind of of placing himself at its head. If Prince Maurice, General of the report says true, he died in the same States' troops, occasioned a coldness resemblance to Cromwell in which between them; which in time gave
he lived. a handle to the most violent of the
“ In a letter which Episcopius address clergy, who had long before looked ed to Taurinus in 1641, he incidentally
mentions a curious circumstance about the upon the advocate as an enemy of spiritual consolation which Bogerman adthe church, to turn their faces to ministered to a sick man. I recollect to wards that prince, and to court his have read in an account of a conversation protection.' The plain sense of
which Bogerman held with Prince Maurice this passage is this:
during his illness, that the sick prince ecclesiastical
asked him, • How can those passages of affairs now began to take a secular Scripture which promise grace and pardon turn. The baleful and deadly leaven to penitents, apply to me, since I do not of politics mingled with the pure, repentance or contrition ?". Bogerman
discover within myself any of that serious primitive, and reformed Christianity. replied, "Do you not feel within yourself The mild, blameless, and patriotic a willingness or wish to repent?!-- When Barnevelt, the beau ideal of all his. the Prince said, that he certainly had a torical portraiture at once, from the feeling of that kind, Bogerman rejoined,
• This wish to be able to repent, is an infalintegrity of his life and the tragedy lible token of REGENERATION.” Arminius, of his death, had embraced Armi- p. 444. nian sentiments. He, with the We say resemblance only to States General at large, leaned to Cromwell in a similar case ; for the the principles of Arminius, who de- attempt of Mr. Nichols to fasten on ferred all to their authority in ec- this sentiment the charge of abusing clesiastical polity, the calling of the doctrine of“ final perseverance, Synods, the confirmation of church utterly fails. There is no allusion Or, if other reasons at all to the doctrine,
once in there were, yet this was reason grace, always in grace:" but rather enough, for Prince Maurice declar- an ineffective appeal to an Arminian ing himself a Calvinist. These were principle, that repentant desires are evidently the strongest, most nu- a good token on a dying bed. The merous, and influential religious eagerness of Mr. Nichols in this party. And, after declaring him- hunt after Calvinism, is indeed quite self, very truly, rude in religious amusing. And his contre-point of knowledge, bred in camps, and the zealous Bogerman, throughout, wholly unused to the schools, he really reminds us of the old proverb, throws himself, with his whole weight
“ Two of a trade never agree.” of arts and arms into the scale of “ Clodius accusat mæchos, Catilina Cethe Calvinists (Gomarists, we should thegum." say); and even, to shew his consist- We should feel little disposed, ency, attends the little assemblies even had we the time and space, to of that persuasion, according to the enter into the political intrigues then independent fashion of both which occupied the whole ensuing