« הקודםהמשך »
kingdom, and we all lived in perpetual (rather, such a certainty of losing some, exposure to their violence.-Ah, sir, every at least, of our comforts) that there was a one still loves his native land; the places kind of desperation, or despondency, or where his fathers lived; the trees, flowers, bitterness of soul, which made us often and animals : and I think with pleasure very, very wretched indeed. So, take all now even upon the dreadful snakes, be- things together,--our sunshine, and beaucause they belong to my country. God tiful trees, and rich fruits, were nothing to made our part of Africa such as any man us, when Slavery was like to be our porinight love. The sky is not there con- tion. It puts me in mind of a story, sir, stantly covered with cold clouds, and al- you used to read me, of a certain man ways dropping with rain ; though we had who sat at a rich feast, but with a sword our rainy seasons ; but, then, they were over his head, hanging by a single hair. more regular, and we knew when to expect England is indeed cold, too cold; but, them. The sun there does not bathe its then, no man here fears his neighbour. beams in mists and fogs, but pours its Here are no slave-merchants. Every poor kindly heat on all things : and you can't man knows that no one dare steal away imagine how fast it makes the plants grow. his wife and little child; and he loves his The wide-spreading trees give cool shades, home, and children, and wife, because superior-but you will smile at me-to they are his own; and he works to give the finest palaces I ever saw in Europe. them bread; and he loves them because All was delightful, except the curse of this he works for them, and works for them beSlave Trade; and that broke in upon all cause he loves them: and so his love our comforts. The country was made grows. But I am forgetting myself. miserable by incessant treacheries. We My wife bore a son, lived three months, knew not whom to trust, and some of our and died. The child-we called him chiefs, who carried on a brisk commerce Quasheem-grew a fine boy; and, having in this way, were always entangling us, no mother, lay in my bosom every night; and enticing us into what they made crimes, and when I went out I carried him with in order to have an excuse for selling us me. Ah! I loved him, and be loved me! into bondage. They first made us bad, --Poor little boy! is he with his mother, and then punished us for being so. I do in the quiet resting-place where I laid her; not say that we otherwise lived in inno- and where I often carried her boy to visit
No; far, very far from it! We her grave! It was in the depth of the were like the rest of mankind, and sin- wood where she was laid. I wish I knew ned in our own way; but-I hope, sir, that my son were safely sleeping beside you will excuse my saying so I do not her, out of the reach of the slave-merchant. think that we were at all worse than you Ah, my little Quashee! since my darkness in this country; and especially when I I have thought of him, and fancied I had take into the account, that you are all liv- him again in my arms—but I know not ing under the light of the Gospel, and we where he is!' had never so much as heard of the name “ I remember that at this part of the of Jesus Christ. I do not mean to say story Cæsar spoke in broken accents, that English people commit exactly the paused, wiped his sightless eyes; and, same enormities that we did; for, as I said suddenly taking his violin, drew the bow before, different nations have their own over the strings, producing at first a conways of sinning; but the amount of actual fusion of discordant notes, which by de. guilt may be precisely the same. In short, grees ceased to grate upon the ear, and I used to say to myself, What are these were succeeded by an exceedingly pathetic Christians the better for all their churches, strain, consisting but of few notes, but reand good books and complaining also, as minding me of one of the pensive airs in they do, of the wickedness of the Blacks! Handel--for they also breathe the language
However, let me go on with my of nature. He repeated the air several own story. I married. Benneba was very times; and it seemed, by a kind of mysyoung when I took her to my house. We terious connection with the days of my lived happily for a year or two-the hap- own childhood, to carry me back to the piest time of my life-and had one child. Lagoon. Yet I could not have decidedly I have tried to live those days over again said that I ever heard it before. since. People say that Negroes have not « • There—there, sir,' said Cæsar, as the same feelings as the Whites. But he laid down bis instrument that is the how could our little ones be reared, if we tune which Benneba used to sing
her had not the same natural love as other babe! I often play it when I am quite parents have ? Even little Black children alone; and it brings all my conntry before cannot be reared like the lambs and me. It is an old African tune, and used calres of the field. Yet--this cruel Slave by mothers to lull their infants to sleep. Trade!-one of its fruits was, that African It comforts me sometimes to play this fathers and mothers were almost forced, tune; but it oftener makes me unhappyas it were, not to care so much about their it tells me of joys never to come again ! offspring, when they knew that they might When my boy was five years old, I took be sold for slaves. Indeed, there used to him out one day by the river-side, thinkbe among us such a feeling of insecurity ing to catch some fish. We strolled to
