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the idea, that the poor originals this shade of suspicion, Jane Bohad, for the most part, the good horques was hurried to prison, in a fortune to make their escape from condition that demanded the most the clutches of the Inquisition. tender care and sympathy. She But it held its victims too closely gave birth to an infant in the prison ; in its infernal grasp. The greater but it was taken from her at the number either destroyed them- end of eight days; and before she selves in prison, to avoid a more was quite recovered, she was subdreadful end, or were gradually mitted to the torture. The cords worn out with the repetition of the with which her still feeble limbs torture, and died before the day were bound penetrated to the bone, of execution. Then the holy office, and torrents of blood flowed from having already sufficiently wreaked her mouth. In a few days she its vengeance on their living bodies, expired. The inquisitors thought at last wreaked it upon their bones. that they expiated this cruel murder The man who had committed no by declaring Jane de Bohorques inquisitorial sins in his own person, innocent, at the ensuing auto-da-fé! was still punished for the sins of his We might here enlarge upon a ancestors; and if, by the nicest variety of particulars, illustrative of scrutiny, a Jew, or a Turk, or an this execrable tribunal; upon the infidel, or a heretic, were found, or cruel delay of its proceedings; suspected, to have tainted his gene- upon the impenetrable darkness alogy, he was branded with a per- of its mysteries, only illuminated, manent mark of infamy. In this when all hope was over, by the way many respectable families were flames of the auto; upon the sysruined and extinguished. Such, on tematic encouragement which it this, as well as other accounts, was gave to informers, and the menaces the dread inspired by the holy it denounced against concealment; office, that many of the Spanish upon its subterraneous courts and gentry consulted their safety by dungeons, with all their horrid connecting themselves with it in apparatus, the very sight of which some shape or other. In 1557, was calculated to terrify the victim Mary de Bourgogne was put to the into confession, before he was tortorture, at the age of ninety! The tured into it; upon the gross absurinquisitor, Cano, said that the dity and iniquity of the torture moderate torture was applied; but itself, making a man's guilt or inthe effects of this gentle application nocence to depend on the texture of course destroyed her. Her of his animal fibre, and the state of bones and effigy were afterwards his spirits, and frequently continued burnt, her property confiscated, and till the toughest fibre, and the her memory, her children, and her strongest spirits were subdued ; descendants in the male line, de- and upon the closing scene, deemclared infamous. The case of ed a fit spectacle for nobles and Donna Jane Bohorques, sickening princes, and a suitable entertainment as are its portraits, is too atrocious on the celebration of royal marto be entirely passed over. She riages. But all these matters have was the wife of Don Francis de been long known to the world; and Vargos. Her sister Donna Maria, we rather wish to call the attention who had already perished in an auto- of our readers to some particulars da-fé, proved the innocent cause of in the history of this tribunal, which her unhappy end. This sister had may be somewhat more new to but declared that Jane was ac- them. quainted with her opinions, and had It is not to be supposed that, not opposed them; but that was during its early progress, it was sufsufficient for the inquisitors. Upon fered to proceed without resistance Christ, Observ. No. 303.
