« הקודםהמשך »
might in this way be effected; and just and incontrovertible. I am now this is of the more importance to be satisfied, however, that the term, attended to, as there is perhaps except in a very restricted sense, is no greater stumbling-block to the altogether inapplicable. Should the minds of many of the contributors, comparative mildness of Cape-slathan the idea that the whole of very, however, be admitted, what their money is not directly appro- a powerful argument does not this priated to the object for which they admission make for the speedy give it.
annibilation of human bondage
throughout their colonies, by the For the Christian Observer.
powers of Christian Europe? If
slaves are such wretched beings as In the course of the last year an I shall soon prove them to be, even ordinance was promulgated in this at the Cape, what must be their colony, similar in its principle and condition in other colonies ? What provisions to that which has been must be the condition of their established in Trinidad, for regulat masters ? ing the future treatment of slaves. • The slaves of this settlement It has generally been supposed in can claim no respite from their this country, that at the Cape of masters' service, except on Sunday; Good Hope the condition of the and, as regards the household slaves, slaves is so mild as to call for no only partially on that day. They such interference on the part of Go- cannot legally marry, or legitimate vernment. But it might have been their offspring, without the concurassumed with certainty, that the rence of their owner-a concurrence accounts which led to such a con- which his interests or his prejudices clusion were founded either in gross induce him, in almost every inignorance or in wilful misrepresen- stance, to refuse. They cannot tation. Slavery is an institution claim their freedom on presenting which, wherever it exists, must pro- their purchase-money. They are duce misery and degradation to all frequently sold by public auction concerned in it; to the master as on the death or bankruptcy of well as to the slave. Of the state their owners ; and they are liable of slavery in the colony of the Cape at all times, from casualty or from of Good Hope, as it existed down caprice, to be irretrievably separatto the month of January 1826, the ed from their wives, children, and Anti-Slavery Reporter gives, from dearest connexions. At public sales the New Monthly Magazine, after the distressing spectacle of the wife due verification of their authen- torn from the husband, and the ticity, some painfully interesting de- children from the parents, is so tails ; some of which we proceed familiar as scarcely to interest the to lay before our readers, with a feelings of the spectators. Coarse view, if possible, to strengthen their jocularity and indecent merriment abhorrence of the whole system seldom fail, on such occasions, to wherever it is found, and their ex
be rudely bandied between the ertions to extinguish it from the auctioneers and the rival bidders. face of the globe.
Moreover, the slave is liable to be “ Cape of Good Hope, Jan. 5, 1826. flogged whenever his owner's arro“ The mildness of slavery at the gant caprice may require it; and Cape has been much dwelt upon should he suffer ill-treatment from by certain travellers, whose opinions his master or the magistrate, he on this subject, being re-echoed by possesses in the laws (at least as the Quarterly Review and similar they are usually administered) no publications, seem to be generally security for obtaining redress. admitted in England as perfectly “ Yet the slave-holders in this colony continually exclaim — Our to the house, late at night, an old slaves are as well fed and clothed slave-woman, who had Aed from as your English peasantry -- infi- the ill usage of her mistress. She nitely better than your wretched bore on her body marks. of previous Irish: in what respect, then, can ill-treatment, having had three of they be considered objects of com- her ribs broken at an earlier period miseration?' If such assertions of life, when she was in the pos. were undeniable, the deduction session of a former master. She drawn from them is not, on that was then in the family of an Enaccount, the less fallacious. A few glish resident, who had married a facts will show the futility of such Dutch woman. Her dress was a arguments.
