« הקודםהמשך »
The effects of Paul's discourse
on the Jews and the Gentiles.
A.M. cir. 4049.
A. D. cir. 45. An. Olymp. cir. CCVI. 1.
cir. CCVI. 1.
42 1 And when the Jews were them, persuaded them to continue A. M. cir.4049
. An. Olymp. gone out of the synagogue, the Gen- in the grace of God. .
tiles besought that these words might 44 [ And the next sabbath-day be preached to them the next sabbath. came almost the whole city together to hear the
43 Now when the congregation was broken word of God. up, many of the Jews and religious proselytes | 45 But when the Jews saw the multitudes, followed Paul and Barnabas : who, speaking to they were filled with
•Gr. in the week between, or, in the sabbath between. ch. 11. 23. & 14.22.
c Tit. 2. 11. Heb. 12. 15. 1 Pet. 5. 12. ch. 18. 6. 1 Pet. 4. 4. Jude 10.
frequently the case, not only in MSS. but even in printed the words ex Tng Ouvaywyns Twv loveaww, are left out in the books. It seems as evident as it can well be, that this was first clause, avtwy being put in their place; and ta ebrn the the word which the Septuagint found in the copy from which Gentiles, is wholly omitted in the second clause. The most they translated: their evidence, and that of the apostle, eminent critics approve of this reading ; indeed it stands on joined to the consideration that the interchange of the two such authority as to render it almost indubitable. Of the letters mentioned above might have been easily made, is | autwy them, which is substituted for the first clause, Professor quite sufficient to legitimate the reading for which I contend. White says, Lectio in dubiè genuina; this reading is unIloubigunt and several others are of the same mind. doubtedly genuine : and of the Ta & Svr Eis, he says, certis
The word açant irre, which we translate perish, signifies sime delenda : they should certainly be expunged. We are more properly disappear, or hide yourselves ; as people, therefore to understand the words thus : that “ as they were astonished and alarmed at some coming evil, betake them- | going out on the breaking up of the assembly, some of them selves to flight, and hide themselves in order to avoid it. desired that they might have these doctrines preached to
Verse 42. When the Jews were gone out] That part of them on the ensuing week or sabbath.” And thus all the them in whom the words of the prophet were fulfilled, viz. | ambiguity of the verse vanishes. those who, though they had the clearest relation of so inter Verse 43. Many of the Jews] Direct descendants from esting a history, would not believe it: they shut their eyes some of the twelve tribes : and religious proselytes, heathens against the light, and hardened their hearts against the truth. who had been converted to Judaism, and having submitted There were other Jews in the assembly that did believe, and to circumcision, had become proselytes of the covenant : were saved.
though some think that the expression means proselytes of the The Gentiles besought] There is some doubt whether the gate; persons who believed in one God, like the Jews, but original TaperahcUy Ta søvn, should be translated the Gentiles who had not received circumcision. besought ; or they besought the Gentiles: for the words will Persuaded them to continue in the grace of God.] That is, bear either ; but the latter sense more naturally. When the that they should continue to credit the gospel ; to receive Jews retired, determining not to credit what was spoken; the the spirit and influence of it; to bring forth the fruits of apostle, seeing the Gentiles of a better mind, requested that Spirit : and thus continue under the favour and appro. them to come and hear those words, or doctrines, the next bation of God. sabbath. But, the next, To UeTatu, as Hesychius defines it, Let' Verse 44. The next sabbath] The good news had spread ontyov, aro PECOV, shortly, or betwixt, may mean the after far and wide, by means of the converted Jews and prosepart of the same sabbath ; or the course of the ensuing week, || ytes. between the two sabbaths ; for Mondays and Thursdays, or Almost the whole city] Jews, Proselytes, and Gentiles, the second and fifth days of the week, were times in which came together to hear τον λογον του Θεου, this doctrine of those who feared God, usually met together in the synagogue; God, this divine teaching, by which so many of their kin. for it is a maxim with the Rabbins, that no three days should dred and acquaintance had become so wise and happy. It is elapse without reading of the law.
