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enormities that he had reproved in his First Epistle; therefore he was unwilling to come to them in heaviness, and with a scourge. This, his failing to come, according to his promise, had opened the mouths of several in his disgrace, and false teachers took any other occasion to vilify him, which he copiously satisfies, and vindicates himself all along in the Epistle. His exceeding zealous plainness with them, and dealing so home and thoroughly against their misdemeanours as he did, was one advantage that his enemies took to open their mouths against him, and to withdraw the hearts of the Corinthians from him; and chiefly because he was so urgent against the works of the law as to justification, and those rites which the Jews, even the most of those that were converted to the gospel, too much doated on.
After he had sent away this Epistle by Titus, Erastus and Mark, if our conjecture fail not, and had given notice to the Corinthians of his speedy coming to them, and warning them to get their collections ready against he came,
he provided for his journey into Syria, which he had intended so long : partly to visit the churches in these parts, and partly to bring up the collections he had got for the poor of Judea ; of which, he had promised to the three ministers of the circumcision, Peter, James, and John, that he would be careful, Gal. ii. 10.
Acts, Chap. xx. 4. And there accompanied him into Asia, Sopater of Berea : and of the Thessalonians, Aristar. chus and Secundus ; and Gaius of Derbe, and Timotheus : and of Asia, Tychicus and Trophimus. Ver. 5. These going before tarried for us at Troas. Ver. 6. And we suiled away from Philippi, after the days of unleavened bread.
But when Paul, and this his company, are all going for Asia together, why should they not set out together; but these go before, and tarry at Troas, and Paul and some other of his company come after ? Nay, they were all to meet at Troas, as it appeareth, ver. 6. Why might they not then have gone altogether to Troas ?
The reason of this was, because Paul himself was to go by Corinth : and not minding to stay there but very little, because he hastened to Jerusalem, he would not take his whole train thither, but sends them off the next way they could go to Troas, himself promising and resolving to be speedily with them there. He had promised a long time to the church of Corinth to come unto them, and he had newly sent word in that Epistle that he had lately sent, that now his coming would be speedy, 2 Cor. xii. 14. Behold the third time I am ready to come to you : and chap. xiii. 1. This is the third time that I am coming to you. Not that he had been there twice before, for since his first departing thence, (when he had stayed a long time together, at his first planting of the Gospel in that place,) there is neither mention nor probability of his being there again; but this was the third time that he was coming, having promised and intended a journey thither once before, but was prevented, 2 Cor. i. 15, 16, 17. But now he not only promises by the Epistle that he will come, but staketh the three brethren that he had sent thither, for witnesses and sureties of that promise, 2 Cor. xiii. 1, 2. that in the mouth of these witnesses his promise might be established and assured. See the Introduction, Sect. xi.
Now the time is come that he makes good his promise; and whilst the rest of his company go directly to the next cut to Troas, he himself and Luke, and whom else he thought good to retain with him, go about by Corinth.
And now to look a little further into the reason of their thus parting company, and of Paul's short stay at Corinth when he came there, we may take into our thoughts, (besides how much he hastened to Je rusulem.) the jealousy that he had, lest he should not find all things at Corinth so comfortable to himself, and so creditable to them, before those that should come with him, as he desired. He has many passa ages in the Second Epistle that he wrote to them, that glance that way: for though, as to the general, there was reformation wrought among them, upon the receiving his First Epistle, and thereupon he speaks very ex. cellent things of them; yet were there not a few that thought basely of him, 2 Cor. x. 12. and traduced him and his doctrine, Chap. xi and xii, and gave him cause to suspect that his boasting of that church to the churches of Macedonia might come off but indifferently, if the Macedonians should come with him to see
how all things were there, 2 Cor. ix. 4. And therefore it was but the good policy of just fear, grief, and prudence to send them by another way, and he had very just cause to stay but a little while when he came there.
Lightfoot's Works, Vol. I. pag. 310, &c.
IT is a general opinion among learned men, that this Epistle was written about a year after the former : and this seems to be supported by the words, chap. ix. 2. Achaia was ready a year ago ; for the Apostle, having given instructions for that collection, to which he refers in these words at the close of the preceding Epistle, they would not have had the forwardness there mentioned, till a year had elapsed. As the Apostle had purposed to stay at Ephesus till Pentecost, 1 Cor. xvi. 8. and he staid some time in Asia after his purpose to leave Ephesus, and go to Macedonia, Acts ix. 21, 22. and yet making here his apology for not wintering in Corinth, as he thought to do, 1 Cor. xvi. 6. this Epistle must have been written after the winter; and consequently when a
new year was begun. It therefore, says Dr. Whitby, seems to have been written after his second :: coming to Macedonia, mentioned Acts xx. 3. For, (l.) it was written after he had been at Troas,
and had left that place to return to Macedonia : now that was at his second going thither; see chap. ii. 12. (2.) It was written when Timothy was with him: now, when he left Ephesus to go
into Macedonia, Timothy went not with him, but was sent before him, Acts xix. 22. but at his * second going through Macedonia, Timothy was with him, Acts xx. 4. (3.) He speaks of some · Macedonians, who were likely to accompany him, chap. ix. 4. Now, at his second going from
Macedonia, there accompanied him Aristarchus, Secundus, and Gaius of Thessalonica, the Metropolis of Macedonia, Acts xx. A. (4.) The postscript says, that this Epistle was written from Philippi, where Paul was till the days of unleavened bread, Acts xx. 6. it therefore seems to have been sent from thence to them by Titus, and some other person, not long before St. Paul's coming to them; which he speaks of as instant, chap. xiii. 1. and that which he was now ready to do, chap. xii. 14. And did, according to Dr. Lightfoot, in his journey from Philippi to Troas; he sailing about from Philippi to Corinth, to make good his promise ; whilst the rest that were with him, Acts xx. 4. went directly the next cut to Troas, and there waited for him. See Whitby.
