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lose his head, or have it shaded by the umbrella of dominion, however he promised to be prudent, and to try what could be effected by fair means first. The savages of the woods were tamed by kind treatment, and he might perhaps propitiate the demon by civil behaviour. Having thus argued the matter, and his mother seeing him resolute, abstaining from further opposition, Anala set off to the forest of Ajmer, Not a living creature was to be seen within its limits; beasts and birds had all been devoured or had fled. Alone and undaunted, armed with sword and shield, Anala searched for the cannibal. Dundha marked his approach, and wondering what man could thus singly enter the thicket, thanked his good luck for the meal that he anticipated. Anala beholding him as large as a mountain, and of horrible appearance, in spite of his firmness, could not suppress some natural indications of alarm, his hair stood erect, and his lips quivered, but still he advanced and made his salutation to the demon. Dundha observing his extreme youth was moved with compassion, and waking him up on the palm of his hand, gently asked Anala, who he was, who were his parents, and.whence he came; Anala having recovered from his alarm, and determining if the giant should swallow him to cut his way out again with his sword, answered boldly, stated who he was, and declared that he had come purposely to offer Dundha service. The giant asked him if his mother was dead, if he was poor, if he was devout, or if his mistress bad proved unkind, that he was thus weary of his life; Anala replied, that nothing of this was the case, that his father and grandfather had possessed the Kingdom of Ajmer, and that he was determined to attain the same rank or perish, that the country was now in the gift of the Dánava, and that he trusted to merit it as a reward for his service and attachment. The demon was pleased with his courage and sincerity, and foregoing all purpose of devouring him, desired him to take the country in which he and his posterity should long continue to rule, He accordingly left the place and repaired to the Naimisha forest.

AFTER the departure of Dundha, Anala returned to his mother and announced his success. Then collecting a number of

persons especially of the mercantile classes, he conducted them to Ajmer, which he rebuilt and ruled over that and Sambher, cherishing his people as if they were his children. He took the name of Ana Raja, and reigned 64 years. He was succeeded by his son Jayasinh, who reigned 108 years. He was succeeded by Ananda Raja, who reigned 100 years. Someswara was the next King of Ajmer, he married the daughter of Anangapala, Raja of Dilli by whom he had Prithwi Raja.

REMARKS. The circumstances recorded of Bisala's reign are chiefly interesting from the notice they take of the Rajput Tribes, or nations not included in the thirty-six, and the proof they afford of the ex.


istence of political divisions considered as Hindu at the period of the Mahommedan conquest. In addition to the Tribes we have above enumerated, we have the Mor, Tomara, Gaher, Mohit, Malhan, Baragujar, Kurumma, and Dondh, whilst the Mewati, Baloch, Baghel and Chandel, are people rather than Tribes. The Antarvedi also is the Native of the Doab. Bhatner and Jeselhamer or Jesselmere are states still existing, and Udaya is the ancient Udayapur.. Takshitpur, is perhaps Takshasila, or the Taxiles of the Greek writers. The ruler, or the Tribe of Multan is de. signated by a curious name, as Nalbandh implies the shoer of horses, or farrier. The Government of Guzerat by the Chalukya is in harmony with the evidence of inscriptions in the 11th and 12th Centuries.

As to the story of Dundha it may be an absolute invention of the Poet to elevate the importance of his hero, who it appears was an incarnation of the demon. But Chandra Kavi would scarcely have asserted that Ajmer xwas laid waste and deserted about three Centuries before he wrote, had the fact been wholly without foundation. The demon may therefore possibly designate some hostile Tribe who expelled the Chouhans from the country, and destroyed the capital. There is a clan entitled Dondh, called also apparently Dodh and Todh, with whom Prithi Rai was engaged in bostilities as is proved by an inscription found at Hisar, of which a translation by Capt. Fell, is published in the 15th volume of the Asiatic Researches. It is not unlikely however that the fiction refers to something else, and that Mahmud of Ghizni was the original of the GOBLIN : at any rate Ajmer was comparatively an untenanted wilderness at the time of the Chouhan conquest of the district,

