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tive obligations; and where these do not exist, they are oppressive, cruel, treacherous, and every thing that is bad. We have heard much in England of their humanity to animals, I can only say that I have seen po tokens of it in Calcutta.
" Their high reputation in such matters has arisen, I am assured, from exaggerated statements of particular instances, such as may bappen in any country, of overstrained tenderness for animal life, and from the fact, that certain sacred animals, such as the bulls dedicated to Brahma, are really treated with as much tenderness and consideration as if they were Brahmins themselves. As yet it remains to be seen how far the schools may produce a change for the better. I am inclined to bope every thing from them, particularly from these which Mrs. Wilson has, under the auspices of the Church Missionaries, set on foot for females; but I am sure that a people such as I have described, with so many amiable traits of character, and so great natural quickness aud intelligence, ought to be assisted and oncouraged as far as we possibly can in the disposition which they now evince, in this part of the country at least, to acquire a knowledge of our language and laws, and to imitate our habits and examples. By all which I bave learned, they now really believe we wish them well, and are desirous of their im. provement; and there are many points (that of the burning widows is one) in wbich a change for the better is taking place in the public mind, which, if we are not in too great a hurry, will probably, ere long, break down the observance of, at least, one horror. Do not suppose that I am prejudiced against the Hindoos. In my personal intercourse with them I have seen much to be pleased with, and all which I hear and believe as to what they might be with a better Creed, makes me the more earnest in stating the horrors for which their present Creed, as I think, is answerable."
It follows not, however, that because the natives of this country must look to the Christian Government, for the amelioration of their lot, and their advancement in the scale of civilization, an unrestricted permission to Christians, to settle on their plains, would prove a blessing to them, as the means of more speedily attaining these objects. The acute and truly benevolent Bishop has spoken out on the subject of · Colonization, as it is to affect the happiness and the consequent improvement of our native subjects, and to this measure he is decidedly opposed. Hav. ing, in a former number, given our statements so fully on this much agitated question, we need only in this place, express our satisfaction at finding Dr. Heber taking the same view of the subject. We are persuaded with him, that the application of the means of improvement is most likely to prove successful, under the restricted system, by which British India is now ruled ; and if any error has been committed, it certainly is not in under estimating the value of the means we possess. On the contrary, we apprehend, we are apt to be but too sanguine, both as to the extent of what we can do, and the celerity by which it can be attained ; and we are not sure, that the work of the worthy Bishop will not in some measure, tend to strengthen this erroneous estimate of the instrument, as compared with the work to be done, and the material to be worked upon. It is on this account, that we would particularly urge, in closing this article, upon all, who have the superintendence of these means, that while they endeavour to meet the responsibility, which Providence has imposed upon them, they also duly estimate the extent of those means, which the same Providence has put into their hands, lest their zeal be found to' outstrip their knowledge. Large, indeed, is the field, that lies before us, and the very hope, that we are as yet able to occupy and to fill its extent, may perhaps be found one of the most pernicious errors into which we can fall. This hope may lead us to attempts, that bespeak more of the pride of human vanity and selfishness, than of a chastened, and a sincere desire to benefit our fellow creatures. The spot which in this part of the great theatre of Asia, is really occupied by Christians, is but narrow and circumscribed ; and from what experience has taught us of the extent, and the capability of human exertions in the best causes, we can only indulge the hope of being truly useful by concentrating our labours, and rather confining them to the circle, that is properly within our reach, than by attempting to extend them to the utmost limits of that benighted world, over which our power has been extended. One great error of the age, in which we live, is to wander into too comprehensive a detail in those schemes of Christian benevolence, that have their origin in the best of motives. We are apt to look more at what is to be done, than at what, with our limited means, we can rationally hope to accomplish. We are impatient, if the success that attends our plans, is not commensurate with the hopes, which we indulged at its commencement; and before we have allowed time to one part of the moral machinery to be fairly brought into action, we are seen hastening away to set another in motion. Thus it is, that we often appear to others, and even to ourselyes, to be doing much, when in truth, we are accomplishing little.