wards one of the water-falls, where the fiercer, tribe than many others : so his bushes were thick. I wanted a bamboo disease was exasperated by his violence. for my fishing tackle, and left the child Before the illness came on, we had acamong the bushes, telling him to stay there commodated each other, by governing our till I had found the bamboo. The cata. motions so as to suit both; and so far ract made a loud roaring, which might be escaped injury—that is, escaped this kind heard from far. I pushed my way among of injury; for otherwise, as I have beard the bushes, and saw a boat, or canoe, at church, the iron entered into our souls ! falling down the stream towards where I But when my poor comrade, in fits of had left my son, and carrying a crew of pain, gave convulsive starts and twitches, ill-looking men, one of them seated at the and sometimes wrenching himself as one stern, and gently directing their course possessed with an unclean spirit, he sorely with a paddle. I started back; but it was lacerated both himself and me! I used too late. In a moment they were on the to cry, and complain; but torture hears bank; for they had just caught a glance of no cries. I do not blame him-he was the me. In the space of five minutes I was worst sufferer-and then, we did not well pursued, seized, gagged, and laid at the understand each other's language; or rabottom of the canoe. I had struggled in- ther, what was more afflicting, I only undeed, and shrieked; but the noise of the derstood half of what he said, and so fall drowned my cries. So, happily for sometimes did exactly contrary to what him, the child did not hear me ; else he he meant; and then he was outrageous would have been captured too. As to with me, and, in defiance of the pain, myself, during the first surprise of my struggled, and tore, and raved-Oh the captivity, I was so bewildered that I know agonies of the days and nights spent in not what passed: perhaps I had been this terrible conflict-One night the Corostunned by being violently thrown into the mantee lay so quiet that I was compara.
But when I came a little to my- tively at ease ; and I supposed he was reself, my agonies about the child--left, for covering--all was still, and I slept-nature all that I knew, to perish, or to be en- indeed was worn out. On waking, I felt slaved-drove me almost to desperation. his side and limbs surprisingly cool, and They sent me to the coast, and I was im- said, all the fever is gone--but he was mediately put into the hold of a slave dead; and I was fettered hand and foot ship.--I shall not particularly describe the to a corpse!' terrors of the middle passage ; but, you “ This portion of Cæsar's story was may even now see the scars, through the told me when I was at school ; and I reholes in my stocking, and where the flesh collect shuddering at the account of his looks seamed and rugged. I will only tell being linked to a body of death. I cried one part of my sufferings at sea. I was out, And is it in this way that we get linked to a Coromantee Negro-not, ob- slaves ? and does my father know it?' » serve, my right hand and foot to his left pp. 17–24. ones, but across, so that we could not
It may be as well to inform our muve either hand or foot, but with great readers, lest they should accuse us caution and perfect consent * Well
, my of tantalizing them with a detached disease ; and his sufferings were not very extract, that Cæsar returns to the patiently borne, as I have seen others bear West Indies with our worthy planthem; for the Coromantees are a much ter, and finds his long lost son a
". In the slave-ship in which I after- slave on his estate. wards (1801) sailed from the Windward The writer pourtrays in no pleasCoast, this part of the practice was more ing colours the kind of society to humane ; but in the most inexorable systems of oppression there are shades of which he was introduced on his cruelty. The method mentioned in the arrival in the West Indies. He has text was used in Mr. Newton's time. See done well, in making so painful a his Thoughts upon the African Slave deposition, to take care that his cannot refer, without breathing an earnest charge is detached from the fictiwish that many of the admirers of Cardi- tious part of his narrative, and conphonia, Omicron, and the Olney Hymns, veyed in the words of authentic would also study the subject of Slavery writers; writers, we may add, friendly under their justly venerated master. What he says about his own connection with the to the colonies and their system. Let trade, and his subsequent self-abhorrence,
our readers listen to their averments. is quite applicable to such religionists, in “ In proceeding to paint the moral these days, as refuse honestly to examine state of the West Indies, I shall begin by the anti-slavery question ; and content describing the character and manners of themselves with a guilty, neutrality; or, the White inhabitants; and, to obviate the what is more serious, with a hostile feel. prejudice naturally created against myself ing against the abolitionists."
