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Care should be taken to bring

CHAP. V.

no reproach on the Gospel.

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selves as the ministers of God, in A. U. C. 810. Anno Imp.Ne.

Anno Imp. Ne 3. Giving no offence in any thing, much patience, in afflictions, in nethat the ministry be not blamed :

cessities, in distresses,

ronis Cæs. 4.

ronis Cæs. 4.

• Rom. 14. 13. 1 Cor. 9. 12. & 10. 32.

6 Gr. commending. ch. 4. 2.- 1 Cor. 4. 1.

the prophet Isaiah, chap. xlix. 8. which place the apostle | sin; and that, through him, we may be perfectly saved, quotes verbatim et literatim from the Septuagint. And from chap. v. 20, 21. 4. They shew also, that all this was agreeable this we may at once see, what is the accepted time; and what to the declaration of God by the prophet Isaiah, chap. xlix. 8. the day of salvation. The Advent of the Messiah was the where he predicts the days of the Messiah, and the grace then 73m no et ratson, the time of God's pleasure, or benevolence; to be communicated, chap. vi. 2. 5. The apostle then, speak. for which all the faithful were in expectation : and the daying in the person of all his fellow-labourers, who had this mi. of salvation, anu Si yom yeshuâh, was the time in which I nistry of reconciliation entrusted to them, exhorts them not to this salvation should be manifested and applied. The apostle, receive such a benefit of God in vain, chap. vi. 1. 6. He extherefore, informs them that this is the time predicted by the horts those who had embraced the gospel not to put a stum. prophet : and, the ministry of reconciliation being exercised bling-block in the way of others, by acting irreligiously, in full force, is a proof that the prophecy is fulfilled : and lest this ministry of reconciliation should be reproached on therefore the apostle confidently asserts, Behold, now is this their account, chap. vi. 3. 7. He shews what conscientious accepted time ; now, the Messiah reigns; now, is the gospel | and scrupulous care he and his fellow-apostles took to preach dispensation ; and therefore, now is the day of salvation : and walk so, that this ministry might have its full effect, that is, the very time in which the power of God is present chap. vi. 4, &c. to beal; and in which every sinner, believing on the Lord This view of the subject, if I mistake not, shews a beau. Jesus, may be saved.

tiful consistency throughout the whole. I rather think that this second verse should be read imme Verse 3. Giving no offence] The word *PAIXOTT, read diately after the last verse of the preceding chapter ; as, | pooroue. Mo, Rom. xiv. 13. signifies a stumbling-block, in gewhere it now stands, it greatly disturbs the connection be- || neral; or any thing over which a man stumbles or falls; and tween the first and the third verses. I will set down the here means any transgression or scandal that might take place whole in the order in which I think they should stand. | among the ministers, or the Christians themselves, whereby Chap. v. 20. Now then, we ure ambassadors for Christ, as either Jews or Gentiles might take occasion of offence, and though God did beseech you by us; we pray you in Christ's vilify the gospel of Christ. stead to be reconciled to God. For he hath made him a sin. Verse 4. But in all things approving ourselves] The offering for us, who knew no sin, that we might be made the apostle now proceeds to shew how conscientiously himself righteousness of God in him: for he saith, “ I have heard and his fellow-labourers acted, in order to render the minis. thee in a time accepted, and in the day of salvation have I try of reconciliation effectual to the salvation of men. succoured thee.Behold now is the accepted time: behold They not only gave no offence in any thing, but they laboured now is the day of salvation. Immediately after this, the to manifest themselves to be the genuine ministers of God, stxth chapter will very properly commence, and we shall see in much patience, bearing calmly up under the most painful that the connection will be then undisturbed.

and oppressive afflictions. We then, as fellow-workers beseech you also, that ye In afflictions] Ex 6VECly. This may signify the series receive not this grace of God in dain, giving no offence of persecutions and distresses in general; the state of cruel in any thing, that this ministry be not blamed. This suffering in which the church of God and the apostles then change of the place of the second verse, which every one existed. allows must, if it stand here, be read in a parenthesis, pre In necessities] Ex avayxons, straits and difficulties; inserves the whole connection of the apostle's discourse; and cluding all that want and affliction, which arose from the im. certainly sets his argument before us in a stronger light. | poverished state of the church. Let us review the whole : 1. God was in Christ, reconciling In distresses] Ex serox wpians, such straits and difficulties the world to himself, chap. v. 18. 2. He appointed the as were absolutely unavoidable and insurmountable. The apostles to proclaim to mankind the doctrine of reconcili- word implies, being reduced to a narrow place, driven to a ation, chap. v. 19. 3. The apostles, in consequence, pro- corner, hemmed in on every side ; as the Israelites were at claim this doctrine, and shew that Christ was a sacrifice for the Red Sea : the sea before them; Pharaoh and his host

The state of the apostles, both in

II. CORINTHIANS.

respect to the world, and to God.

