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pelled to act with great reserve and with which some of it may
be incaution in this affair, that they might troduced. The influence of the ments against auricular confession, and crusades, in paving a way for the the Catholics with a motive for employ- introduction of the Inquisition, deing it less frequently." p. 355.
serves notice. The opinion that it Again :
was meritorious to make war against " It was the custom to read the Edict infidels favoured the idea that it of Denunciations in the churches every
was equally so to persecute hereyear, on some Sunday in Lent; and as the number of crimes increased, new articles tics, who were accounted little, if were added to the edict. The inquisitors at all, better than unbelievers by of some provinces introduced that of the the Church of Rome. Accordingly, priests who corrupted their penitents, and Raynaldus Gonzalvius Montanus, speak
as she had granted her indulgences ing of the occurrences at Seville after the for the defence of the holy sepulpublication of this edict, declares that it chre and the recovery of Palestine, was published in 1563, and that the de- she now renewed them in aid of the nunciations were so numerous, that the misnamed holy office, and for the riotaries of the holy office refused to receive them, and that the inquisitors were
preservation of the equally miscalled obliged to relinquish the prosecution of holy see in all its plenitude of unithe criminals." p. 356.
versal dominion. It would be alAmidst the encroachments of this most amusing, were not the subject tribunal upon the civil power, it, too horrible for lightness, to observe doubtless, sometimes encountered the semblance of equity which the and punished crimes and abuses Inquisition affected to 'maintain in against which the strong arm of adjusting the scale of evidence by law is properly directed. Not to which the guilt and punishment of speak of “ infamy too nauseous to their victims were to be determined. be named,” it is certain that all They pretended to employ a sort of representations of gross indecency intellectual thermometer, graduated should be visited with legal penal- from remote suspicion to proof poties. We suppose that the “ pic- sitive, while their use of the torture tures, prints, and medals—the fans, evidently reduced all their nice dissnuff-boxes, mirrors, and other arti- tinctions to a mere mockery of juscles of furniture, adorned with my- tice. In its censures of writings thological figures," which are said the Inquisition took cognizance, not to have occasioned great trouble to of acknowledged heresies only, but the possessors of them, came, more also of propositions savouring of or less, under this description. heresy, fomenting heresy, tending to Had the Inquisition levelled its cen- heresy, and capable of causing it. sures against the venders of such What scope was here both for the articles, it would have so far per- indulgence of private malice, and formed a good work; but any for the admission of every species power, in such hands, was always of abuse in the exercise of judicial liable to the worst abuse. What functions! If the inquisitors had too shall we think of its prosecu- sat down to deliberate how they tions for licentiousness, when we might most effectually entrap an find that its own gloomy prisons unsuspecting victim who, for any were often scenes of the niost hor- or no reason, was the object of rible sensuality, as well as of cruelty their dislike, they could hardly have and torture?
framed regulations better adapted The volume before us contains for their purpose. These, and a many facts and observations, some hundred similar detestable arts, of which we shall here briefly sub- were put in practice to accomplish join; trusting that the mass of in- the ruin of Carranza, Archbishop formation communicated will make of Toledo, who died in 1576, after amends for the want of method an imprisonment of eighteen years.
To console him for his protracted “ Louis de Anton, that he was the sufferings, the pope sent him a
procurator of Perez, and that he did se
veral things to serve him.' general absolution and exemption
“ Martina de Alatucy; that she prefrom penance just three days before pared the food of Perez in her house ; and his death! Some judgment may that her son Antonio Annoz, who was his
servant, carried it to him in the prison.' be formed of the cruel delay and in
“ Don Louis de Gurrea demands abterminable intricacy of inquisitorial solution only to reassure his conscience, proceedings, from the simple fact, for it does not reproach him!' that the writings connected with “ Don Michael de Sese also claims it, the trial of this Archbishop amount
* to appease the same scruples !'