not by public discourses merely, that people are converted to On this verse there is a great number of various readings : God; but by the private teaching and godly conduct of those instead of when the Jews were going out of the synagogue, who have received the truth ; for as these are scattered ABCDE. several others of great repute, with all the Syriac, | throughout society, they are a leaven in every place. the Coptic, Æthiopic, Armenian, Vulgate, and Itala, read, Verse 45. The Jews were filled with envy] See on chap. As they were going out, they entreated that these words should v. 17. These could not bear the Gentiles, who believed in be preached unto them in the course of the week, or the next | Christ, to be equal with them; and yet, according to the sabbath. So that, according to this well accredited reading, Il gospel, it was really the case.
Paul and Barnabas abandon the Jews,
and turn to the Gentiles.
A. D. cir. 45.
A. D. cir. 45.
cir. CCVI. 1.
A.M.cir.4049. those things which were spoken by 47 For so hath the Lord commanded A.M.cir. 4049. An. Olymp. Paul, contradicting and blaspheming. us, saying, "I have set thee to be An. Olymp.
46 Then Paul and Barnabas waxed a light of the Gentiles, that thou cir. CCVI. 1. bold, and said, " It was necessary that the word shouldest be for salvation unto the ends of the of God should first have been spoken to you :/ earth. but seeing ye put it from you, and judge 48 And when the Gentiles heard this, they were yourselves unworthy of everlasting life, lo,' we glad, and glorified the word of the Lord : and turn to the Gentiles :
as many as were ordained to eternal life believed.
• Matt. 10. 6. ch. 3. 26. ver. 26. Rom. 1. 16. → Exod. 32. 10.
Deut. 32. 21. Isai. 55. 5. Matt. 21. 43. Rom. 10. 19.
Ch. 18. 6. & 28. 28
_d Isai. 12. 6. & 49. 6. Luke 2. 32. e ch. 2. 47.
Contradicting] The arguments and statements brought is from Isai. xlix. 6. and was most fully in point. The Jews forward by the disciples : and blaspheming; speaking iin- could not resist the testimony of their own prophet; and the piously and injuriously of Jesus Christ. This is probably Gentiles rejoiced to find that the offers of salvation were to what is meant.
be made so specifically to them. Verse 46. Waxed bold] Ilacsypiatuerat ; having great
For salvation unto the ends of the earth.] The very name liberty of speech; a strong, persuasive, and overpowering of the Messiah, viz. Jesus, announced the design and end eloquence. They had eternal Truth for the basis of this of his mission. He is the Saviour, and is to be proclaimed discourse ; a multitude of incontestable facts to support it: as such to the ends of the earth ; to all mankind; to every and an all-persuading eloquence to illustrate and maintain nation, and people, and tongue : and wherever the gospel is what they had asserted.
preached, there is a free, full, and sincere offer of salvation Should first have been spoken to you] When our Lord to every soul that hears it. And the offer is proof sufficient gave his apostles their commission to go into all the world in itself, that there is a power to receive its blessings, given and preach the gospel to every creature ; he told them they to those to whom the offer is made; as it would be of no use must begin first at Jerusalem, Mark xvi. 16. Luke xxiv. 47. to offer them a salvation, which it was designed they either In obedience therefore to this command, the apostles (in should not, or could not receive. A son of Satan might be every place where they preached) made their first offers of capable of such dissimulation and bad faith ; but the Holy the gospel to the Jews.
God cannot. Ye put it from you] Atws.cle auto, ye disdain this doctrine, Verse 48. As many as were orduined to eternal life, beand consider it contemptible : so the word is frequently used. lieved.] This text has been most pitifully misunderstood.