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5 •In stripes, in imprisonments, in | 7 By the word of truth, by the Ano..810: tumults, in labours, in watchings, in power of God, by the armour of A1.2.910

righteousness on the right hand and ronis (as. 1. 6 By pureness, by knowledge, by long-suf- on the left, fering, by kindness, by the Holy Ghost, by 8 By honour and dishonour, by evil report and love unfeigned,

good report : as deceivers, and yet true;

• Ch. 11. 33, &c.

b

Or, in tossings to and fro.--- ch. 4. 2. & 7. 14.

d 1 Cor. 2. 4.

_ ch. 10. 4. Eph. 6. 11, 13. 2 Tim. 4. 7.

behind them; and Egyptian fortresses on either hand: or belong to the body; and five internal, or belonging to the God alone could bring them out of such difficulties, when | soul : but all men prefer the tenth, which is 720 019 ruach their enemies themselves saw that the wilderness had shut hakkodesh, the 11ty Spirit.Even allowing Rabbi Pinthem in. So was it often with the apostles; all humanchas to be a person on whose judgment we could rely, and help failed; and their deliverance came from God alone. whose authority were decisive, there does not appear to me

Verse 5. In stripes, in imprisonments] of these, the any reason why we should depart from the usual meaning of history of the Acts of the Apostles gives ample testimony: | the term, from any thing that is said here. It appears to me and there were doubtless many instances of persecution in plain enough that the Rabbi means the constant indwelling of various forms, which are not on record.

the Holy Spirit; and St. Paul, in this place, may have the same In tumults] Anata sariais insurrections raised against thing in view ; and with it, the various gifts of the iloly them because of the gospel : it is more natural to understand Spirit, by which he was enabled to work miracles. the word thus, than of agitations, or tossings to and fro, in By love unfeignel] Ex ayatın AVUTOMDITI, love without consequence of their unsettled state of life ; or because of hypocrisy ; such as disposed us at all times to lay down our persecution, which obliged them to flee from place to place. life for the brethren; and to spend and be spent for the glory

In labours] Both with our own hands to provide for our of God, and the good of mankind. selves the necessaries of life, that we might not be charge Verse 7. By the word of truth] The doctrine of truth, able to others : and in labours, to spread the gospel of God received immediately from God, and faithfully and affecthrough all countries where his providence opened our way. tionately preached to men.

In watchings] Passing many nights without sleep or rest. By the power of God] Confirming this doctrine, not only

In fastings] Partly constrained through want of food ; hy the miracles which we were enabled to work, but also by and partly voluntary, as a means of obtaining an increase of the application of that truth to the souls of the people, by grace, both for ourselves and for the churches.

the
energy

of God. Verse 6. By pureness] E, ayo77,71: in simplicity of in By the armour of righteousness] Such as that described tention, and purity of affection; together with that chustity by the apostle, Eph. vi. 13—17. which he calls there the and holiness of life which the gospel enjoins.

whole armour of God, consisting of the following pieces: the By knorëledge] Of the Divine mysteries.

girdle of truth, the breastplate of righteousness, the shoes By long-suffering] Under all provocations.

of the gospel of peace, the shield of faith, the helmet of By kindness] To our most virulent persecutors, and to salvation, and the sword of the Spirit. all men.

On the right hand and on the left] Particularly the shield By the Holy Ghost] There are doubts among learned and the sword: the former on the left arm, the latter in men, whether the apostle here means that Spirit who is the right hand. We have the doctrine of truth, and the called the third person of the Holy Trinity; or some grace, | power of God, as an armour to protect us on all sides, ezers disposition, or quality of the soul, which was thus denomi- || where, and on all occasions. nated, as implying a spirit wholly purificd, and fitted to be a It seems far fetched to understand the right hand as sig. habitation of God.

nifying prosperity ; and the left as signifying adver sily; as Schoettgen quotes a passage from Rabbi Bechai, in which if the apostle had said we have this armour to defend us it appears to him to have this latter meaning.“ Rab. both in prosperity and adversity. By the doctrine of the Pinchas, the son of Jair, said, Reflection leads to sedulity; gospel

, and by the power of God, the apostles were fursedulity to innocence; innocence to abstinence; abstinence nished with offensive and defensive weapons; they couid to cleanness; cleanness to sanctity ; sanctity to the fear of ever defend themselves, and discomfit their foes. sin ; fear of sin to humility; humility to piety; and piety Verse 8. By honour and dishonour] By going through to the Holy Spirit. Of these ten virtues five are external, I both; sometimes respected, sometimes despised.