as an abolitionist, and which would of
course hesitate to receive my own depo- conditions as kept mistresses. The fact. sitions, I shall call to the witnesses' bar is too notorious to be concealed or conMr. Stewart, and other deponents of the troverted.--That this system ought to be same unexceptionable class. Mr. Stewart utterly abolished, I most readily admit. writes : “ The most gross and open licen- But by whom is a reform to be begun ciousness continues (1821) to prevail and accomplished? It can hardly be examong all ranks of the Whites. The males, pected, I think, from the objects of onr of course, are exclusively meant. Every present inquiries ; who are conscious of unmarried White man, and of every class, no vices which their Christian instructors has his Black or his Brown mistress, have not taught them.'” pp. 74–76. with whom he lives openly: and of so After describing the splendid trolittle consequence is this thought, that his pical scenery of some of the Westit no breach of decoram to visit his India Islands, our author adverts to house, fondle his children, and converse the conflicting emotions which arise with his housekeeper--as if that conduct, in the mind, from contrasting the which they regarded as disgraceful in beauties and sublimities of inanimate their own class, was not so in the female of colour. The example of a few ladies
nature, with the moral desolations of a juster way of thinking has little weight which darken and deforna it. in discountenancing this levelling sort of “How is the glory of the land darkfamiliarity. But the most striking proof ened by the influence of slavery! The of the low estimate of moral obligation very first night of my journey, as I was here, is the fact, that the man who lives sleeping at a house embosomed in the in open adultery-that is, who keeps his loveliest scenery, I was awaked, at midBrown or Black mistress, in the very face night, by a great tumult, as of arms, with of bis wife and family and of the commu- cries of women and children. In a few nity-has generally as much outward re- minutes a private servant came to my speet shewn him, and is as much counte- window, and informed me, that it was nanced, visited, and received into com- the marshal's deputies making a levy on pany, especially if he be a man of some the Negroes, and that the noise proceeded weight and influence in the community, as from the clashing of weapons ; for some if he had been guilty of no breach of de- of the slaves, he said, had stoutly resisted. cency! If a gentleman pays his addresses I then alarmed my host, and we deterto a lady, it is not thought necessary, as mined to go out. By the time we arrived a homage to her delicacy, to get rid, a at the Negro-houses the resistance had priori, of his illicit establishment; nor is ceased; for the Negroes, being divided, the lady so unreasonable as to expect such had been overcome. Many of the men a sacrifice: the Brown lady remains in the escaped from the property'; and a few house till within a few days of the mar- others, with some women, secreted themrige, and, if she is of an accommodating selves among the coffee trees, till the party disposition, even assists in making prepa had gone off with their prey. They serations for the reception of the bride ; in cured, however, ten or twelve men, and which case there may be a tolerably good many of the women and children; amountunderstanding between them, and the ing in the whole to between thirty and wife may even condescend to take in good forty; who were huddled together on the part the occasional calls, inquiries, and outside of the principal fence, and preproffered services of the ex-favourite, and sented such a heart-rending scene as I make suitable returns of kindness to her never witnessed before. Some of the and her children.' - Among the Ne- children had lost their mothers; and groes, says Dr. Williamson, • licentious some of the mothers had been torn away appetites are promiscuously gratified; and from a part of their children-for some of the truth requires that it should not be the little ones also escaped. One woman, concealed, the Whites on estates follow in particular—a house-woman-had six the same habits, on many occasions, to or seven children : two or three of them 8 greater extent. Black or Brown mis- were seized, and the others escaped ; but tresses are considered necessary append- the youngest, an infant, had been caught; ages to every establishment: even a young and she
wept aloud and very bitterly, book-keeper, coming from Europe, is ge- saying, that she must give up berself if nerally instructed to provide himself; and, the child was not got back, for she could however repugnant may seem the idea at not live separated from it. Most of the first, his scruples are overcome, and he men were sullen, and only wanted arms conforms to general custom.'