“ Doctor Murillo,' that he visited Perez to twenty-four folio volumes, each in the prison when he was ill."" containing 1000 or 1200 pages; In the trials for sorcery, the inand Llorente had the patience and quisition laid down some tests which perseverance to wade through this
appear to bear very hard on the suendless report. He seems also to perstitious practices of the Church have cleared up the history of Don of Rome. One test was this: if Carlos, son of Philip II. With re- the suspected person had “mingled gard to this prince, the character holy things with profane objects, of Philip, as he endeavours to and worshipped in the creature that prove, has been calumniated. Don which belongs only to the Creator.” Carlos was never tried or condemned We are aware of the defence which by the Inquisition. He is said to would be here set up by pious Rohave formed an attempt against the manists ; but it would be difficult to life of the king; and some actions prove that any of those pretensions related of him here, if correct, to magic, for which the Inquisition prove him to have been subject to burnt men and women by hundreds, fits of insanity. Llorente, after a
more pernicious than that full investigation of the evidence on systematic fraud, trickery, and both sides, states his conviction that conjuration which have been conthe prince was not taken off by nived at, and even countenanced, poison, as was generally believed at by some of the highest authothe time, but that he died by a na- rities of their church, and indeed tural death. We give the following fow naturally from the doctrines extract as an instance of the here. which it inculcates.-In 1507, the tical enormities for which a formal Inquisition of Calahorra alone conabsolution was required, and which signed more than thirtywomen to the the criminals were obliged to con- flames, as guilty of sorcery. Upon fess before they could avail them- this part of the subject, however, we selves of an edict of grace. It af- must not be too severe. fords a curious specimen of the reflect upon the shocking proceedunited justice and mercy of this tri. ings in New England in the matter bunal. The culprits were accused of witchcraft ; also that no longer of having displayed too great ten- ago than quite the latter end of the derness for Antonio Perez, one of seventeenth century, a woman was its victims. What was the amount burnt in Scotland as a witch ; and of their guilt?
that our own laws against witchcraft “ Mary Ramirez declares, that on see
were not repealed till the year ing, Antonio Perez taken to prison, she 1736; we can only lament the slow exclaimed — Poor wretch ! after having and difficult progress of the human left him in so many prisons, they have not
mind towards the discovery of truth yet found him an heretic.'
“Christoval de Heredia confesses that and a removal of the worst abuses. he has often wished that Perez might get
We shall now conclude our acout of his troubles.'
count of the Inquisition with some “ Donna Geronima d'Arteaga, that she raised a little subscription for Antonic remarks on an important document Perez, because he could not enjoy his own
of its proceedings, which we transproperty.'
late from the French abbreviation.
“ A General Recapitulation of the Victims of the Spanish Inquisition, from
Burat la the Galleys or From 1481 to 1498, under the administration of the alive. Effigy. imprisoned. Inquisitor-general Torquemada
97,371 From 1998 to 1507, under the administration of Deza 2,592 829 32,952 From 1507 to 1517, under that of Cisneros
3,564 2,232 48,059 From 1517 to 1521, under that of Adrian.
1,620 560 21,835 From 1521 to 1523, Interregnum
324 112 4,481 From 1523 to 1538, under Manricus
2,250 1,125 11,250 From 1538 to 1515, under Tabera ..
420 6,520 From 1515 to 1556, under Loaisa, and Charles V..... 1,320 660 6,600 From 1556 to 1597, under Philip II....
3,990 1,815 18,450 From 1597 to 1621, under Philip III.
1,840 692 10,716 From 1621 to 1665, under Philip IV.
2,852 1,428 14,080 From 1665 to 1700, under Charles II.
6,512 From 1700 to 1746, under Philip V.
9,120 From 1746 to 1759, under Ferdinand VI..
5 170 From 1759 to 1788, under Charles III..
56 From 1788 to 1808, under Charles IV.
34,658 18,049 288,214
“ Thus the number of victims of the on the list of Spanish monarchs. Spanish Inquisition from 1481 to 1820 amounts to 340,921, not including those During this interval, consisting of who have suffered imprisonment, or con- only 116 years, there was the vast finement to the galleys or exile during the proportion of 288,861 victims, out reign of Ferdinand VII., the number of of the total number, amounting which is very considerable. “ If we were to add to the condemna
to 340,921.- The second period tions which have taken place in the penin- shall be taken from the year 1597 sula, those of the other countries under to the close of the reign of Philip the authority of the Spanish Inquisition, V. ending with 1746;
an interval rica, the Indies, &c., we should be horrified of about 150 years. During this at the number of unhappy victims whom interval the number of victims, the holy office has condemned to render though still great, was unquestionthem better Catholics.