The state of the apostles, both in

CHAP. VI.

respect to the world, and to God.

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9 As unknown, and "yet well known; unto you, dour heart is enlarged.

our 4. M. 4061. A. 1 2.810. Was dying, and, behold, we live; ‘as 12 Ye are not straitened in us, but A. U.C. 810. rur:is Cas. 4. chastened, and not killed;

ye are

straitened in your own bowels. ronis Cæs. 4. 10 As sorrowful, yet alway rejoicing; as 13 Now for a recompence in the same, (* I poor, yet making many rich; as having nothing, speak as unto my children,) be ye also enand yet possessing all things.

larged. 110 ye Corinthians, our mouth is open 14 5 Be ye not unequally yoked together with

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By evil report and good report] Sometimes praised ; at betters the condition of the poor. It makes them sober ; so other times calumniated.

they sure what before they profusely and riotously spent : it As deceivers] Said to carry about a false doctrine for our makes them diligent, and thus they employ time to useful secular emolument.

purposes, which they before squandered away. They, there- And yet true.] Demonstrated by the nature of the doc- fore, both save and gain by religion : and these must lead to trine, as well as by our life and conversation, that we are an increase of property. Therefore, they are made rich; true men; having nothing in view but God's glory, and the at least, in comparison with that sinful, profligate state, in salvation of the world.

which they were before they received the truth of the Verse 9. As unknown] Persons who are to be suspected gospel. as harbouring dark designs; persons of neither birth, parent As having nothing] Being the most abject of the poor. age, nor respectable connections in life.

And yet possessing all things] That are really necessary And yet well known] Proved by our whole conduct to to the preservation of our lives. For the wants under which have no such designs; and demonstrated to be holy, upright, we labour for a time, are supplied again by a bountiful Proand useful, by the whole train of our peregrinations, through vidence. The man who possesses a contented spirit, poswhich we can be readily traced from place to place; having sesses all things; for he is satisfied with every dispensation preached openly, and done nothing in a corner.

of the Providence of God; and “a contented mind, is a As dying] Through continual dangers, fatigues, and continual feast.” persecutions.

Verse 11. ( ye Corinthians, our mouth is open unto you] And behold zoe live] We are preserved by the mighty | I speak to you with the utmost freedom and fluency, because power of God in the greatest dangers and deaths.

of
my

affection for you. As chastened] As though we were disobedient children: Our heart is enlarged.] It is expanded to take you and

Yet not killerl] Though we continue in the very same line all your interests in ; and to keep you in the most affection. of conduct that is supposed to bring on us those chastisements; || ate remembrance. and which, if it were criminal, would justly expose us to The preceding verses contain a very fine specimen of a very death for incorrigible obstinacy: but our preservation is a powerful and commanding eloquence. proof that we please God.

Verse 12. Ye are not struitened in us] That is, ye have Verse 10. As sorrorful] Considerate men, supposing | not a narrow place in our affections: the metaphor here is from our persecuted state and laborious occupation, (often taken from the case of a person pent up in a small or narrow destitute of the necessaries of life, seldom enjoying its con- | place, where there is scarcely room to breathe. veniences, and scarcely ever its comforts,) that we must be Ye are straitened in your own bowels.] I have not the the most miserable of all men.

same place in your affections, which you have in mine. The Yet alway rejuicing] Having the consolations of God's bowels are used in Scripture to denote the most tender affecSpirit at all times; and a glorious prospect of a blessed im- tions. See the Note on Matt. ix. 36. mortality.

Verse 13. Now for a recompence in the same] That you As poor] Destitute of all worldly good and secular in may, in some sort, repay me for my affection towards you, terest.

