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of time, and of whom the Brahmins themselves report that they once disputed for dominion with their own race of Kings.

Such reflections induce me to lean to the conjecture, (for it is no more), that the division of the sects cannot be referred to a dismemberment of the original people at a period much later than the compilation of the Vedanta, their bone of contention; but rather that the time of compiling those works, which must have been a season when theological discussions were fashionable, was also the time at which the schism took place, many of the wise refusing to adopt the imaginative records of the part published by others, and adhering to the deistical principles which it was then proposed to supplant by a countless host of divine beings. But as this sentence seems to contain the first principle of a theory, let me briefly recapitulate the facts and reflections upon which I would found it. 1.-The source and root of the mythology now popular in Hindostan, is a principle of pure and simple Deism ; the sect of the Jainas contains stronger traces of this original character, both in their worship and their creed, than the Brahmanas. 2. -The Jainas were once a powerful people, and are now humbled and dispersed ; and it is contrary to the evidence of things in other continents, that ruin and dispersion should be taken as signs of recent origin and present prosperity as a proof of greater antiquity. 3.-The Jainas have been persecuted, subjected and finally only amalgamated amongst the unhonored classes of their oppressors; and it is contrary to the analogy of general history, that the reforming sect should be allowed to reach a degree of grandeur, and finally be swallowed up in the multitudes of the bigotted idolators, of whom they were a rebellious and dissenting portion.

These circumstances and reflections appear to warrant the hypothesis that the Jainas faintly represent that original stock from which all the religious sects of India have issued ; that while the multitude, charmed with the wisdom and the fancies of their Menus adopted a multiplicity of Gods, they refused to receive records which they knew to be imaginative, and like the Jews of Egypt, preferred slavery to an idolatrous apostacy.

But how does this theory, it may be asked, agree with the similarity between the Jaina and Brahmana Shastras ? I reply that because they appear to be the most ancient people, it does not necessarily follow that their books must be the most ancient also. I am supposing that the compilation of the Vedanta, gave the signal for religious controversy, and that the Jainas were some of those who refused to receive these wonderful publications. To the Vedas succeeded commentaries, having been thought necessary perhaps on account of the obstinate prevalence of infidelity. About this period it would appear natural that the infidel Pundits should imitate this mode of recording the principles of their sects, and Vrishabba Natha (the first Tirthankar) compiled for his disciples an Institute of Laws, similar to that which Menu had presented to the followers of Muhadeo and Brahma. Though determined to avoid the prin. ciples, which formed the basis of dispute, it is not extraordinary that the Jaina writers, amalgamated as they were with the other tribe of Hindoos, in country and character, should have taken as the model of their compositions the only literature which their language contained. They were not forbidden to indulge their fancies in matters relating to the Earth, and, as Mr. Colebrooke says, though with a different intent--" In this rivalship of absurd fiction " it would not be unreasonable to pronounce that to be most mo, dern which has outgone all the rest.” The style of their intellectual works was imitated from that which was most popular at the time, in the same manner that the architecture of their temples is copied from the buildings of the most opposite people that occu. py the continent on which they are erected.

FROM these latter considerations I have banished the name of the Bauddhas ; but in regard to that sect I have retained one reflection, which seems to forbid all doubt on the subject of their relative antiquity-indeed it is so forcible, and the conclusion it warrants so obvious, that I attribute to my own ignorance alone my inability to remember any previous writer to whom the same remark has occurred.

It is a singular fact, that among the incarnations of Vishnu (detailed in the Vedas), that divinity, 'in bis ninth metempsyehosis, is described as assuming the form of Buddha, and giving origin to all the infidelities against the religion of Brahma, which existed on the face of the Earth. Now if the Vedanta were penned by the hand of man, and not communicated by revelation, no presumptive proof can be stronger than this, that the infidel chief here personified must have existed, and existed amongst the Hindoos, before this passage of Hindoo Literature was imagined and written. For, to suppose the contrary involves the hypothesis that the Buddhists arose into a sect upon the foundation of this chapter in the Vedanta ; or in other words that a dissenting people took, and adopted as their God, a Being or a name which had been branded by the most powerful Religionists of the age as the most despicable and hateful of appellations. The title might be applied to them from some work previously popular, but it is repugnant to probability that they should themselves assume the despised name as their religious badge. This remarkable passage occurs not in the commentaries or later works, but in the Vedas, the original subject of dispute, the earliest of Hindoo books, and what ingenuity of argument can make it seem probable that Buddha existed af. ter the history that describes him ?*

We wish our esteemed Correspondent had given us his authority for any notice of Bauddha in the Vedas. The refutation of Buddha doctrines by Vedanta writers and the legends of the Puranas, are no proofs of the antiquity of Buddha.-ED.

ASSOCIATE with this singular circumstance the facts that the same language contains the Literature of each people, the same continent contains the marks of their origin and dominion, and who can doubt that the Buddhas, the Jainas and the Brahmanas have sprung

from the same stem, and that Hindostan was once the seat of the same simple religion which was the real faith of JerursalemPersepolis and Memphis ? All the superior antiquity which my observations advocate for the two latter sects, and especially for the last, is that they afford us the best procurable representation of the religious belief of the Hindoos before the compilation of those books which seem to have established the present idolatrous system.

In the general view that I have taken in this paper, I have avoided the question of the relative origin of the Jains and Bauddhas, as one which requires considerable acquaintance with their Literature; for both are a broken and banished sect, and their condition is too assimilated, their traces too scattered, to assist the more general Philosopher.

A. P. Note.-Since sending this article to the Printer, I have ascertained that Colonel Franklin ascended Mount Párusnath in the year 1819 or 20. Had that Gentleman publisbed the 5th part of his work, which, I believe, contains an account of bis ascent, I should not probably have thought that the parrative of my own visit could be publicly interesting.