- The ac- to obtain their freedom from the savage cusation generally brought,' says Bryan Whites and their associates, who now Edwards, ' against the free People of guarded them. As it was, two or three Colour, is the incontinency of their of the poor fellows were wounded. They women ; of whom such as are young, and were tied together or hand-cuffed, and have tolerable persons, are universally driven off the same morning to Spanishmaintained by White men of all ranks and Town gaol. The same kind of incident CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 307.
occurred to Mr. Bickell; and I record my the Bishop, 'was a final period put at once own adventure almost in his words." pp. to a most interesting and important sub82-84.
ject; and the spiritual condition of near We have several times had occa- half a million of Negro slaves decided in sion to advert to the reserve of the four hours. That the particular plan offered conductors of the Society for the provement, and that a better might be
to the Society might stand in need of imPropagation of the Gospel, in re. substituted in its room, is very probable. ference to the slaves on their plan- I would have given my hearty vote for any
It tations. We are glad to find that wiser plan in preference to my own.
was not the mode, it was the measure I this subject also has arrested the had at heart. That no other plan should attention of Mr. Riland; and we be adopted or proposed, nor any one eftrust that the friends of the society fectual measure taken for the conversion will be induced to institute a full in- and salvation of near 300 slaves, who were quiry into it. Mr. Riland furnishes the Bishop's own italics— society, did, I
the immediate property of a religious 'the following statements.
own, a little surprise me.'-Hodgson's “ The Society for the Propagation of Life of Porteus, 1813. p. 88. But the very the Gospel hold plantations in Barbadoes last Report of this institution is very ununder the devise of Colonel Codrington. satisfactory. It contains no statement of On this very estate Mr. Coleridge* found, what has been received from the toil of in 1825, a lriver! An extraordinary apology the Society's slaves, neither of any expenfor the retention, by a Christian corpora- diture in their favour. We find indeed tion, of an estate worked under the whip, that Messrs. Daniel and Trattle (who are is offered by Edwards, who says :— They these?) have paid in 35421. ; but from what are induced, from the purest and best mo- sources is not recorded. In the synopsis tives, to purchase occasionally a certain of the Society's missionaries, catechists, number of Negroes, in order to divide the &c., the stations in Barbadoes are wholly work, and keep up the stock. They well omitted !--There is in the payments an know that moderate labour, unaccom- item, • Paid for a piece of plate voted to panied with that_wretched anxiety to Mr. F. Clarke, 1011. 4s. 6d.'” pp. 198, which the poor of England are subject, is 199. a state of comparative felicity,' &c. &c.I doubt whether, in 1793, a single mem- We must pass by Mr. Riland's ber of the society had the slightest know- remarks upon the inadequate numledge of the practice on the Codrington bers, and, to say the least, the inproperty. It is a question of some impor; efficient ministrations, of the insular tance, how far an association, instituted for the express purpose of diffusing Chris- clergy ; upon the want of schools tianity, is justified in putting into its trea- and churches; the general repug. sury the fruits of slave labour.- The So
nance exhibited to the instruction ciety, as might have been supposed, has of slaves; the torture of the driving made a vain effort, about fifty years ago, whip; the commercial inexpediency to stimulate this corporation to look into of slavery; the necessarily depraved the concerns of their trust-estate, in order moral condition of the slaves themto some plan for the general instruction of selves; the want of legal' sanction slaves; but all to uo purpose ! His attempt was discussed at a committee meeting to their marriages; the utter incomand in four hours rejected. • Thus,' says patibility of West-India slavery and
Christianity; the opposition made * Mr. Riland refers to the work entitled to missionaries; and numerous other “ Six Months in the West Indies," writ- important topics. We cordially wish ten by Mr. Coleridge, a nephew of the our author the blessing of God in his Bishop of Barbadoes.
Its merits have humane efforts to enlighten and ani. been already amply and gravely discussed in our pages; but if our younger readers mate his countrymen on a subject wish to know more of it, they may con- of such pressing moment; and we sult a lively and well-principled dialogue are quite convinced that, in a solemn just published, entitled, “The Young review of his labours as a minister Logicians, or School. Boy Conceptions of Right and Wrong, with a Particular Re- of Christ, he will not regret those ference to Six Months in the West Indies. which he has exerted for the temPart the First.” It is, we believe, the pro. poral and eternal welfare of our enduction of a young writer, whose wit is slaved fellow-creatures in our coloto the full as good as Mr. Coleridge's, which has been so much lauded, while it nial possessions. is employed in an infinitely better cause.