ONE important result of a reference to the original authority in this place is the correction of a statement made by Major Tod, which is calculated to add to the uncertainty that envelopes Hindu history in the middle ages. Vísala Deva, he states upon the authority before us, that of Chand or Chandra, was the great grandfather of Prithi Rai, and cotemporary of Mahmud. He was succeeded by Saranga Deva, Somesa and Prithwi Raja. Saranga Deva he adds, appears to have been driven from Ajmer. It was Saranga Deva, however, who returned to Ajmer, and there were three descents from him to Someswara. Visala Rai instead of being the third from Prithwi Rai, is therefore the seventh, a relation much more likely to place him in the time of Mahmud, than that given by Major TOD, nearly two Centuries elapsing from the Ghiznivide invasion, and that of Mohammed Gori, in which Prithwi Rai was killed. It appears also from Abulfazl, that Prithwi Raj or Pithoura, was the seventh of his dynasty, the first of whom termed Beil Deo, in GLADWIN's translation will probably be found in correct copies of the Ayin Akberi written Bisal. As to the enormous periods assigned to the reigns of these Rajas giving an aggregate of above three Centuries, from. Vísala, they originate probably in the attempt to connect the birth of Prithwi Rai, with the date previously assigned to the former Prince, or 821.

The whole period that elapsed as we shall presently see is above 380 years, which bring us to the beginning of the 13th Century of the Samvat, in which there is no doubt that Prithwi Rai was born. The date of Vísala is carried too far back in our text, and instead of the ninth, it should be the eleventh Century of the Samvat, in which he flourished. Abulfazl, however, confirms the date of the original, if his Beil Deo be Bisal Deo, for he states that the Chouhan Raja conquered the Raja of Delhi, in Samvat 848, (A. D. 792). As however he concurs in the defeat and death of Pithoura, by Mohammed Gori, his chronology and history are irreconcileable, and his seven generatious will bring Bisala Deva into the eleventh Century, the Æra of the Ghaz. nevide conquest. On the Lat of Firoz Shah, we have apparently a very different date given to Bisaia, and he is there placed in Samvat 1220, (A. D. 1164), which is as much too late as the other is too early. It is evident, however, that the inscription is incorrectly eopied. An accurate transcript would probably furnish a useful comment on our text. It seems likely from the concurrence of dates and names between the Prithi Rai Cheritra, and the Ayin Akberi, that the former contributed materials to the latter.


When Dundha arrived at the Naimisha forest, he applied to the Rishis to know how he might be released from his condition of a demon. They desired him to repair to Kasi. On his way thither he stopped on the Jumna near Delhi, where he performed his ablutions. A sage residing in a cavern near the spot, saw him and enquired who he was; Dundha having told his story, requested the sage to tell him what course he should adopt to be liberated. The sage recommended him to practise austerities, and to stay where he was until he himself should return from pilgrimage. Dundha obeyed and remained on the banks of the Jumna, engaged in religious penance for three hundred and eighty years, when Anangapála, I'omara, descended from the Pandava family reigned at Delhi.

It happened one day that the daughter of Anangapala, with her friend the daughter of the Purohit, and a train of one hundred and eighty damsels descended to bathe in the Jumna, a heavy shower coming on they took shelter in the cave where Dundha resided, and seeing him paid him homage. He was pleased with them and desired them to ask a boon: the Princess requested that she and her friends might ever live together, which was promised. Dundha then set off for Kasi, and on the bank of the Ganges he divided himself into a hundred and eight pieces, which he offered in fire, and having solicited of Siva that he might have fifty sons, he went to heaven. After a time he was born again on earth, both in a principal portion of himself, and 108 parts, into which he was divided, as so many warriors of distinguished prowess and renown. Twenty were born the sons of Someswara in Ajmer, of whom Pritwi Raya was the chief incarnation of Dundha, the other warriors were attracted from various countries to his Court.