I speak to you as unto my children, whom I have a right to Yet making many rich] By dispensing to them the trea- | command : be ye also enlarged, love me as I love you. sures of salvation ; making them rich in faith, and heirs of Verse 14. Be

ye not unequally yoked together with unbethe kingdom.

lievers] This is a military term; keep in your own ranks ; The gospel, when faithfully preached, and fully received, I do not leave the Christian community to join in that of the

Christians should not

II. CORINTHIANS.

associate with wicked men,

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unbelievers : for what fellowship || in them, and walk in them; and I 4.1.1.1961. Anno molto hath righteousness with unrighteous- will be their God, and they shall be A.C.810 ronis Cæs. 4. ness? and what communion hath my people. light with darkness ?

17 : Wherefore come out from among them, 15 And what concord hath Christ with Belial ? ||and be ye separate, saith the Lord, and touch or what part hath he that believeth with an infidel? | not the unclean thing; and I will receive you, 16 And what agreement hath the temple of

18 . And will be a Father unto you, and ye God with idols? for bye are the temple of the shall be my sons and daughters, saith the Lord living God; as God hath said, I will dwell | Almighty.

2,1 Sam. 5. 2, 3. 1 Kings 18. 21. Ecclus. 13. 17. 1 Cor. 10. 21. Eph. 1 & 36. 28. & 37. 26, &c. Zech. 8. 8. & 13. 9.— Isai. 52. 11. ch. 7. 1. 5. 7, 11. - 1 Cor. 3. 16. & 6. 19. Eph. 2. 21, 22. Hebr. 3. 6. Rev. 18. 4.- Jer. 31. 1, 9. Rev. 21. 7. • Exod. 29. 45. Lev. 26. 12. Jer. 31. 33. & 32. 38. Ezek. 11. 20.

heathens. The verb érepo Buyelv, signifies to leave one's own shall have none besides me: and if they take me for their rank, place, or order, and go into another : and here it God, I will be to them all that an infinite, eternal, and selfmust signify not only that they should not associate with the suficient Being can be to his intelligent offspring. Gentiles in their idolatrous feasts; but that they should not They shall be my people.] If they take me for their God, apostatize from Christianity : and the questions which follow, their supreme and eternal Good; I will take them for my shew that there was a sort of fellowship that some of the people, and instruct, enlighten, defend, provide for, support, Christians had formed with the heathens, which was both and bless them, as if I had pone else to care for in the wicked and absurd ; and if not speedily checked, would in- creation. fallibly lead to final apostasy.

Verse 17. Wherefore come out from among them] Is it Some apply this exhortation to pious persons marrying not plain from this, and the following verse, that God with those who are not decidedly religious, and converted to would be their God, only on the ground of their taking him God. That the exhortation may be thus applied, 1 grant; \for such : and that this depended on their being separated but it is certainly not the meaning of the apostle in this place. from the works and workers of iniquity; for God could

For what fellowship, &c.] As righteousness cannot have not inhabit in them, if they had concord with Belial, a communion with unrighteousness, and light cannot dwell with portion with infidels, &c. Those who will have the prodarkness; so Christ can have no concord with Belial: nor mises of God fulfilled to them, must come under the concan he that believeth, have any with an infidel. All these ditions of these promises : if they are not separateif they points were self-evident: how then could they keep up the touch the unclean thing, God will not receive them; and profession of Christianity, or pretend to be under its in- | therefore, will not be their God; nor shall they be his fluence, while they associated with the unrighteous, had people. communion with darkness, concord with Belial, and partook Verse 18. Will be a Father unto you] I will act towards with infidels ?

you as the most affectionate father can act towards his most Verse 16. What agreement hath the temple of God with tender, and best beloved child. idols?] Nothing could appear more abominable to a Jew, And ye shall be my sons and daughters] Ye shall all be than an idol in the temple of God: here, then, could be no of the household of God; the family of heaven; ye shall be agreement; the worship of the two is wholly incompatible. holy, happy, and continually safe. An idoluter never worships the true God : a Christian never Saith the Lord Almighty.) Kupios TarToxfatwe; the Lord, worships an idol. If ye join in idolatrous rites, it is impos- the governor of all things. sible that ye should be Christians.

Earthly fathers, however loving and affectionate, may fail Ye are the temple of the living God] God intends to to provide for their children, because every thing is not make the heart of every believer his own house.

at their disposal; they may frequently lack both the pouer I will dwell in them, and walk in them] The words are and the means, though to will may be present with them : very emphatic, svoixnow Ev autois; I will inhabit in them. but the Lord who made, and who governs all things, I will not be as a wayfaring man, who turns aside to tarry never lack will, power, nor means. The promise is sure to as for a night ; but I will take up my constant residence with the children ; and the children are those who take the them: I will dwell in and among them.

