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SCIENCE.

ART. I.- Geognostical Sketches of the Country between Saugot

and Mirzapoor.

The vicinity of Saugor abounds with marks of volcanic

eruptions. The trap formation is not contined to Saugor, but extends far to the South. I had an opportunity of personally observing it, and traced it in company with Captain F. as far as a place called Teindoo Kera, nearly South East of Saugor-a famous iron mine, where a vein of iron is found associated with lime-stone and old quartz rock ; at least the former appeared to be so from its effervescing with acids--but I believe Captain F. had some reason to doubt the nature of it.

I marched back to Saugor via Seermow, and nothing but the trap formation was visible. The stupendous hills in the neighbourhood of Seermow, appeared to be wholly trap-on and near the summits of the most of those hills, I remarked basalt, extremey compact, which presented the appearance of five sided surfaces. The disposition of the basalt to form fat tables of a pentagonial shape, had been observed by Captain F. and myself at several places in our way to Teindoo Kera. At the bottom of the Seermow range, on the Southern side, a species of a decomposed earth or clay, a little indurated, of a green and reddish colour, and spotted, was likewise noticed—a peculiarity which I had not observed in the country close to Saugor.

In proceeding from Saugor towards Huttah, the trap formar tion is changed to that of lias lime-stone. This change evidently begins in the vicinity of Pathoria Juckroxee. Between Juckroxee and the Sonar river the country presents a level plain, uninterrupted by hills or rising ground. I crossed that stream below Aslanah, and found the lias forming its bed of a fine grey blue colour, and compact; presenting large tabular masses, horizontally stratified.

The next object of Geological interest that the road presents, is a well about ninety feet deep at Nursinghur. From this well i procured twelve specimens, but my notes do not furnish me with an exact view of the strata. Among them, however, there were several of a shistose and siliceous nature, containing mica. The strata, I believe, rested upon the lias formation. The bed of the river, which runs immediately below Nursinghur, appeared to be composed of blue lias, but it is possible that it might have been a species of blue clay.

BETWEEN Nursunghur and Huttah, in the bed of the Lonar, not very distant from the latter place, perhaps only about a mile, we find an Island. This affords much geological information, as developing the substrata of that portion of the country. The stratification of the different roads is perfectly horizontal-sand-stone is apparently the chief rock, but red calcareous marl is found disseminated in thin distinct and horizontal small beds-a species of yellow white indurated clay is found interstratified with the sandstone, and on the opposite bank occurs a sort of silicious greentinctured slaty clay, of rather a friable nature. It may likewise be observed, that the bed of the river is composed of pebbles of semitransparent or translucent quartz, with small pieces of rounded red marl and sand-stone.

A Water-fall gives the spot a very romantic and wild appearance, which is increased by the perpendicular nature of the rocks adjoining. To the West of this place it may be mentioned) red calcareous marl abounds, and forms the bed of two of the streams which flow into the Sonar; and this red marl is always slaty in its texture, and contains quartzy schist.

AT Huttah the red marl is found associated with sand. stone and lias lime-stone ; blue lias occurs also, North of the town where it is found, forming large protruding tabular masses, And three specimens which were sent me from a well that had been recently sunk, shewed, if I recollect rightly, sand-stone as the upper stratum, and bluish indurated clay as the under stratum.

In leaving Huttah for Gysabad, the road passes over one or two sand-stone protuberances. The nature of the soil changes considerably-specimens both of lias and iron clay-stone were picked up in this march. It may not be impertinent to remark, that on an artificial mound near Gysabad an octagonal column of a fine species of white compact sand-stone, was observed, which appeared well adapted for the purposes of building—its history I could not obtain, nor the name of the place where the stone was quarried.

The bed of the Beharma is apparently composed entirely of sand-stone, having impressions of fresh-water marks, as if the stone had been solidified at the instant the breeze had formed ripples on the stream. The ripples impressed on the sand-stone were found not only in the beds of streams, but on high ground, at a distance from any water. This phenomenon attracted my attention many times after leaving Huttab; but I observed these water-marks

more particularly in the bed of the river Cane, on sand-stones have ing red marl disseminated of a calcareous nature, and similar to that before mentioned.

