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state of things did not justify his Pharaoh, pressed by the plagues, conduct, Pharaoh might think it tried to compound the matter. At came very near to do it. He still one time be offered to let the men found them increase; and more ra- go, detaining the women and chilpidly than when leading the easy dren as hostages for their return. life of shepherds. Under apprehen- He proposed that they should sacrision of the scenes that might follow fice and keep the feast in the land. a great increase of their numbers, While Moses readily complied with soured as they were by his change Pharaoh's request to remove the of policy towards them, he was plagues, he abated not one whit of wrought up to the cruel purpose his first demand ; but rather rose of destroying their male children. than fell in it. He declared that they

The thing was cruel ; but, while must take their families, their flocks it cannot be too strongly con- and herds, with them; that they demned, we ought in all reason to would not leave one hoof behind. recollect, that the exposing of in- It did not admit of a doubt, that fants has been done by many na- they had no intention to return to tions. The polished Greeks and slavery. They were for being free. Romans, until Christianity put a Might not Pharaoh have feared, stop to it, often exposed their own that Moses had in view to keep children. The same is done now by them for awhile in the wilderness, pagan nations in the East. Pha--provide them with arms,-train raoh was a Pagan, and his conduct them to military service, and then towards the infants of Israel was return to Egypt with his six hun: not worse than others have ob- dred thousand slaves, transformed served towards their own. There into warriors, breathing vengeance is a tribe in Hindostan who for ages for their supposed wrongs? And have destroyed their female chil- may not a mistaken notion of his dren, and, if I am rightly informed, own safety have urged him to redo it now.

sist the demand? Moses did what was right, and Or, admitting that Moses inacted by Divine direction : this tended to lead them to Canaan, needs pot however prevent us from might not Pharaoh have really conreflecting how Pharaoh, a Pagan, cluded that the scheme was little would naturally view his conduct. short of madness? To attempt with Moses was saved from death by a nation of slaves, without arms, the daughter of Pharaoh: he was without any experience in war, educated at court, and in the very without provisions, to cross the best manner. Soon after he was desert and attempt to dispossess the grown up, he was found interfering seven nations of Canaan, amounting with the policy of the government to perhaps ten times their number; towards the Hebrews. He fled, a warlike people, well armed, with and remained abroad until the a country filled with towers and death of the king. But the new cities “ walled up to heaven!” was king was hardly seated on the there ever such an attempt? A man throne, before he re-appeared, and, in Moses' situation, educated in being joined by the leading men expectation of a throne, might be among the Hebrews, presented him- willing to attempt any thing, raself at court, and demanded that ther than live in obscurity. Ought Israel should be allowed to go three Pharaoh to let a people under his days' journey into the wilderness to authority be led on such an errand? sacrifice. The man, the time, the Might he not think it was his duty, manner, as well as the demand, in kindness to them, to keep them were all likely to offend Pharoah, where they were, and to give them It is not needful to go over what enough to eat and wear and do ? took place at the several interviews. And might he not think that all their talk about being free, and come to give all up, not to bear a part plaining about their work, was pro- of the loss, and they the rest-he duced by the intermeddling of was to bear the whole ! We can Moses and Aaron? It really ap- easily conceive how Pharaoh might pears to me that he might happen have persuaded himself, that to to take up notions of that kind; lose so much property, and be deand feel not a little provoked at prived of all his labourers,--and Moses and Aaron, for spreading have to set his own people to all discontent anong his slaves. the hard work in the city, and in

But there were still other diffi- the field, to which they were not culties. The Hebrews formed the accustomed, was really rather too great body of labourers in his king. much. dom. Moses insisted on taking He might very possibly have them all off, on the same day. thought, that if it was wrong at What a state of things this was first to enslave the Hebrews, he at calculated to produce in his king- least was not to blame for it ; that dom! Would it not ruin it? And it was done long before he was would it not ruin the Hebrews ? born; that he found them in slaThey had been raised in slavery very, and held them as property: been unfit for self-government. He that the whole habits of the Egyphad found it necessary to employ tians was such now, that the evil overseers, and even to call in the of slavery was a kind of necessary aid of the scourge_ to overcome evil; that they could not do withtheir idle habits. For a people out it; and that it was hard to with such habits, to be turned free make him pay for the faults of his all at once! might not Pharaoh fore-fathers, and to give up, what think it would ruin them ?---that he had received as property by they could not govern themselves ? inheritance.

that they would starve ? and There is another point deserving think that kindness to them would notice. Natural and personal rights forbid turning them loose, as Moses were not then so well understood demanded ?