As Nitthura of Kanoj; Jait Salankhi of Abu; Parihar of Mandowar; Hahulli of Kangur; Balabhadra of Nagore; Chandrabhatt, the bard of Lahore; Attatai of Delhi; Bidyadhar of Sorah ; Ramdeva of Jalore; Dhamini Grasay of Govindgerh, and Dahim of Biana. Thirteen Chiefs were from Dilli; Harisinh from Bayangerh; Achalesabhanu from Jaselhamer; Pajun from Chitore; Jangharbhim from Junagerh; Narasinh from Samiyangerh ; Devaradhir and Ranadhir, from the West; Saranga Rai of Mori, and Baradah Rai; Kahnatì Rai of Asergerh; Tejalla the Dor of Junor; Taran of Bhatner; Bhonha Chandel of Panapati; Iavalojjhat from the North ; from Satnanj nagar in Surat; Ramalli the Baragujar; Marut Khan ; Khan Hara, Hamir; Kheta and Khagar two brothers ; Kanak the Pamari, and Sankhula from Khatwa, all these and others did service to Prithi Ray.

Whilst this was the case, Vijayapála named Kámadhwaja, Raja of Kanoj, invaded the territories of Anangapala, the King of Delhi; Anangapala hastened to meet him with a powerful host. Intelligence was conveyed to Somesa, who immediately ordered his warriors to collect their forces, and forthwith marched to the assist: ance of the King of Delhi. Anangapala received him with great respect and attention, and Somesa vowed to scatter the enemy as the wind scatters the down of the grass. On the next day the armies encountered. Somesa led the centre, the right was entrusted to Chorangi, the Chouhan Chief, the left to Viramma, and the reserve to Jaysinh the Kurma. The armies advanced amidst the clang of drums and trumpets, and the shouts of heroes, while flights of arrows hid the sun like the heavy clouds of the rainy season. The wings first closed, Chorangi was opposed by Virasinh and Viramma by Balarai Kamadhwaja; the contest on either part was long and sanguinary, but the enemy were defeated, and the warriors of Somesa closed upon the centre where Vijayapal was engaged with Somesa in his front. Being thus charged on both flanks, his troops broke and fled, and it was only by the extraordinary exertions, and the death of his bravest warriors that he was enabled to escape captivity. He fled to Kanoj. Somesa returned to Sambher, It was on this occasion that Anangapala gave him his daughter in marriage, besides valuable presents in jewels, coin, horses

and elephants, and male and female slaves, and he conferred upon him the district of Hisar. In due time the Princess of Delhi was delivered of a son, Prithi Rai, who was destined to wield the sceptre of Delhi, and triumph over the monarchs of Ghizni and Kanoj. He was born on the 3rd of the dark fortnight of Baisakh, Samyat 1105.


The historical details of this part of the work are probably ac

Vijayapála, or V. Chandra, as he is also named, preceded the last Raja of Kanoj, the personal enemy of Prithi Rai, and was cotemporary therefore with his father. Inscriptions published in the IXth and X Vth volumes of the Asiatic Researches satisfactorily establish his character and date. He reigned about A.D. 1140-his Tribe the Rathores, evidently disputed the possession of Delhi, with the Chouhans, to whom Anangapala transferred it by the adoption of his youngest daughter's son Prithi Rai. According to our original the wife of Vijayapála was the elder daughter of the King of Delhi, and a piece of family injustice therefore exacerbated the hostile feelings of the parties which favoured, if it did not cause the Mohammedan invasion,

We may have future occasion to notice Prithi Rai's Champions or Samants in detail, and therefore need not advert particularly to them at present; the only other matter worthy of notice is the date of Prithi Rai's birth, which is exactly a Century too early. Prithi Rai was killed in A. D. 1192, the text says he was 43 years old, and he was consequently born in 1149, or in the year of Vikram 1205. The date is expressed in words not in figures, or it might be easily accounted for, but even in its present form it no doubt originates in the blunder of the copyist, or the mistaken correction of some later hand.

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ART. III.-Review.- The Draught of Immortality and other

Poems,-by HENRY MEREDITH PARKER. The art of criticism though unconsciously cherished by most patrons of Literature, has few opportunities in this country for letting flow the stream of its humour to freshen or to destroy the productions of Genius. Like Genius itself, what critical taste is possessed amongst our community, is preserved in the closet for the amusement of such few hours as can be stolen for intellectual recreation, and of such select minds as compose its favoured and rational Society. As the Literature of England supplies entertainment to our tastes, so the English Reviews give a turn to our opinions. But with the earliest attempts of Indian talent, to give

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