LITERARY AND PHILOSOPHICAL INTELLIGENCE,
the only sure foundation of any article of PREPARING for publication :-A Defence faith.'” The subject of the present year of the Missions in the South-Sea and is, “ The Faith of the Apostles in the Sandwich Islands, against the Quarterly Divine Mission of our Saviour was not Review ;-Oriental Observations and oc- the result of weakness or delusion, but of casionalCriticisms, illustrating several hun reasonable conviction.” dred Passages of Scripture. By the Rev. CAMBRIDGE.— The Porson Prize (for J. Calloway.
the best translation of a passage from In the press :-An edition in six vo- Shakspeare into Greek verse) was adjudglumes 4to (the price not to exceed sixed to J. Wordsworth, of Trinity College. guineas), of Matthew Henry's Commen- Sir William Browne's gold medals were tary on the Old and New Testament, with adjudged for the Greek Ode, to W. Sel. an Introduction, by the Rev. Edward wyn, St. John's College ; Latin Ode and Bickersteth ;— Three Courses of Lent Epigrams, to C. Wordsworth, Trinity Lectures delivered in the Church of St. College. — The Members' Prizes to two Botolph, Bishopsgate ; by the Right Rev.
Bachelors of Arts, for Latin prose comBishop Bloomfield, D.D. Rector of the position, were adjudged to R. WilliamParish ;—The Laws of Moses, from the son and W. M. Heald, of Trinity College. “ More Nevochim " of Maimonides, with Subject, “ Homerus.” The Members' Dissertations and a Life of the Author; Prizes to under-graduates were adjudged by James Townley, D.D. ;—The Achieve- to E. H. Fitzherbert, and T. W. Peile, of ments of Prayer, selected from the Holy Trinity College. Subject, “ Græcia capta Scriptures. 12mo. ;-A Treatise on the ferum victorem cepit, et artes intulit Existence, Nature, and Ministry of the agresti Latio.” Holy Angels. 12mo.
Some workmen, employed in digging
stone at Boughton-hall, near Maidstone, OXFORD.— The prize compositions this having discovered bones and teeth of seyear were adjudged as follows :-Latin veral animals, Dr. Buckland, Mr. Lyvell
, Verse : " Mexicum.” C. Wordsworth, of and several other scientific gentlemen have Christ Church.-Latin Essay: “ Lex apud visited the spot. They report, that the Romanos Agraria.” W. J. Blake, of bones in question are in a fissure of the Christ Church.-English Essay: “ The rock, which had evidently been filled up Influence of the Crusades upon the Arts by diluvial action. The bones of at least and Literature of Europe." F. Oakeley,
two hyenas (of the extinct Kirkdale speof Baliol.-English Verse (Newdigate): cies), were found, together with the bones " Pompeii.” R. S. Hawker, of Magdalen- and teeth of the horse, the rat, and other hall.
animals. The following subjects are for the Chan- The Devonport column, erected to comcellor's Prizes for the ensuing year :
memorate the alteration in the name of Latin Verse : “ Machinæ vi vaporis im- the town from Plymouth Dock to Devonpulsæ.” English Essay: “ The domestic port, is completed. It has cost about Virtues and Habits of the ancient Greeks 20001. It is 112 feet above the brow of and Romans compared with those of the Windmill Hill. more refined Nations of modern Europe.'
FRANCE. Latin Essay : “ Unde evenit ut in artium A French chemist, M. Julia Fontenelle, liberalium studiis præstantissimus quisque in a discourse pronounced on occasion of apud singulas civitates eodem fere sæculo 'the opening of an Egyptian Mummy in the floruerit?” English Verse : “ Richard amphitheatre of the Sorbonne at Paris, Cour de Lion."
has delivered an opinion respecting the The judges appointed to decide Dr. El- cause of embalming in Egypt, that the lerton's Theological Prize, established in Egyptians were led to it from physical ne1825, have adjudged it this year to Mr. cessity. During four months of every year, Oakeley, of Baliol College. The subject the inundations of the Nile cover almost is as follows :—“What was the object of entirely the whole of the surface of Egypt the Reformers in maintaining the follow- which is under cultivation. Under the reign ing proposition, and by what arguments of Sesostris, for an extent of territory of did they establish it ? Holy Scripture is about 2,250 square leagues, according to