as now, Perhaps few, if any, then But we have no reason to think maintained the doctrines, that perthat Pharaoh was wholly without sonal“ liberty is an unalienable regard to the value of property. right,” which no man has a warThe Hebrews, as his labourers and rant either to take or withhold artificers, were very valuable pro- from us, under the plea of a right of perty. There were 600,000 labour- property. Less was given to Pharaoh, ing men, besides the women and as to knowledge, than to us, and children. From their doubling in less was therefore to be expected. less than fifteen years, there must As to the supposition that the have been a great many children. miracles wrought made Pharaoh It will be a moderate calculation, to altogether inexcusable in refusing suppose that the men above the age to comply with the demand, I adof twenty, formed one-fourth of the mit it. But is it not equally true whole. There were then three mil. that those plagues, while they prove Jions in all. Estimate these at God's displeasure against Pharaoh three hundred dollars a piece, it and the Egyptians for enslaving amounts to 720,000,000 dollars : Israel, go directly to prove the not to mention their cattle, and general truth, that all who enslave other property, which were very others, or hold them forcibly in valuable. Now, is it to be won- slavery, do what is offensive to dered at, that Pharaoh felt reluc- God ? Pharaoh

pertant to lose so much property ? suaded himself that Moses wrought Nothing was said about buying his miracles by magic. Pharaoh their freedom. He was required was an ignorant Pagan. We be

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lieve that God wrought the mi- fòrgiving." In like manner the racles ; and the general truth is verbs, increase and decrease, have plain, God hates oppression. the accent on the last syllable; but.

-To conclude my apology, which if we contrast them, we remove the is much too long, I repeat that I accent to the first syllable. fully believe that Pharaoh did wrong

man's riches must increase or dè. in enslaving Israel-in persevering crease." in it; and that, however plausible his This is perfectly correct. But excuses, they availed nothing. The some readers of the Liturgy seem thing was wrong. He only added to mistake juxta-position for antisin to sin, and made matters worse thesis, and extend the rule beyond by his delay. The event proved its legitimate application. Hence that it would have been better for we hear, “ Give us this day our Egypt never to have enslaved daily bread; and forgive us our Israel. It would have been better trespasses". “ That it may please to have given up this state at any thee to give us true repentance: to one time that could be named; for forgive us all our sins"_“We bless not only did they go out, but they thee for our creation, préservation;" spoiled the Egyptians; and the at- in which places the words “forgive,” tempt to force them back, involved “ creation," “ preservation," should the whole army, with Pharaoh at its be read with the natural accent, head, in ruin. All this is admitted. though a little lingering on the Yet I say, Egyptian slavery was not syllables pre, ser, will naturally be 80 hard as some other cases of sla- made by a reader who has a good very ;-and Pharaoh's excuses are, ear to prevent a jingle in the sound. I think, better than what have satis- Allied to this misplacing of accent fied, and now satisfy, many. is a very common misapplication of

emphasis, which owes its origin to the authority of Dr. Johnson, who

observed, that the Commandments, Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. being prohibitions, the emphasis

should be laid on the word not. Permit me, through the medium The rule is evidently wrong. Had of your paper, to call the attention

one of these Commandments stood of the clergy to a method of read- alone, and been a reply to an avowed ing certain portions of our excellent purpose of doing the thing which it Liturgy, which, though violating forbids, the emphasis would have just taste, is adopted by many under been properly placed on the negathe idea of superior correctness. tive. To the man who should say,

Some writers on grammar and “ I will steal," the answer would elocution, among them Murray and rightly have been, Thou shalt not Walker, have very justly observed, steal. But in the Decalogue we that a transposition of the accent is have a series of probibitions; and sometimes required when two words, therefore the emphasis is not to be which have a sameness in part of laid on the negative, which is comtheir formation, are opposed to each mon to all, but on the thing speciother in sense. For example, as fied in each, and by which it is dissingle words, we pronounce “in- tinguished from the rest. If the justice," “ forgiving," --- with the word "not" is to be emphatic in the accent on the penultima; but if we Seventh, Eighth, and Ninth Commean to contrast them with their mandments, why not the word “nòr" opposites, we then place the accent in the Tenth;“ndr bisservant, nòr his on the first syllable. Thus we say, maid, nòr his ox,” &c. ; yet I never “ Neither justice nor injustice has heard any read so, except ill-taught to do with the question.' “There children saying their catechism. is a difference between giving and Nor do I ever remember hearing a be upon


clergyman read, “Thou shalt do nò amply abundant for the parishioners. murder;" yet the Sixth Command. Moreover, the commissioners were ment also is a prohibition, and, by Dr. formed into a body corporate for Johnson's rule, the emphasis should building new churches in populous

towns and districts, destitute of AN ADMIRER OF THE LITURGY. church room. It should seem there.