A. P.

ERRATUM - Page 102, for Covra Capella, read “ Cabra di Capello."

The loud winds blew, the snow was drifting high,

But whence that sweet girl cane I could not tell,
There was a moving wildness in her eye,

Her head uncover'd and her bosom bare,

And tear-drops frozen as they rested there,
I longed to share the pillow where they fell,

Her face was wan and sad and yet would seem,
Flushed as she felt the power of thought pass by,

Of what she had been, oh! the difference now !
I kissed the Icicles


her brow,
And ever and anon as they would thaw

Her eye, that home of light would mildly beam,
Her tongue unlock'd from silence then would draw,

A melting sweetness from his honied cell,
Her voice like waters rolling into rest,
Dear Wanderer ! I clapsed thee to my breast,

Though false at first, and loved alas! too well!
Sweet Memory thy name shall be called Hope before,
And now each passing bell but makes me love thee more.

R. C. M.

ART. II.-Hindu Traditions of the History of the Rajput Tribes.

(Continued from page 29.)


DREAM OF PRITHWI RAI. Prithwi Raj had one night a dream, in which a Yogini of extreme beauty, and splendidly attired, seemed to place him upon the throne of Delhi, and drew the mark of empire on his forehead. When the youth rose, he related his dream to his mother, who sent for the Astrologers, and desired them to interpret its purport. After due deliberation, they said that in five days Prithwi Rai would be King of Delhi. The Ráni desired them not to mention this to any one, and withdrew, taking her son with her. She then related to him the following account of Delhi :


A predecessor of my father Ananga Pal, who was named Kilhana Raja, went out on one occasion to the chase.

Having started a hare, he set the dogs at it; but the hare turned and fought the dogs, and kept them at bay. The Raja being struck with admiration at this sight, determined to found a city here, and sending for the learned Vyása, desired him to calculate a propitious hour : he did so, and further fixed an iron pin in the ground, which, by the power of magic, was made to rest upon the head of Sesha : as long as this continued to be the case, Vyása prophecied the dominion unshaken. After several descents, the city Kilhanpur came to Ananga Pal. Having heard the tradition just mentioned, he took it into his head that he would change the name of the city, and sending for Vyása, desired him to announce a propitious hour. Vyása objected to it, and said that if the pillar fixed on the former occasion, and which rested on the head of Sesha, was disturbed, the kingdom would perish. Ananga Pal only laughed at him, and asked how was it possible that a pin of seven inches length, and inserted by the hand of Vyása himself, could rest on the head of Sesha—the story was intended for fools, and Vyása knew nothing of futurity. So saying, he had the pin taken up, when, wonderful to behold, it was found dripping with blood. Vyása then said to the Raja--you have done a very foolish actyou have changed Killi to Dilli, but the power of the Tomaras is at an end. The Chouhans will now rule, and after them the Turks, for 900 years, until the year of Vikramadit 1600, when the Raja of Mewat will restore the dominion of the Hindus, and the earth will be under one umbrella, as in the time of Prithwi Rai. Such was the prophecy of Vyása, which every one believes, although the Raja could not be persuaded of its truth.


Prithwi Rai being apprised of these circumstances, was much pleased, and made great rejoicings;-he continued to grow in age and strength, always attended by the young warriors his father had assembled around him. Amongst these one of the most eminent for valour and devotedness to his Lord, was Lohan, surnamed the long-armed, the son of Jajulli Rai, the Tomara. Amongst other proofs of his obedience, he threw himself from the top of a wall fifty feet high, upon Prithwi Rai's asking his companions which of them would venture such an attempt. He was taken up insensible ; but the Raja had him immediately conveyed to his palace, where he was carefully attended, and in a short time recovered. From that period he remained attached to Prithwi Rai, who conferred upon him the government of Gwaliyar, Orchha and Ranathamb, all together 5000 villages. He gave him also personal presents, 18 elephants, 500 horses and camels, 200 female slaves. With the force assigned him, he proceeded to Orchha, which was then held by Jeswant Raja. The Raja collected his troops, and marched to meet Lohan, when a fierce action was fought, in which Jeswant was killed. There fell on the side of Lohan 2000 warriors, and 6000 on that of his opponent. Orchha submitted to the victor.

Death Of The Seven CHALUKKAS.

The strength and prowess of Prithwi Rai continued to increase like the radiance of the Sun after he enters Capricorn, and the pow. er of his father Someswara derived additional stability from the reputation of his son. In those days there was also a powerful so. vereign in Guzerat, name Bhora Bhima bhujanga, of whom Saranga Deva the Chalukka was a servant-He had sevev sons, all celebrated warriors--Pratáp Sinh, Ari Sinh, Gokul Das, Govind, Hari Sinh, Syam Sinh, Bhagwan Sinh. These were ever ready at their father's commands to fly at his enemies like hawks at partridges, and dart upon them like lightning. After Saranga Deva's death, Pratáp Sinh succeeded to his authority, and his brothers remained attached to his person, doing whatever he enjoined them. They were all in the service of the Raja of Guzerat, Bhimanga, until Pratáp Sinh, and one of his brothers, Ari Sinh, offended. Two of the Raja's elephants having broke away from their keepers, and dealing destruction to every one that approached them, were countered by the two brothers in a bye-path leading from the thicket whither they had wandered. In order to save their own lives, they were compelled to attack the elephants. Pratáp Sinh clove one through the skull, whilst Ari Sinh with his mace broke the head of the other into a hundred pieces. When the King heard of the death of the animal he was highly displeased,


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