“ Not only has the Inquisition deci- ably much diminished. That nummated the population of Spain by its ber was 51,762.-During the last auto-da-fé, but it has also considerably period, extending from 1946 to reduced it by exciting civil wars and com- 1820, an interval of rather more motions, and by the expulsion of the Jews than seventy years, the number of and Moors. More than five millions of inhabitants disappeared from Spain while sufferers is stated at only 287. A the holy office exercised its terrible au- remarkable decline of the power thority; and we may say of this barbarous and influence of the Inquisition is institution what Montesquieu said of an
observable on the accession of Fereastern emperor : "Justinian, who annihilated sects by the sword or by his laws, dinand VI. ; and one still more and who, by compelling them to revolt, remarkable, on that of Charles III. compelled himself to exterminate them, in 1759. Llorente attributes this rendered many provinces barren. He be- amendment to the rapid progress lieved that he had increased the number of the faithful,
but he had only lessened of knowledge under these princes, that of human beings.'” Histoire Abré which caused even the provincial gée, pp. 357–359.
inquisitors, though the laws of their Upon this statement we shall tribunal remained still unaltered, to offer a few remarks. The above adopt principles of moderation before
« The last
burnt “ reign of terror” may be properly unknown. enough divided into three periods. by the Inquisition was a Beata,"
The first reaches from the year (the Beata is a sort of Romish Jo1481 to the year 1597, the close of anna Southcote,) for having made a the reign of Philip II., whom our compact with the devil. She suffered author distinguishes as the greatest
on the seventh of November 1781*." friend and patron of the Inquisition, * We are happy to find the report, cir
The Inquisition, abolished by ancients, had they possessed them, Bonaparte in 1808, was, we know, directed to propagate merely the revived by Ferdinand VII. in 1814, opinions of frail and fallible men, and now exists, in form at least, but to diffuse throughout the world throughout Spain. It will naturally that sacred knowledge which has be inquired, is it likely ever to been revealed to us by our merciful renew its horrors? And what are Creator, not only as an infallible the most probable means of its ex- guide to future happiness, but also tinction of sweeping away every
as best promoting the welfare of vestige of its existence, except what mankind in the present world. The must always remain to pollute the universal diffusion of the principles page of history?
inculcated in the Bible, is the best In reply to these queries, we pledge for the improvement of the must say, that we do not see any human race in all that is truly probability of an extensive renewal valuable: and though it would be of its horrors. We think that the presumptuous to predict what is spirit of the age and the progress possible or impossible, in the everof knowledge forbid this. Though changing scene of human affairs, much nonsense has been poured yet we think it may be affirmed with forth by modern philosophers, of confidence, that the above-named the infidel schools, respecting the impulses make a general retroperfectibility of man, we still be- gression of the nations far more lieve that the progress of information improbable now than it was under is one of the surest pledges of con- the circumstances of the ancient tinued improvement. It may be world : besides which we have in said, that communities have been the Scriptures many promises that retrograde with respect to intellec- predict a far more holy and happy tual and moral power ; that Rome, condition of our species, than has for example, once the mistress of ever yet been enjoyed since the exthe nations, had her decline and pulsion of our first parents from the tall, and merged eventually into garden of Eden. There are, howages of ignorance and barbarism. ever, some appearances in the aspect. But the mental grandeur of Greece of the present times, which render and Rome was confined to a very it peculiarly necessary for the Profew individuals; and, wanting the testant and the philanthropist to light of true religion, their moral be on the alert.* The revival of elevation was always at a low stand- the Spanish Inquisition, especially ard. The mass of the people re. when viewed in connexion with mained at all times, stationary. No the gross ignorance and superstiattempt was made to enlighten tion still prevailing throughout the them. No means existed of suffi- peninsula; the re-organization of the cient force to crown the attempt, Jesuits ; some recent proceedings even had it been made, with any at Rome, where the present head signal success. We have two mighty of the church seems disposed to engines of improvement at work, give a new impulse to some of the in the modern world, which were worst abuses of Popery, particuunknown to the ancients; namely, larly that of the right of sanctuary ; the influence of the press, and the the bigoted faction both secretly comparative facility of communica- and openly at work in France, and tion and intercourse at the greatest so far successful as lamentably to distances; and these, not as would cripple the Protestant energies of have been the case with the that most important country ;-all
those are symptoms of no auspiculated last year of the burning of a Jew cious import. Let us do all we at Valencia, contradicted, and we hope truly, by a Spanish authority at Cadiz, who can to counteract them, especially had sent to inquire into its truth. by our exanıple; but let us ever CHRIST. OBSERV. No. 303.