And judge yourselves unworthy of everlasting life]' Was Many suppose that it simply means, that those in that assembly this meant as a strong irony?“ Ye have such humbling who were fore ordained, or predestinated by God's decree to thoughts of yourselves, that ye think the blessings of the eternal life, believed, under the influence of that decree. Now, gospel too good to be bestowed on such worthless wretches as we should be careful to examine what a word means, before we ye are?" Or did the apostle mean, that, by their words attempt to fix its meaning. Whatever TETAYLeroi may mean, and conduct on this occasion, they had passed sentence on
which is the word we translate ordained, it is neither TI POTET@Ythemselves, and, in effect, had decided that they were un Meron nor Tipooplouerol, which the apostle uses, but simply Teworthy of the grace of the gospel ; and God now ratifies Tayuevon, which includes no idea of pre-ordination, or prethat judgment by removing those blessings from them, and destination of any kind. And if it even did, it would be sending them to the Gentiles?
rather hazardous to say, that all those who believed at this Verse 47. For so the Lord commanded us] The apostles time were such as actually persevered unto the end, and were could quote a pertinent scripture for every thing they did ; saved unto eternal life. But, leaving all these precarious because the outlines of the whole gospel dispensation are matters, what does the word TETXyuevos mean? The verb founded in the law and the prophets; and they were now TOTTW or Tacow signifies to place, set, order, appoint, disbuilding the church of God according to the pattern shewn pose; hence it has been considered here as implying the disthem in the Mount. In the things of God, no man nor mi- position or readiness of mind of several persons in the connister should go farther than he can say, Thus it is written, gregation, such as the religious proselytes mentioned ver. 43. and thus it behoves me to do; and let him see that his / who possessed the reverse of the disposition of those Jews, quotatious are fairly made, and not a detached passage, or who spake against those things, contradicting und blasphemmember of a sentence produced, because it seems to look ing, ver. 45. Though the word in this place has been variously like the system he wishes to establish.
translated; yet of all the meanings ever put on it, none I hare set thee to be a light of the Gentiles] This quotation' agrees worse with its nature and knowu signification, than
The word of the Lord prevails ; and the CHAP. XIII. disciples are filled with the Holy Ghost. .
A. D. cir. 45.
cir. CCVI. 1.
cir. CCVI. 1.
49 And the word of the Lord was 51 "But they shook off the dust of A. M.cir.4049. An. Olyınp. published throughout all the region. their feet against them, and came An. Olymp.
50 1 But the Jews stirred up the unto Iconium. devout and honourable women, and the chief 52 And the disciples were filled with joy, men of the city; and raised persecution against and with the Holy Ghost. Paul and Barnabas, and expelled them out of their coasts.
1 2 Tim. 3. 11.Matt. 10. 14. Mark 6. 14. Luke 9. 5. ch. 18. 6.
• Matt. 5. 12. John 16. 22. ch. 2. 46.
that which represents it as intending those who were predes- it off, in departing from your country, according to our tinated to eternal life: this is no meaning of the term, and Lord's command, (Matt. x. 14.) for a testimony against you ; should never be applied to it. Let us without prejudice, that we offered you salvation, but ye rejected it, and per. consider the scope of the place: the Jews contradicted and secuted us. The Jews, when travelling in heathen countries, blasphemed; the religious proselytes heard attentively, and took care, when they came to the borders of their own, to received the word of life : the one party were utterly indis- shake off the dust of their feet, lest any of the unhallowed posed, through their own stubbornness, to receive the gospel;' ground should defile the sacred land of Israel. the others, destitute of prejudice and prepossession, were Came unto Iconium.] According to Strabo, Iconium was a glad to hear, that in the order of God, the Gentiles were small fortified town, the capital of Lycaonia, at present included in the covenant of salvation through Christ Jesus ; called Cæni. “ Lycaonia was a province at the back of they, therefore, in this good state and order of mind, be- Pamphylia, higher up in Asia Minor, and to the north-east lieved. Those who seek for the plain meaning of the word, of Pamphylia.” Pearce. will find it here : those who wish to make out a sense, not!