FROM Mohowah to Johargong is an extensive tract of lias, and presents little variation. The soil is good, and the cultivation considerable.

BETWEEN Lohargong and Kukerhuttee, a very considerable change commences, for at the latter place a very compact white species of sand-stone is procured, of which the houses of the inhabitants are for the most part built. In approaching Punnah the sand-stone is found in various states of decomposition, and has generally a tendency to a slaty structure. The colour of the sandy soil

passes from white to red. Small nodules of iron clay are observed. The sand-stone here resembles that which is found at the Hilliah ghaut, in ascending from the lower platform into the Rewah district, on the road from Mirzapoor to Jubbulpoor.

The town of Punnah is built of a cream-colored sand-stone, which breaking into thick slates, the natives form it into pieces of the size of a brick. These stone bricks are so well and judiciously cut, that many of the houses are built by merely placing them regularly, without any addition of cement to keep them together. Several of the palaces of the former potent Rajahs now uninhabit. ed, are going fast to decay. There is the palace of Sowah Sing (I believe) the father of Chutter Sal, built on the edge of the largest tank, which even now gives a good idea of its former magnificence.

The diamond mines in this Rajahship, are no doubt valuable, and perhaps form the chief source of the income of the Rajah. This precious gem is said to be found at the distance of 6 and 8 coss around the town, and the search for it affords employment to a multitude of laborours. The capital necessary for working these mines is generally supplied by wealthy natives residing at Benares. I imagine only a few of the inhabitants of Punnah, are engaged in furnishing capital for the prosecution of the work.

There may perhaps be reckoned two species of diamonds, which I presume, on examination will be found to possess distinctive characters. The first species is found imbedded in the solid rock, a kind of silicious conglomerate.

The second is found in the loose iron-clay pebbles, which forms beds of one or two feet in thickness.* The firm rock in

The following passage is extracted from the Hon'ble Robert Boyle's Es-, say about the origin and virtues of Gems" This (mentioning an anonymous one)

which the first species is found, rests on a fine white compact and hard sand-stone, which a further enquiry might shew, was of the new red sand-stone, although I should not be surprised to find it established to be of the old sand-stone formation ; for I observed irregular masses of 'it in a situation, and in such a position as not to be easily accounted for. I did not particularly take notice of the substratum of the iron-clay, in the bed of which the second species is discovered.

CHLORITE slate or slaty clay, of a greenish colour, is very abundant, and in the mine I visited, reposed on diamond rocky bed. Red, white and green are the colours of this clay, and these distinct colours follow each other with a quickness and irregularity that is very singular. This suddenness of change combined with the horizontal and vertical features they present, greatly excited my admiration.

It is proper to relate that I was shewn specimens of the matrix, in which diamonds at other mines were procured, one of them a reddish calcareous tuffa, another a soft clay, slightly coloured by the oxide of iron, and a third was composed of loose quartz pebbles and pebbles looking like fractured Lydian stones,

The four principal mines at Punnah are Singpoor Shaid, Tehran, Dehlan, Chowpoorah, and the strata in which the diamond is found, are distinguished by the natives into three sorts, Jelah, Shaid and Zehr,

DIAMONDS are not unfrequently picked up on the surface ; not long ago one was accidentally found estimated in value about twenty thousand rupees, by a weaver. The Rajah obtained possession of it; gave him one or two thousand rupees, bestowed on him some valuable dresses, and provided funds sufficient to enable his daughters to marry, and for himself and family to live in com. fort and ease.

The natives engaged in the mines appear to be very well acquainted with the particular indications of the diamond beds presented by the various strata. My time only permitted me to visit

. speaking of the first of three diamond mines which he (the person who is quote "ed) makes to be the only ones in the East Indies, having told us that the stones " are there found some in the ground and some in the rock, subjoins that those " that are drawn from the rock or peighbouring parts, have ordinarily a good “ water ; but for those which are drawn out of the ground, their water partakes of " the colour of the soil wberein they are found so that if the earth be clean and "somewhat sandy, the diamonds will be of a good water, but if it be fat or “ black, or of another colour, they will have some tincture of it.” In the above essay, the growth and generation of diamonds is advocated, and some evidence produced to establish the fact-but I do not think that our present limited in. formation will enable us satisfactorily to decide the question.

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