filthy untanned sheep-skin petti“ In August, 1825, I was walk- coat, with a few old rags about her ing with a friend in the streets of head, and a dirty sheep-skin thrown Graaff-Reinett (a country town over her shoulders. She had ab, about five hundred miles from the sconded from her master's house capital), when we were accosted, in the preceding night ; and after conpretty good English, by a man of cealing herself in the day-time, had the Malay complexion. He was a made her way, the night following, slave, and had a wife and several to the house where we resided. The children also in slavery. Being an next morning the son of the owner expert waggon-driver, his master came to drive back the old woman was offered a high price for him by before him. When I proposed to a person from Graaff-Reinett. The purchase from him the freedom of offer was accepted, but the agree. the slave, and stated her advanced ment was concealed from the object age, he said that the work the old of it. He was ordered to proceed creature did was very considerable ; with the waggon of his new pur- and instanced her bringing daily chaser into the interior, but given to the house as much fire-wood on to understand that it was on his her back as any man could carry ; old master's business, and that he adding, that, though he was willing should return in a few months. On to let the unhappy wretch have rest arriving at Graaff-Reinett, however, in her latter years, he could not he was made acquainted with the part with her services under five transaction, and then found that hundred rix-dollars. Ultimately, he was for ever separated from all however, he agreed to reduce her he cherished on earth. Even some price to four hundred.' little property in money and clothes, “ The poor creature, thus emanwhich he had hoarded and left be- cipated by the generosity of a hind him, he had never been able stranger, now enjoys liberty and reto recover, although two or three pose at the Missionary Institution years had elapsed, and he had made of Bethelsdorp; but how seldom, repeated applications for it. The among innumerable cases of equal poor man appeared extremely de- hardship, can it happen that a solijected, and bis melancholy tale was tary individual is thus relieved ? afterwards fully confirmed to me by “Examples such as these, of the other authority.
wretchedness of slavery at the Cape, “ Another recent illustration I might be adduced without end, for shall extract from the letter of a they are of familiar and every day friend a gentleman in the civil occurrence. But since the authority service of the East India Company, of distinguished writers is so often who recently spent some years at brought forward to prove that in the Cape.
South Africa slavery is little more “ • While I was residing in the than a name, let us pow produce vicinity of Algoa Bay, there came the evidence of a celebrated traveller on the subject. Dr. Sparrman, defence of it, as well as of the Slave a man not less distinguished for his Trade ; in which occupation the eandour and integrity than for his important post he enjoyed in the eminence in science, and who, from colony, and his own interest, had the familiar footing on which his engaged him. He was, however, a simple manners and mode of travel. European by birth; of a free and ling placed him with every class of civilized nation; and, indeed, gave the inhabitants, was well qualified evident proofs of possessing a kind to form a correct judgment on this and tender heart ; so that, perhaps, point, has given a very different pic- it would be diffieult to shew any ture of South-African slavery from where a greater contradiction in the certain recent writers, who, in their disposition of man, though in a world slight and soothing deseriptions of composed almost entirely of contrait, have either intentionally flattered dictions." the slave-holders, or their oppor- “ Strange and horrid as this tunities of observation had never anomaly of character appeared to extended beyond the well-dressed the worthy Sparrman, it is to this and pampered domestic slaves of day as common as ever among Cape Town. Spartman, on men- slave-holders, --who, though in other tioning the murder of a planter in respects humane and good-natured, the interior by two of his slaves, become, by long practice, altogether makes the following just remarks: callous and cruel-hearted in punish