Verse 52. The disciples were filled with joy, and with the from the Greek word, its use among the best Greek writers, Holy Ghost.] Though in the world they had tribulation, and the obvious sense of the evangelist, but from their own yet in Christ they had peace ; and while engaged in their creed, may continue to puzzle themselves and others; kindle Master's work, they always had their Master's wages. The their own fire, compass themselves with sparks, and walk in happiness of a genuine Christian lies far beyond the reach of the light of their own fire, and of the sparks which they have earthly disturbances : and is not affected by the changes and kindled; and, in consequence, lie down in sorrow, having chances to which mortal things are exposed. The martyrs bidden adieu to the true meaning of a passage so very sim were more happy in the flames than their persecutors could ple, taken in its connexion, that one must wonder how it be on their beds of down. ever came to be misunderstood and misapplied. Those who St. Paul's sermon at Antioch has been thus analysed. wish to see more on this verse, may consult Hammond, 1. His prologue, ver. 16. addressed to those who fear God. Whitby, Schoettgen, Rosenmuller, Pearce, Sir Norton 2. His narrative of God's goodness to Israel: 1. in their deKnatchbull, and Dodd.
liverance from Egypt. 2. In their support in the wilderVerse 49. The word of the Lord was published, &c.] Those ness. 3. In his giving them the land of Canaan. 4. In the who had come from different parts, and were converted, car judges and kings which he had given for their governors, ried the glad tidings to their respective neighbourhoods ; and ver. 7-22. thus the doctrine of the gospel was published throughout all 3. His proposition, that Jesus was the Christ, the Saviour the region of Pisidia, where they then were. See on ver. 44. of the world, ver. 23. Verse 50. Devout and honourable women] It is likely
4. The illustration of this proposition, proving its truth, 1. that these were heathen matrons, who had become proselytes from Christ's stock and family ; ver. 23. 2. From the to the Jewish religion ; and as they were persons of afiluence testimony of his forerunner; ver. 24. 3. From the reand respectability, they had considerable influence with the surrection of Christ, ver. 30. which was corroborated civil magistracy of the place; and probably their husbands with the testimony of many Galileans, ver. 31. and of were of this order; and it is likely that they used that in the prophets, David, ver. 33, 35. and Isaiah, ver. 31. fluence at the instigation of the Jews, to get the apostles ex 5. Ile anticipates objections, relative to the unjust condempelled from the place.
nation, death and burial of Christ, ver. 27–29. Verse 51. They shook off the dust of their feet against them] 6. His epilogue, in which he excites his audience to emThis was a very significant rite : by it, they in effect said, brace the gospel on two considerations: 1. The benefits Ye are worse than the heathen : even your very land is ac which they receive who embrace the gospel, ver. 38, 39. cursed for your opposition to God; and we dare not permit 2. The danger to which they were exposed who should eren its dust to cleave to the soles of our feet; and we shake despise and reject it, ver. 40, 41.
Paul and Barnabas preach in a
synagogue of the Jews at Iconium
CHAPTER XIV. Paul and Barnabas having preached at Iconium with great success, are persecuted, and obliged to flee to Lystra
and Derbe, 1–6. Here they preach, and heal a cripple ; on which, the people supposing them to be gods, are about to offer them sacrifices, and are with difficulty prevented by these apostles, 7—18. Certain Jews from Antioch and Iconium coming thither, induce the people to stone Paul; who being dragged out of the city as dead, while the disciples stand around him, he rises up suddenly, and returns to the city, and the next day departs to Derbe, 19, 20. Having preached here, he and Barnabas return to Lystra, Iconium, and Antioch, confirming the disciples, and ordaining elders in every church, 21–23. They pass through Pisidia and Pamphylia, 24. Through Perga and Attalia, 25, and sail to Antioch in Syria, 26. When having called the disciples together, they inform them of the door of faith opened to the Gentiles, and there abode a long time with the church, 27, 28.