We are seduced by the illusion, that we have only to rouse ourselves, to the devising of new schemes of benevolence, in order to enlighton and convert the world, and hence does it happen, that years pass over our heads, finding us still engaged in the organi : zation of new plans ; instead of hailing the success that would perhaps have long ere now attended our pristine endeavours had they been steadily and solely pursued.
The application of these principles must be apparent to every one; and they are beacons, which ought to direct us, in all our schemes for ameliorating the moral and religious condition of the heathen world-otherwise have we no rational grounds to hope, that through our instrumentality, “will the day spring from on high,” ever visit the populo us and benighted regions, of which we hold the dominion,
But we must hasten to take leave of Bishop Heber and his Journal. As a traveller so peculiarly our own, we have devoted a more than ordinary portion of our pages to his work : and we shall be truly happy, if our remarks recommend it to any, who have not seen it. We hope the example he has set of carefully collecting every species of information, as he traversed his vast and interesting diocese, will be followed by all, who may visit the same countries, We have still to complain of the want of tra. velling of this accurate description; and until we can boast of them, we must remain in the dark, as to much that is interesting in the great Empire of Britain in India. The following notice encourages us indeed to hope, that this desideratum will in some measure be soon applied, as it introduces us to a traveller, untrammelled by the discharge of official duties, and traversing the plains and mountains of the Eastern world, with the sole view of collecting the scattered treasures they contain:
" MR. Hyde,” says Bishop HEBER, “is a great traveller, and the only Englishman, whom I have heard of, except Lord Valencia, who bas visited India from motives, exclusively, of science and curiosity, since the country has been in our possession. All others, liowever science might engross their attention, have, like Leyden and Sir W. Jones, had some official and ostensible object, whereas this gentleman is merely making a tour. He left England seven years ago, with the intention of being absent a few months, and has been since rambling on, without plan, and chiefly as his course has been determined by the motions of others. Having attached himself to Mr. Bankes, I believe in Spain, he accompanied him into Egypt, Nubia, Syria, and Arabia. Mr. Rich enticed him from Palmyra on to Babylon and Bagdad. From Bussorah he came to Bombay, touching in his way at some of the ports of Oman and Yemen, in the hope of finding an eligible opportunity of returning home by sea ; and then, finding himself in a new and interesting country, determined to make the tour of India. Added to his zeal for seeing new countries, he has an uncommon share of good-nature and cheerfulness, and is exactly the person, whom I could conceive Bankes seleeting as his travelling companion.”
ART. VIII. On the Resemblance that prevails between the symbols
of Buddhism and Sivaism.
To the Editor of the Quarterly Oriental Magazine.
Some time ago I sent you a paper containing remarks upon the resemblance that prevails between the symbols of Buddhism and Sivaism. From a note which you appended to that paper on publishing it, I apprehend that the scope and object of my remarks were misunderstood ; and, as whatever is worth doing at all, is worth doing effectually, I shall (availing myself of Crawfurd's Ar
chipelago, which bas just now again fallen in my way) return briefly to the subject. The purpose of my former paper was to show that, very many symbols, the most apparently Saiva, are not withstanding strictly and purely Buddha, and that, therefore, in the examination of the antiquities of India and its islands, we need not vex ourselves, because on the sites of old Saugata temples we find the very genius loci arrayed with many of the apparent attributes of a Saiva God; far less, need we infer from the presence, on such sites, of seemingly Saiva images and types, the presence of actual Sivaism.