fore, that to interfere in parishes not populous, and where there

is ample church accommodation, Tothe Editorofthe Christian Observer. would be to enter on a sphere of

operation never assigned to them; In reference to the recent act for and as the recent Act repeals none building churches, alluded to in of the former connected with popuyour last Number, an opinion has lation, &c. I should consider it as been taken up by many, and by involving rather a transfer of right some in authority, that the clause to sanction the building of chapels, cited by your correspondent is un- and a change of the previous steps limited in its application, and that necessary for such a measure, than any individual, without regard to a hasty and unnecessary invasion of church accommodation, may in any the privileges and spiritual duties of parish erect a chapel for himself the legal incumbent. The opinion and neighbours, in defiance of the of some able civilian on this point incumbent, provided only the com- might remove much uncertainty of missioners are satisfied with the no inconsiderable moment to the endowment. That the legislature peace and harmony of the members should have had such a measure as of the Established Church. this in contemplation seems to me

A CONSTANT READER. incredible. They could not but be aware that an unnecessary division of a parish into sections would be a disruption of that bond of union


Editorofthe Christian Observer. which ought to subsist between the authorized minister and his people; It would be beside the object of and though, in cases of absolute ne- your publication, and tedious to cessity, where the want of accom- your readers, to prolong a discusmodation in the parish church is sion relative to the technical method notorious, they might deem it a of wording a charitable bequest. parámount duty to give every fa. The principle which I endeavoured cility for opening a way to enable to point out, in my former comevery man to worship God accord- munication, is fully recognized by ing to the rites of the national your correspondent Omega-namechurch, I cannot hastily believe ly, that in order to ensure the paythat they would sanction a measure ment of a charitable legacy, an exwhich might intersect a parish with press direction is requisite on the as many chapels as there were per- part of the testator, not only that it sons in it willing and competent to shall be paid out of his personal incyr the expense.

estate, applicable by law to the disI am the more disposed to take charge of such legacies, but that this view of the subject from the this portion of his property shall be title of the Act itself; “An Act, primarily applied to that purpose. &c. in POPULOUS parishes." If the Having called the attention of Act be to amend Acts relating to your readers to the defect of the populous parishes, it can have no forms of bequest usually recommendreference, it should seem, to parishes ed by benevolent institutions in this not populous; that is, I conceive, important respect, it would perhaps where the church accommodation is only be necessary for me to add, that recourse may be had either to ticular portion of those assets as the form prescribed by Omega, or recommended by Omega, is unnethat by myself, as may be most cessary. All that is required is, adapted to suit the general arrange- that the order of the distribution of ment of the particular testamentary the effects be expressly pointed out. disposition.

Now, the direction that such part For, with great deference to of the personal estate, as is by law Omega, I still think, the form sug- applicable to the payment of charigested by me is fully adequate to table legacies, shall, in the first place, the end proposed'; and that it will and before answering any other purprobably be more usually convenient pose whatsoever, be applied in satisthan Omega's form, both on ac. fying the bequests of this descripcount of its brevity and simplicity, tion, appears to me as definite and and because, as it does not affect clear as can be well imagined. the order of the several parts of the "I have to apologize for intruding will, it may be introduced into any again upon the patience of your part of it, or may be used as a readers. It is however important separate codicil.

that the principle contended for The whole of a testator's personal should be fully understood, and that assets immediately upon his death persons should feel confidence in vests by the act of law in the execu- using one or the other of the several tors, subject to the payment of the forms of bequest which have now debts and legacies; of course, there been recommended..

I. D. L. fore, a bequest to them, of any par


Life and Works of Arminius. By and impartiality in the HamptonJ. NICHOLS.

Court conference, whilst dealing Life and Times of Bishop Hall. By with his Calvinistic subjects, the Rev. J. JONES.

Puritans. He admitted their doc*(Continued from p. 558.)

trines, but persecuted their persons;

and by a series of harsh and ill-conWe left our two worthies at the be- cérted measures, in conjunction with ginning of the seventeenth century; the Anti-predestinarians, maddened Hall just entering on the rectory them, till he prepared them, in the of Halstead, where, under the re- reign of his successor, to sweep ligious despotism of James I., he away kings and bishops together, remained till 2612; and Arminius and our venerable friend Hall in his pastoral charge at Amster- amongst the number. From such dam, but now become, by reason of a fearful national catastrophe, our his treatment of the Predestinarian Dutch neighbours were in part question, " a man of strife and con- rescued by the poverty of the tention to the whole earth.” Little Arminians in numbers and strength, did the new century, temporally and their consequent necessary subconsidered, promise of good to mission to every measure of supeither. King James, though hold- pression and expulsion against their ing Hall in honour, and soon about leaders. to send him in 1618, to assist the We pursue our notice, first, of Dort Synodists in Holland to put the further progress of Arminius. down the Arminians, yet, in 1603, was We left him pastor at Amsterdam. giving no proof of his own candour And happy had it been for himself,

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