ND it came to pass in Iconium, || boldly in the Lord, which gave testi- A.M.ci:4019 An. Olymp.
that they went both together | mony unto the word of his grace, An. Olymp.
into the synagogue of the Jews, and and granted signs and wonders to be cir. CCVI. 1. so spake, that a great multitude, both of the done by their hands. Jews and also of the Greeks, believed.
4 But the multitude of the city was A. M. cir. 4030, 2 But the unbelieving Jews stirred up the divided : and part held with the Jews, An. Olymp. Gentiles, and made their minds evil affected and part with the apostles. against the brethren.
5 And when there was an assault made both 3 Long time therefore abode they speaking of the Gentiles, and also of the Jews with their
cir. CCVI. 1.
A. D. cir. 46.
cir. CCVI. 2.
For no apos.
Speaking boldly] Happycraqueros, having great liberty NOTES ON CHAP. XIV.
of speech, a copious and commanding eloquence, springing Verse 1. In Iconium] See the conclusion of the pre- || from a consciousness of the truth which they preached. ceding chapter.
The word of his grace] The gospel of Jesus Christ, So spake] Kai danno al OUTWs, with such power and de which is the doctrine of God's grace, mercy or favour to monstration of the Spirit, that a great multitude both of the mankind. Jews, genuine descendants of one or other of the twelve tribes, And granted signs and wonders to be done] and also of the Greeks 'Examwv, probably such as were tle could work a miracle by himself; nor was any sign or proselytes of the gate, believed, received the Christian reli wonder wrought even by the greatest apostle, but by an esgion as a revelation from God, and confided in its Author forpecial grant or dispensation of God. This power was not resalvation, according to the apostle's preaching.
sident in them at all times; it was only now and then comVerse 2. Stirred up the Gentiles] Twv shvwv, such as municated, when a miracle was necessary for the confirmation were mere heathens, and thus distinguished from the Jews, of the truth preached. and the Greeks, who were proselytes.
Verse 4. The multitude of the city was divided] The Evil affected] Exaxwtar, irritated or exasperated their Jews treated the apostles as false teachers, and their miracles minds against the brethren, the disciples of Christ : one of as impositions, and many of the people held with them: their appellations before they were called Christians at Anti while the others who had not hardened their hearts against och. See on chap. xi. 26.
the truth, felt the force of it; and being without prejudice, Verse 3. Long time therefore abode they] Because they could easily discern the miracles to be the work of God, and had great success, therefore they continued a long time, gain- | therefore held with the apostles. ing many converts, and building up those who had believed, Verse 5. An assault made] Opuy, a desperate attempt in their most holy faith ; notwithstanding the opposition they was made by their rulers, i. e. by the heathen rulers of the met with, both from the unbelieving Jews and heathens. people, and the rulers of the synagogue.
Paul heals a cripple at Lystra,
who had never walked.
A. D. cir. 46.
A.D. cir. 46.
cir. CCVI. 9.
A. M. cir. 4050. rulers, * to use them despitefully, and 9 The same :
heard Paul speak: A. M.cir. 4050. An. Olymp. to stone them,
who stedfastly beholding him, and An. Olymp. 6 They were ware of it, and "fled perceiving that he had faith to be cir: CCV1.2. unto Lystra and Derbe, cities of Lycaonia, and healed, unto the region that lieth round about :
10 Said with a loud voice, Stand upright on 7 And there they preached the gospel.
And he leaped and walked. 8 I *And there sat a certain man at Lystra, 11 And when the people saw what Paul had impotent in his feet, being a cripple from his done, they lifted up their voices, saying, in mother's womb, who never had walked :
the speech of Lycaonia, 'The gods are come
• 2 Tim. 3. 11.
• Matt. 10. 23. ch. 3. 2.
& Matt. 8. 10. & 9. 28, 29,- Isai. 35. 6.ch. 8. 10. & 28. 6.