** Yet whatever might be the ing their slaves. I have myself witreal reason for committing this nessed many striking instances of dreadful crime, I am convinced that this. I have even known ladies, it had its origin in the very essence born and edacated in England, and nature of the Slave Trade, in charitable and benevolent in their whatever manner and in whatever general character, yet capable of country it may be practised; a mo- standing over their female slaves tive which I found had as much in- while they were flogged, and afterfluence among the Christians, in wards ordering salt and pepper to many places, as among the Turks be rubbed into their lacerated flesh! on the coast of Barbary, to induce It is slavery, corrupting, hardening, the unhappy slaves, and still more brutalizing slavery, that produces their tyrannical masters, to behave this deplorable change in human very strangely ; nay, sometimes to feelings; and while it degrades to be guilty of the most horrid cruelties. the dust the wretched victim of opI have known some colonists, not pression, vitiates, by a terrible reonly in the heat of their passion, action, the heart and character of but even deliberately and in cold the oppressor, — Never be kind, blood, undertake themselves the nor speak kindly to å slave,' said an low office (fit only for the execu- English lady at the Cape, to a female tioner), of not only faying, for a relative of mine; I have found, trifling neglect, both the backs and added she, by experience in my limbs of their slaves by a peculiar own household, that nothing but slow lingering method, but likewise, hauteur and harshness will do with outdoing the very tigers in cruelty, slaves.' throw pepper and salt over the « How can it be wondered at, wounds. But what appeared to me that hatred and revenge on the part more strange and horrid, was to of the slave, and suspicion and dishear a colonist, not only describe like on the part of the master, should with great seeming satisfaction the be so generally the result of this unwhole process of this diabolical in- natural relationship. And amidst vention, but even pride himself on the continual effervescence of such the practice of it; and rack his feelings, is it surprising that inbrains in order to find sophisms in stances of masters flogging their slaves to death, of shooting them do so; and that the slave had afterin a passion, or cases of still more wards carried away and concealed cool-blooded and revolting atrocity, the body. The court condemned should occasionally occur? Or is it the mother of the infant and the slave surprising, on the other hand, that to capital punishment for the murdesperate risings of the slaves to der, and the Hottentot woman to murder their masters, and their far twelve months' imprisonment. From more frequent attempts to destroy this sentence, the friends of the White them secretly by poison, should be woman appealed; and the Governor, equally familiar at the Cape as in as judge of the Court of Appeals, other slave colonies ? That such reversed the sentence in her favour. occurrences are sufficiently frequent She was consequently liberated; reand familiar at the Cape, no one who appeared among her acquaintance has lived a few years in the colony as if nothing had occurred, and in a will deny. It will be sufficient to re- few months was married. But what fer merely to a few recent examples. became of the unhappy slave woman, In 1822, Mr. Gebhardt, the son of who had been the accomplice of her a country clergyman, was executed young mistress in the crime? Who for flogging to death one of his appealed in her behalf? Who imfather's slaves. At that time there plored mercy for her? Not her maswere five cases of slave murder be- ter: he endeavoured to impute to fore the deputy fiscal, all of a more her all the guilt, and willingly surrenaggravated character than that of dered her life as a ransom for that of this unfortunate young man, though his daughter. Not the members of he alone was punished capitally. A the Court of Justice: they had, as far more atrocious case occurred a they deemed, duly performed their few years previously (though from functions, and would not interfere some cause or other not brought to beyond them. Not the Court of capital conviction) of a monster, Appeals: it had saved the free who actually roasted one of his woman; it cared not for the slave. slaves alive in an oven. In 1824, a Not the public: there is no public young man of my own acquaintance voice heard at the Cape. The poor shot one of his slaves in a passion, slave remained in jail; and was about and was for this crime condemned to be sacrificed alone for a crime, in by the court of circuit to one year's which (if she assisted at all) it was imprisonment.