remember, amidst our operations, hasten to repair her. errors; and as that the result is in the hands of she has lately claimed and secured Him who worketh according to the powerful assistance of this counhis will in the armies of heaven, try, let her prove that she can deand among the inhabitants of the serve it by “ bidding the oppressed earth ; who “maketh the wrath of
free." man to praise him," mysteriously permitting such a quantity of it to go forth as will conduce to the ac,
A Sermon occasioned by the Death complishment of his unfathomable,
of John Mason Good, M.D., but glorious designs ; and then “ restrains the remainder thereof,”.
&c. preached at Shepperton, and at
St. John's Chapel, Bedford Row, keeping it innocuous, like lightning
London. By the Rev. Č. JERRAM, carried by a conductor into the
M.A., Vicar of Chobham, and late earth.
Minister of St. John's Chapel. Before we close this review, let 1827. us add a very few words respecting another subject, of no dissimilar in- OUR French neighbours have often terest. This subject is the Slave reproached us with being ignorant Trade. The Inquisition, and the of the art of composing funeral serSlave Trade, with its fostering pa- mons. Many of them have indeed rent, Slavery, may be denominated carried the reproach still further, the greatest scourges of the modern alleging that we know little of the world; the heaviest draw-backs felicities of pulpit composition in upon the progress of civilization general; for that our most celebrated and social happiness; and the black discourses are rather cool dissertaest stains upon the profession of tions, than impressive and fervid Christianity. Paley, speaking of appeals to the sympathies of the the latter, has stated it as his be- heart. It is remarkable, however, lief, that “the Slave Trade destroys that Voltaire, whether from a conmore, in a year, than the Inquisition viction of the truth of his remark, does in a hundred, or perhaps hath or from an innate love of contradicdone since its foundation." This tion, or to pique his countrymen, may not be found correct, if we has pronounced, on this subject, reckon the number indirectly, as an opposite opinion to that of most well as directly, ruined by the Inqui- French writers and preachers. He sition. But, if the guilt of each of says, in his " Age of Lewis the Fourthese engines of cruelty be made teenth," that our pulpit eloquence, to depend on the total amount of which had been very rude till the time destruction occasioned by each res- of Charles II., suddenly advanced to pectively, we have no doubt but maturity. Bishop Burnet, he conthat the Slave Trade has proved tinues, avows that this was from far the greater destroyer of the two. imitating the French : but, adds
And shall this abomination be Voltaire, they have perhaps sursuffered to continue in Christian passed their masters; for their Europe ? France would never ad- sermons are less round-about, less mit the Inquisition; and yet, in affected, less declamatory than those effect, retains the Slave Trade. Let of the French. her manfully follow up her projects Having alluded to the remark of of reform in this respect, and clear Voltaire, we are tempted to notice herself, without further delay, from the elaborate refutation of which this horrible reproach. Portugal Cardinal Maury thought it worthy; has abolished the Inquisition ; but for though that refutation is sufficihas not abandoned the traffic in ently laudatory to all that is Gallic, blood, even by an adequate acknow. and equally disparaging to all that is ledgment of its turpitude. Let her Anglican, there is, amidst all his ex,