- on the part of the people : for some in danger. The inquisitors of time after the establishment of the Spain, while they pretended that modern, and worst, form of this their authority was canonical, as tribunal, their fury was 'frequently having been delegated to them by excited: more than one inquisitor the sovereign pontiff
, yet, at the was murdered ; and the execrated same time, always virtually opposed Torquemada was obliged to take the doctrine of bis infallibility, every precaution of secret armour, and refused to submit to his deand a strong retinue, in order to crees, when contrary to their parsave his life. But the popular dis- ticular system. As to the system turbances which it provoked in of Rome, that might be called mild Spain, being desultory, ill planned, and moderate, compared with that and ill supported, only issued in its of Spain. In reply to the entreamore extended triumph, and in- ties and remonstrances of the creased its severity, by sharpening Milanese, Pius IV. told the dethe spirit of bigotry and persecu- puties that he would never allow tion, with the additional stimulus of the Spanish Inquisition to be estabrevenge. It is, however, consolatory lished in their city, as he knew its to meet with a single instance of extreme severity. With regard to successful opposition. Such an Sicily, it may be just observed, instance, we know, occurred in the that she was at length, after concase of France. But it appeared, siderable resistance, compelled to also, among the Neapolitans, who yield. The Inquisition of that were subjects of the Spanish crown. island was abolished in 1782, after They acted, with regard to this an existence of 279 years. particular, in a manner worthy of The Jews and the Moors bad the best times of the ancient Roman been, at first, the chief objects and Commonwealth. Successive at- victims of the modern Inquisition, tempts were made to force the during the course of 139 years, Inquisition upon them, under the ending with the year 1609, when the reigns of those despotic and power- Moors were finally expelled. The ful princes, Ferdinand, Charles V., Inquisition had been the means of and Philip II. ; but without effect. depriving Spain of three millions of They resisted it with such pertina- inhabitants, Jews, Morescoes, and cious hostility, that the kings of Moors. The privations and sufferSpain found it would be too dan- ings of these people were such, gerous to proceed with their ex. that our only wonder is, how they periment. On one occasion the could so long linger on these acNeapolitans were secretly encou- cursed shores. Whatever were their raged in their opposition by the errors, no people ever manifested pope himself, naturally jealous of greater endurance of suffering, or the inquisitors-general of Spain, stronger attachment to their native who had frequently presumed to soil. But an æra had now arrived give his holiness a word of advice. which afforded the Inquisition fresh Indeed, with regard to inquisitorial and unexpected fuel for its fires. matters, these could boast of pri- Torquemada, who died in 1498, ority in point of time. The con- could hardly, with all his bittergregation of the holy office, in its ness against heretics, have reckoned improved form, was not founded at upon such an event as the ReforRome, till the year 1543 ; sixty mation of 1517. This event proved years after its establishment in indeed a trial of the strength of the Spain, under the formidable Tor. Inquisition ; and lamentable is the quemada. This new creation reflection, that such were its power, alarmed the Spanish tribunal, as its efforts, and its success, that the though it deemed its own privileges seeds of Protestantism were crushed by it in the infancy of their growth. compared with the vast multitude Those seeds promised an abundant of Jews and Mohammedans who harvest in Spain, had it not been had been previously sacrificed, was for this desolating blast. During the nevertheless very considerable. The trials which followed the arrest, in victims, especially at Seville and 1557 and 1558, of a considerable Valladolid, are said to have been number of persons, distinguished persons distinguished, some for their by their birth, their offices, or their nobility, others for their learning, learning, indications were found of and all for the purity of their lives. a vast scheme being on foot for the Let our readers here recollect that it propagation of the opinions of is a professed Romanist who speaks Luther, throughout the peninsula. thus of the early, and (alas! that we This discovery induced Philip II. should have to say so) the latest and Valdes, the formidable inqui- fruits of the Reformation in Spain. sitor-general of that period, to treat Here was a rich harvest rooted up the convicted persons with the ut- in the commencement of its growth, most severity. Philip wrote to Rome by the sharp and desolating ploughon the subject ; in consequence of share of the unrelenting Inquisition. which a brief was dispatched to For the accomplishment of its deadValdes, authorising him to hand overly purposes, on this occasion, addito the secular arm all dogmatising tional means were employed, anLutherans, even those who had re- swerable to the exigency of the turned into the bosom of the Romish case. The art of printing had now Church, and had been found guilty existed for more than a century. of no relapse. Suspicion was held Books were multiplied, and knowequivalent to proof; and as the ledge was rapidly on the increase. sincerity of their professions of This was a new evil to be put repentance seemed doubtful, their down. As early as the year 1490, punishment, by the decrees of this several Hebrew Bibles, and books equitable tribunal, was made certain. written by Jews, had been burnt at