evident she was not the principal, « The following case occurred in but merely the blind accomplice of 1822. The daughter of a wealthy her mistress, whether from obseburgher, residing in Graaff-Reinett, quious attachment or from servile was suspected of having murdered fear. At this crisis, a friend of huher illegitimate child, in order to manity, a casual visitor from India, conceal her disgrace. The Land- heard of her pitiable case with interest drost, Captain Stockenstrom (an ac- and indignation. He visited her in tive and impartial magistrate), after prison, drew up a strong statement due investigation of the facts, appre. on the subject, and laid it before the hended the girl, together with one Governor. The Governor, though he of the female slaves of the colony, had previously passed it over unand an old Hottentot woman who noticed, was now moved; and the assisted at the accouchement. The poor creature was saved. prisoners were finally transmitted to “I have stated that mothers and Cape Town to be prosecuted by the children are often separated by being Fiscal before the Court of Justice. sold to different purchasers at the It appeared from the evidence public sales. Examples of this are elicited on the trial, that the mother of daily occurrence; but one or two had either strangled the infant her. will sufficiently illustrate this part of self, or forced the slave by threats to the subject. The following is an advertisement extracted from the commentary on the miseries of slaveCape Gazette of Oct. 12, 1822:- ry, and its debasing effects upon the
« <To be sold by auction, to the hearts of its abettors. While the wohighest bidder, on the 15th instant, man was in this distressed situation by order of the Board of Orphan she was asked, “Can you feed Masters, in such condition as will sheep?” Her reply was so indistinct then be specified, the buildings on that it escaped me; but it was prothe Loan Place, Brood Kraal, at bably in the negative, for her purBerg River, district of Stellenbosch. chaser rejoined in a loud and harsh There will also be sold a female slave, voice, “Then I will teach you with named Candasa, of Mozambique, the sjamboc" (a whip made of the fifty-four years old, with her five rhinoceros' hide). The mother and children; Saphira, aged thirteen her three children were sold to three years; Eva, ten; Candasa, nine; separate purchasers; and they were, Jannetje, seven; and Carlo, five; literally torp from each other.' each to be put up separately.'
“ The following notices of cases “The following account of a between masters and slaves, are scene of this kind, is extracted from extracted from the annual lists of the letter of a friend of the writer, trials before the Court of Justice while travelling in the interior of the and its commissioners, inserted in colony :
the Cape Gazette; and are only a «• Having learned that there was small selection out of a multitude of to be a sale of cattle, farm stock, such cases, in Cape Town and its &c. by auction, at a Veld-Cornet's vicinity, between the years 1817 and in the vicinity, we halted our wag- 1822. Brief as these notices are, gon one day for the purpose of they may suffice, without any comprocuring a fresh spann of oxen. ment, to exhibit, in a distinct light, Among the stock of the farm -sold, the degraded condition of men in was a female slave and her three slavery, (even in its mildest state,) thildren. The two eldest children and the striking inequality of the were girls; the one about thirteen colonial laws and Courts of Justice, years of age, and the other about as they practically affect them and eleven; the youngest was a boy. their masters.The whole family were exhibited
“ Masters V. Slaves. together; but they were sold sepa- “ Jacob of Mozambique, slave of W. Ser. rately, and to different purchasers. vyntyn, for threatening the life of his masThe farmers examined them as if ter, and making resistance against the they had been so many head of Veld-Cornet : condemned to be exposed to catile. While the sale was going gallows ; thereupon to be flugged, branded,
public view, made fast by a rope under the on, the mother and her children and confined on Robben Island (to work were exhibited on a table, that they in irons) for life. might be seen by the company, Laubscher, for an armed and violent attack
“ David of Mosambique, slave of A. which was very large. The tears, the upon his master: condemned to be hanganxiety, the anguish of the mother, ed; which sentence received the sanction while she met the gaze of the muls of the governor. Remitted, and returned titude, eyed the different counte. to said master, with information to prisonnances of the bidders, or cast a heart- kind interference he owes his life, as the
er on his release, that it is to his master's rending look upon her children; law certainly demanded the forfeit of it. and the simplicity and touching sor- (“N. B. Had the slave been hanged, it row of the poor young ones, while would have been a loss to his master of
about 2001.] they clung to their distracted parent, “Louis, slave of D. Hugo, for wilfully wiping their eyes, and half conceal wounding his master: condemned to be ing their faces,-contrasted with the hanged. Sentence remitted by the acting marked insensibility and jocular governor. countenances of the spectators and charge of murder: condemned to be hang
“ April, slave of A. de Villiers, on a purchasers,-furnished a striking ed at the village of Stellenbosch, and his
CHRIST. OBServ. No. 304. 2 G