CRAWFURD, standing in the midst of hundreds of images of Buddhas on the platform of a temple, the general form and structure of which irresistibly demonstrated that it was consecrated to Sugatism, could yet allow certain appearances of Sivaism to conduct him to the conclusion, that the presiding Deity of the place was Hara himself! Nay, further, though he was persuaded that the ancient religion of the Javanese was Buddhism, yet having always found what he conceived to be unequivocal indices of the presidency of the Hindoo destroyer, in all the great Saugata temples, be came to the general conclusion, that " genuine Buddhism" is no other than Sivaism, Now, Sir, it was with an eye to these, and somewhat similar deductions of Crawfurd, Raffles, Erskine, &c. that I addressed my former paper to you; and I thought that when I had shown no reliance could be placed upon the inference from seemingly Saiva symbols to actual Sivaism, I had smoothed the way for the admission that those cave temples of the West of India, as well as those fine edifices at Java, whereas the majority of indications, both for number and weight, prove Buddhism, are Bauddha and exclusively Bauddha ; notwithstanding the presence of symbols and images occupying the post of honour, which, strongly to the eye, but in fact, erroneously in these cases, seem to imply Sivaism, or at least a coalition of the two faiths. For such a coalition at any time and in any place, I have not seen one plausible argument adduced; and as for the one ordinarily derived from the existence of supposed Saiva images and emblems in and around Bauddha temples, it is both erroneous in fact, and insufficient were it true. However probably borrowed from Sivaism, these images and symbols became genuinely Bauddha by their adoption into Buddhism-just as the statue of a Capitoline Jupiter became a very orthodox effigie of St. Paul, because the Romanists chose to adopt the Pagan idol in an orthodox sense. And were this explanation of the existence of seeming Sivaism in sites which were beyond doubt consecrated to Buddhism, far less satisfactory that it is, I would still say it is a thousand times more reasonable than the supposition of an identity or coalition between two creeds, the specu
In regard to those cave temples of the Western Continent of India, called mixed Saiva and Bauddha, the best suggested solution is successive possessionbut I believe them to have been wholly Buddbist.
lative tenets of which are wide asunder as heaven and earth, and the followers of which are pretty well known to have been, so soon as Buddhism became important, furiously opposed to each other.
UPON the whole, therefore, I deem it certain, as well that the types of Sivaism and Buddhism are very frequently the same, as that the things typified are always more or less, and generally radically, different.
Of the aptness of our writers of inferring Sivaism from apparently Siva images and emblems, I shall adduce a few striking instances from Crawfurd's 2d vol. chap. 1, on the ancient religion of the Islanders, and to save time and avoid odium, I shall speak rather to his engravings, than to his text; and shall merely state matters, without arguing them.
Let me add, too, that Crawfurd's mistakes could not well have been avoided. He had no access to the dead or living oracles of Buddhism, and reasoning only from what he saw, reasonably inferred that images, the most apparently Saiva, were really what they seemed to be, and that Saiva images and emblems proved a Saiva place of worship.
In bis chapter already alluded to, there are several engravings. No. 27 is said to be “a figure of Maha Deva as a devotee.” It is, in fact, Sinha-Natha-Lokeswara. Plate 28 is called "a representation of Siva." It is, in fact, Lokeswara Bhagawan, or Padma Páni, in his character of creator and ruler of the present system of nature. How Mr. Crawfurd could take it for Siva, I do not know, since in the forehead is placed a tiny image of Amitabha Buddha, whose son Padma Páni is feigned, by the Buddha mythologists, to be. Again, the principal personage in Plate 21 is said to be “ Siva in his car.” It is, in truth, Namuchi Tara, (the Bauddha personification of the evil principle), proceeding to interrupt the Dhyan of Sákya Sinha, and Plate 22 gives a continuation of this exploit exhibiting Sakya meditating, and the frustration of Namuchi's attempt by the opposition of force to force. The whole legend is to be found in the Sambhù Purana.
The same work contains likewise the elucidation of Plate 24, of which Mr. C. could make nothing.
Of the remaining Plates, and of the text of this chapter of Mr. C.'s, on other subjects, very able work, it would be easy, but it would to me be wearisome, to furnish the true explanation from the books or oral communications of the Buddhas of Nipal,