We shall give one other notice Seville in 1530: not only Lutheran of the progress which the Reforma- books were denounced and prohition had made in Spain : it belongs bited, but an edict was passed to the year 1568. * In that year, obliging all Catholics to denounce the Spanish ambassador at Vienna, any person who might read or Don Louis de Benegos, informed keep them in their houses. The the inquisitor-general that he had reading of the Colloquies of Erasheard of the Calvinists congratu- mus in the universities was also lating each other on the peace prohibited. The first appearance signed between France and Spain, of an index expurgatorius was in in the hope that their religion 1546, in consequence of a comwould make as much progress in mission from Charles V. to the the latter country as in England university of Louvain; a commisand Flanders; because the great sion confirmed by a bull of appronumber of Spaniards, who had se- bation from the pope. A short cretly adopted it, might easily hold time before this, a decree had been communication with the Protestants issued to prohibit reading or buying of Bearn, through Arragon. This the writings of Luther, upon pain of was alarming intelligence for the holy death. The German princes comoffice; and the autos now began to plained loudly; but Charles paid be lighted apace for those who had no attention to their remonstrances. taught, or were suspected of being This bad policy, observes our aufavourable to the doctrines of the Re- thor, accelerated the progess of formation. The number of sufferers Lutheranism. It promoted its profor its tenets in Spain, though small gress in other quarters undoubt
edly; but not in unhappy Spain. quisition, so late as the close of
condemns two authors, called the Baron all who should sell, buy, keep, clayos, because their books contained two or read any books prohibited by propositions which the Romans consider the holy office; and, to ensure the heretical : one was, that the pope has no execution of this sanguinary law, and can neither depose them, nor release
authority over the temporalities of kings, an index was published, that the their subjects from their oath of fidelity; people might not have the excuse the other, that the authority of the geneof ignorance to plead. So perse
ral council is greater than that of the vering and severe was the chase pope." p. 322.
Though the Inquisition would not after anti-Catholic books, that a bull of 1559 enjoined confessors spare the learned, who might be
denominated its natural enemies, to interrogate their penitents on this subject, and to remind them it was likely to shew more respect
it may be supposed, perhaps, that of their obligation to denounce the and reverence for the great. But guilty, on pain of excommunication. The same bull also subjected the many others, that those who had
it happened, in this instance as in confessors themselves to a like punishment for neglect of this duty; its operations, did not perceive their
originally the power of controlling even though these penitents should mistake till they had nursed a be of the highest rank*. When books, tending to promote tory to be governed, and were de
monster too vigorous and refracuseful knowledge, were thus per servedly punished by their ultimate secuted, we cannot be surprised
subjection to the work of their own to find men of learning and
hands. Ferdinand and his sucgenius sharing a similar fate. Accordingly a regular crusade seems granted privileges to this tribunal
cessors," we are informed, “ had to have been set on foot against which the encroachments of the them, by the Spanish Inquisition. inquisitors soon rendered insupportThe twenty-fifth chapter of the able." A supreme council had inabridgment contains a long cata; deed been erected by the governlogue of learned and distinguished
ment, as some check upon its proindividuals who were doomed to suffer, more or less, through its ceedings ; but this check proved, for severity.
the most part, merely nominal; and The following passage shews what were the published and any inquisitor-general, who, like undisguised opinions of the In- Torquemada or Valdes, happened
to be a bold and able bigot, readily
found means to assert his supre* A very full and explicit account of the Indexes, both prohibitory and expur-macy, not only over the supreme gatory, has just been published by the council, but over the decrees of Rev.'). Mendham. It is appropriately Rome herself. The following is our dedicated to Sir R. H. Inglis, whose author's statement with respect to speech on this subject in the House of Commons last year, in the debate on Cam
this particular. tholic emancipation, produced a powerful “ The Inquisition presents to our view impression. The subject is however of a tribunal, whose judges have neither great interest, apart from questions of obeyed the laws of the kingdom in which ecclesiastical or political expediency; and it was established, the bulls of the popes, we recommend those of our readers who the first constitutions of the tribunal, nor wish to obtain information on it to avail the particular orders of its chiefs ; which themselves of Mr. Mendham's elaborate has even dared to resist the power of the researches.