Almighty for their God. For the promise belongs to M I will be their God] They shall have no other God; they | soul that is not separate from sinful ways, works, and ERD;

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those who touch the unclean thing ; i. e. who do what God | iniquity. What was the consequenceGod cast them off: forbids, and hold communion with unrighteousness, can and those who were joined to iniquity were separated from never stand in the endearing relation of children to God | Him. “ Then, said God, call his name Loammi : for ye Almighty : and this is most forcibly stated by God himself are not my people, and I will not be your God.Hos. i. 9. in these verses, and in the beginning of the following chap- The Jews were therefore cast off, and the Gentiles taken in ter; the first verse of which should conclude this.

their place; but even these, under the new covenant, are

taken, in expressly under the same conditions, as the apostle To the Jews the promises were originally made: they here most fully states. Those who apply these words in any would not have God for their God; but would work | other way, pervert their meaning, and sin against their souls.

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CHAPTER VII. The apostle's inference from the preceding exhortation, 1. He presses them to receive him with affection, because

of his great love towards them, 2—4. He tells them what distress he felt on their account at Macedonia, till he had met with Titus, and heard of their prosperity, 5–7. He rejoices that his first Epistle was made the means of their reformation, 8,9. States how they were affected by his Letter, and the process of their reformation, 10, 11. Shews why he had written to them, 12. Rejoices that his boasting of them to Titus, is found to be a truth; and takes occasion to mention the great affection of Titus for them; and his own confidence in them, 13–16. AVING & therefore these pro

ness of the flesh

and spirit, permises, dearly beloved, let us | fecting holiness in fecting holiness in the fear of 1. U. c. 810.

Anno Imp.Ne ronis Cæs. 4. cleanse ourselves from all filthi-God.

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• Ch. 6. 17, 18. 1 John 3. 3. Isai. 1. 16. & 8. 13.

& 29. 23. 1 Thess. 5. 23. 1 Tim. 4. 8.

1

The pro

NOTES ON CHAP. VII.

enness, murder, &c. These are things in which both body Verse 1. Having therefore these promises ]

and soul must consent. But still, withholding the eye, the mises mentioned in the three last verses of the preceding | ear, the hand, and the body in general, from sights, reports, chapter; to which this verse should certainly be joined. and acts of evil, will not purify a fallen spirit: it is the grace

Let us clcunse ourselves] Let us apply to him for the re- and spirit of Christ alone, powerfully applied for this very quisite grace of purification ; and avoid every thing in spirit purpose, that can purify the conscience and the heart from and practice which is opposite to the doctrine of God; and all dead works. But if we do not withhold the food by which has a tendency to pollute the soul.

which the man of sin is nourished and supported, we cannot Filthiness of the flesh] The apostle undoubtedly means expect God to purify our hearts. While we are striving drunkenness, fornication, adultery, and all such sins as are against sin, we may expect the Spirit of God to purify us by done immediately against the body : and by filthiness of the his inspiration from all unrighteousness, that we may perspirit, all impure desires, unholy thoughts, and polluting fectly love and magnify our Maker. How can those expect imaginations. If we avoid and abhor evil inclinations, and God to purify their hearts, who are continually indulging turn away our eyes from beholding vanity, incentives to evil their eyes, ears, and hands in what is forbidden; and in being thus lessened, for the eye affects the heart, there will what tends to increase and bring into action all the evil probe the less danger of our falling into outward sin. And if pensities of the soul ? we avoid all outroard occasions of sinning, evil propensities Perfecting holiness] Getting the whole mind of Christ will certainly be lessened. All this is our work under the brought into the soul. This is the grand object of a genuine common aids of the grace of God. We may turn away our Christian's pursuit. The means of accomplishing this are, eyes and ears from evil; or we may indulge both in what | 1. Resisting and avoiding sin, in all its inviting and seducing will infallibly beget evil desires and tempers in the soul ; forms. 2. Setting the fear of God before our eyes, that we and under the same influence we may avoid every act of may dread his displeasure, and abhor whatever might excite niquity ; for even Satan himself cannot, by any power heit; and whatever might provoke him to withhold his manna as, constrain us to commit uncleanness, robbery, drunk- l from our mouth. We see, therefore, that there is a strong

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