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thrown open: one mode of sounding it is as B flat 3 harmonic, assisted by the closing of the two lower fingers right-hand :-a new fingering is obtained from using C# 5 harmonic, with third-fingers, right-and-left, open.

The fut from D 5 harmonic with B flat key, and second-finger-right open, is not of much use.

The best g in alt, is made by opening the D# key, first-fingerright and second-finger-left: it is the 6 harmonic of c. The 5 harmonic of Dit is a little too flat.

The common fingering of a in alt, opens precisely two of the nodes of D 6 harmonic-a third node occurs at the Git key, the opening of which greatly facilitates the sound, and enables the second-finger-right to produce a good shake with the next note ascending.

a sharp or b flat in alt. is generally played as the 5 harmonie of F sharp, the nodes are at the G# key and the first-finger-left, it may be sounded also as the imperfect 7 harmonic of C.

The b may be produced by opening the b key upon the last noteit is, however, difficult to blow.

The fourth octave of C is a very difficult note to sound, because all of the nodes cannot be accurately uncovered; which may be perceived by comparing every third inch on the corrected scale with the holes of the Flute in the plate, the only method is to treat it as the 8 harmonic of C, that as many subdivisions may be brought into action as possible. The D# key, third-finger-right, and second-finger-left must be open for the regular nodes, and the G# key, and first-finger right together in place of the node from which they are equidistant.

We have now concluded our survey of the whole diatonic scale of the Flute, and have seen that there is nothing fortuitous in the placing of the fingers; each note is traced as the harmonic of some prime in the lower cleff. The means which we have adopted of elucidating the subject by figure 2, enable us to de. termine beforehand what ought to be the best mode of fingering in each case. To save the trouble of calculating the places of nodes, I have added a scale of harmonical divisions in figure 3, which will give the position of any node by simple inspection. As an example of its application, let it be required to find the fingering of a as the 6 harmonic of D.

Look along the horizontal line of D for the points of traverse of the oblique harmonic lines marked 6. There are 3 of them, and

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they are found to be situated perpendicularly opposite to the holes of the third-finger-right-hand, G# key, and first-finger-left-hand, which are accordingly the positions of the nodes of vibration, and may be opened without changing the pitch of the note, while the facility of sounding it is greatly increased thereby.

I have dwelt at some length upon the details of the harmonics, because I am not aware that the subject has ever been practically investigated ; and I am convinced that amateurs and pupils will derive pleasure as well as profit from the right comprehension of the principles upon which the modulation of the Flute is founded. To go farther, and point out where each fingering is proper to be adopted, is the business of “ Preceptive Lessons” and of practice, to which I must in conclusion recommend all who would attain proficiency in this melodious and elegant instrument: but at the same time I must beg leave to advise all those whose ears are not very delicate in discriminating sounds, or whose lips are not formed by nature to breathe soft melody into the Flute, to relinquish their fruitless attempts to overcome such insurmountable obstacles-and even when an amateur can blow his instrument without whizzing ; can execute octaves and double-tongueing without spluttering; and can stamp the tutored foot in well-regulated adagios and prestos still are these virtues of little worth if he have not Taste; if he cannot feel himself, and make others feel, the tender and soothing influence which the Flute is, above all instruments, calculated to excite. To Music, as well as Poetry, may the observation of Pope be critically applied :

“ 'Tis not enough no harshness gives offence,
The sound must seem an echo to the sense.
Sott is the strain when Zephyr gently blows,
And the smooth stream in smoother numbers flows;
But when loud surges lash the sounding shore,
The boarse rough note should like the torrent roar.
When Ajax strives some rock's vast weight to throw
The minims labour, and the bars move slow;
Not so, when swift Camilla scours the plain,
Flies o'er th' unbending corn, and skims along the main.”


To the Editor of the Quarterly Oriental Magazine,


You are welcome to the enclosed communication if you think it worthy a place in your work. I shall be much obliged to any of your correspondents who will help to solve any doubts as to the genus of the birds described, and as to their title (supposing thema Squatarolle) to be considered separate and new species,

The only authority accessible to me is Shaw's Zoology, the 14th Vol. of which is, however, recent, having been published in 1826.

I am, Sir,
Your obedient Servant,


Valley of Nipal, September, 1828.

Genus SQUATAROLLE ! (Only one species, called grey."

Shaw XI. 504.)

This migatory bird visits the valley of Nipal towards the close of the rains, and is found in the swampy rice fields that have been just reaped, and which are still surrounded with standing grain. As that cover disappears by the advance of the harvest, it departs from the then naked valley, and hies on to the plains of India, where it seems to pass the cold months. It returns to us, for a very short time, in the beginning of March, and then proceeds northwards-probably to the trans-himaliyan regions,

Whilst sojourning with us, it associates in pavis; and when flushed, rises silently and hurries away with a rapid zigzag Alight, but still with an inclination to return to the place whence it has been alarmed.

It is, in length, one foot--the female rather less, but similar in all other respects to the male.

The beak is rather longer than the headsay, a length and a quarter-is slender, straight, slightly compressed; grooved above, lengthwise from its base almost to the tip; the tip, very inconsiderably tumid, obtuse and ragose. In the roof of the mouth is a double row of spinous appendages pointing inwards. The nostrils are linear, open, placed laterally in the groove of the upper mandible, and near, but not at, the base. The legs are long and slender, with nothing peculiar in their appearance or proportions, except that the thighs are more naked (fully half) than common. The feet are 4-toed-three toes before, one behind. Of the front toes, the two outer ones are united at the base by a membrane. The hind toe is very short, its point only resting on the ground. The wings are very long and acuminated, the first and second quills going beyond the extremity of the tail.

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