pope, in whose name it acts, and has
disowned the king's authority eleven dif- and that in cases where there was ferent times; which has suffered books to
no proof of heresy. circulate, favouring regicides and the au
“ The holy tribunal was scarcely esthority of the popes to dethrone kings, and at the same time condemned and Don James de Navarre, sometimes called
tablished in Arragon, when it attacked prohibited works containing a contrary the Infant of Tudela, and the Infant of doctrine, and defending the
rights of the Navarre. His crime was an act of benesovereign ; which acted in this manner in volence. The assassination of Pedro circumstances entirely foreign to the crime Arbues, the first inquisitor of Arragon, of heresy, which was the only one they which took place in 1485, obliged many of were competent to judge." p. 324.
the principal inhabitants of Saragossa to Such was the insolence of this take flight. One of these persons went to tribunal, that it persecuted, without Navarre resided, and asked and obtained
Tudela de Navarre, where the Infant of scruple, Englishmen and other fo- an asylum in his house for several days, reigners, not settled in Spain, who until he could make his escape into were merely returning to their re
France. The inquisitors, being informed
of this humane action, arrested and took spective countries, after having Don James to their prisons in 1487, as an transacted their commercial affairs. enemy to the holy office. He was con
We have not noticed, as yet, the demned to hear a solemn mass, standing establishment of this tribunal in in the presence of a great concourse of
people, and of his cousin Don Alphonso the Spanish possessions of America, of Arragon (a natural son of Ferdinand and indeed it would be inconsistent V. and Archbishop of Saragossa), and to with our limits to give any thing receive absolution from the censures which like a full detail of even this abridg. he was supposed to have incurred, after ment of Llorente's history. Our and having gone through all the ceremo
submitting to be scourged by two priests, readers are, doubless, aware that nies prescribed in such cases by the Rothe Inquisition was gradually forced man ritual.” pp. 347, 348. upon the Spanish possessions of the A strange story has been current new world; and they may easily respecting a punishment inflicted believe that, if it did not practise by the inquisitors on Philip II. bequite as much cruelty, or meet with cause that monarch was thought, quite as much success, as in the old, upon one occasion, to have displayed this was merely owing to a differ- some deficiency of zeal for their ence of circumstances. The fol- interests. It is said that he sublowing short extract comprehends mitted to have blood taken from much, in a little space, with regard him, which blood was cast into the to what may be called this foreign fire. It appears, however, that this department of its operations. story is without any good founda
“ In America, the ordinances of the tion; as is also, doubtless, the report king, and other regulations, could not of Philip's deficiency of zeal for the prevent violent quarrels from arising be- Inquisition. tween the civil tribunals and those of the
While this execrable tribunal was holy office. But in all these affairs the viceroys shewed more firmness, and re- prosecuting heresy (so called) with pressed the arrogance of the inquisitors all the eagerness of a well-trained with more success than was displayed in blood-hound in the pursuit of his the peninsula. This is not surprising, because in distant countries the inquis prey, it may be well to see how it tors are not supported by an inquisitor-treated the infamous vices of the general, who, possessing the king's favour, priesthood of its own church. The may influence him in private conversa- result reminds us of the well-known tions. Besides this, the viceroys, jealous line of Juvenal : of the power with which they are in
Dat veniam corvis; vexat censura vested, are careful that it shall meet with
lumbas. no obstacles or contradictions." p. 332.
“ While the Inquisition was occupied The following passage will shew in persecuting the peaceable Lutherans, the humiliation to which persons of they were obliged to take measures to even royal lineage were exposed ministry of confession, by seducing their from the insolence of this tribunal, penitents. The inquisitors were com