To use them despitefully] To expose them, bring them Verse 10. Said with a loud voice] After this clause the into contempt, and make them appear as monsters, or movers following is found in CD. and several others, either in the of sedition; and then to stone them for this falsely alleged text or margin; oun deYW EV TW orquatı tou Kupiou Ingou crime.
X51500, I say unio thee, In the name of the Lord Jesus Verse 6. They were ware of it] They were informed of Christ, “ stand upright on thy feet.” This reading is also in the scheme, and of the attempt that was about to be made, several Versions; and though it may not stand on such eviand fled unto Lystra aud Derbe ; they did not leave the pro- dence as to entitle it to a place in the text, yet it is not likely vince of Lycaonia ; but went to other towns and cities. Lys- that St. Paul would not have used the sacred name on such tra lay to the south and Derbe to the north of Iconium, ac an occasion ; especially as this appears to have been the usual cording to the general opinion. Strabo, Geogr. lib. xii. tells form. See chap. iii. 6. us expressly, that Iconium was within Lycaonia, Thence are He leaped and walked.] Giving the fullest proof of his the Lycaonian hills, plain, cold, naked, and pastures for wild restoration : his leaping, however, might have been through asses.- About these places stands Iconium, a town built in a joy of having received his cure. better soil. Ptolemy also, Tab. Asiæ, i. cap. 6. places Ico Verse 11. Saying, in the speech of Lycaonia] What nium in Lycaonia : how comes it then, that St. Luke does this language was, has puzzled the learned not a little. Calnot call Iconium a city of Lycaonia, as well as Derbe and met thinks it was a corrupt Greek dialect ; as Greek was the Lystra? Pliny, Hist. Nat. lib. v. cap. 27. solves this diffi- / general language of Asia Minor. Mr. Paul Ernest Jabculty, by stating that, There was granted a tetrurchy out of lonski, who has written a dissertation expressly on the subLycuonia, on thut side which borders upon Galatia, consisting, ject, thinks it was the same language with that of the Capof fourteen cilies; the most famous of which is Iconium. padocians, which was mingled with Syriac. That it was no See Lightfoot.
dialect of the Greek, must be evident from the circumstance And there they preached the gospel.] Where- of its being here distinguished from it. We have sufficient ever they went they were always employed in their Master's proof from ancient authors that most of these provinces used work. Some MSS. of considerable note, add here, and all different languages; and it is correctly remarked by Dr. the people were moved at their preaching, but Paul and Bar- Lightfoot, that the Carians who dwelt much nearer Greece nabas tarried at Lystra.
than the Lycaonians, are called by Ilomer Bapbapo pwrong Verse 8. Impotent in his feet] Aquvatos TOIS TOTW, he people of a barbarous or strange language: and Pausanias had no muscular power, and probably his ancle-bones were also called them Barbari. That the language of Pisidia was dislocated; or he had what is commonly termed club feet; distinct from the Greek, we have already seen ; note on chap. this is the more likely; as he is said to have been lame from xiii. ver. 15. We have vo light to determine this point : his mother's womb, and to have never walked.
and every search after the language of Lycaonia must be, Verse 9. That he had faith to be healed] How did this at this distance of time, fruitless. faith come to this poor heathen ? Why, by hearing the word The gods are come down to us in the likeness of men.] of God preached; for it is said, the same heard Paul speuk. From this, and from all heathen antiquity it is evident, 1. And it appears that he credited the doctrine he heard, and that the heathen did not consider the divine nature, how low believed that Jesus could, if he would, make him whole. Be soever they rated it, to be like the human nature. 2. That sides, he must have heard of the miracles which the apostles they imagined that these cælestial beings often assumed huhad wrought, see ver. 3. and this would raise his expectation man forms to visit men, in order to punish the evil, and reof receiving a cure.
ward the good. The Metamorphoses of Ovid are full of