PREFACE TO THE SECOND EPISTLE TO THE CORINTHIANS.
That the first Epistle had produced powerful effects among the Corinthians, is evident, from what the Apostle mentions in this. Titus had met him in Macedonia, and told him of the reformation produced by this Epistle ; see chap. vii. 5. that the church had excommunicated the incestuous man ; that the Epistle had overwhelmed them with great distress; had led them to a close examination of their conduct and state ; and had filled them with respect and affection for their Apostle, &c. Hearing this, St. Paul wrote this second Epistle, to comfort, to commend them, and to complete the work which he had begun ; by causing them to finish the contribution for the poor saints at Jerusalem : and also to vindicate his own apostolic character; and to unmask the pretended apostle, who had led them so long astray. See the preceding Introduction.
Its principal divisions are1.–The PREFACE, chap. i. ver. 1–7.
II.—The NARRATION, comprehending an account of what had happened to himself; his answer to their questions concerning the incestuous person, with different other matters; among which, the following are the chief :
(1.) The persecution which he had suffered in Asia, and from which he had been miracu
lously rescued, chap. i. 8–14. (2.) His purpose to pay them a visit, chap. i. 15—24. (3.) Concerning the sorrow which they had suffered, on account of the excommunication of
the incestuous person, chaps. ii. and vii. (4.) His own vindication against the false apostle; in which he gives an account of his doc
trine, chap. iii. 6—18. His conduct, chap. iv. 1-6. His bodily infirmities, chap. iv. 7.
and chap. v. (5.) Strongly exhorts them to a holy life, chap. vi. and vii.
III. Of the Alms that had been collected, and were yet to be collected, chap. viii. and ix. IV.--His DEFENCE against the false apostle and his calumniators in general, chaps. x-xii. V.-MISCELLANEOUS matters, chap. xiii.
may be remarked, once for all, that none of these, or such artificial divisions, are made by the Apostle himself; no more than the divisions into chapters and verses. All these are the work of man: and certainly contribute nothing to a proper understanding of the Epistle itself. The Apostle appears to have sat down, and, under the influence of the Divine Spirit, he wrote on the different subjects treated of in the Epistle, just in the order that these things occurred to his mind; without intending particular heads, divisions, or subdivisions. And as he probably wrote the whole with very little intermission of time; his sense will be best apprehended by those who carefully read over the whole at one sitting.
SECOND EPISTLE OF PAUL THE APOSTLE
THE CORINTHIANS. .
Chronological Notes relative to this Epistle.
Year of the Constantinopolitan æra of the world, or that used by the Emperors of the East in their diplomata, &c. and thence also called the civil æra of the Greeks, apčs, (5565.)—Year of the Alexandrian æra of the world, or ecclesiastical epoch of the Greeks, E$v0, (5559.)—Year of the Antiochian æra of the world, squ', (5549.)-Year of the Eusebian epoch of the creation, or that used in the Chronicon of Eusebius, and the Roman Martyrology, OOTE', (4285.) -Year of the Julian Period, 4765-Year of the world, according to Bedford and Kennedy, in their Scripture Chronology, 4065—Year of the Ussherian æra of the world, or that used in the English Bibles, 4061-Year of the world, according to Scaliger, 4001. The differnce of sixty years in the æra of the world, as fixed by Scaliger and Ussher, arises from the former chronologer placing the birth of Abraham in the 70th, and the latter in the 130th year of the life of his father Terah. For Scaliger's computation, see on Gen. xi. 26.; and for Ussher's computation, see on Gen. xi. 26. and Gen. xi. 32. conferred with Acts vii. 4.--Year of the minor Jewish æra of the world, 3817-— Year of the Greater Rabbinical æra of the world, 4416-Year since the Deluge, according to archbishop Ussher and the English Bible, 2405Year of the Cali Yuga, or Indian æra of the Deluge, 3159—Year of the æra of Iphitus, who re-established the Olympic Games, 338 years after their institution by Hercules, or about 884 years before the commencement of the Christian æra, 997—Year of the two hundred and ninth Olympiad, 1. This epoch commenced, according to the most accurate calcu. lations of some of the moderns, precisely 776 years before the Christian æra, and 23 years before the building of Rome; and computations of time by it, ceased about A. D. 440~Year from the building of Rome, according to Fabius Pictor, who flourished about 225 years before Christ, and who is styled by Dionysius of Halicarnassus, an accurate writer, 804. (This epoch is used by Diodorus Siculus )— Year from the building of Rome, according to Polybius the historian, 808— Year from the building of Rome, according to Cato and the Fasti Consulares, and adopted by Solinus, Eusebius, Diony. sius of Halicarnassus, &c. 809—Year from the building of Rome, according to Varro, which was that adopted by the Roman emperors in their proclamations ; by Plutarch, Tacitus, Dio Cassius, Gellius, Censorinus, Onuphrius, Baronius, and by most modern chronologers, 810. N. B. Livy, Cicero, Pliny, and Velleius Paterculus, fluctuate between the Var. ronian and Catonian computations-Year of the epoch of Nabonassar, king of Babylon, after the division of the Assyrian monarchy, or that used by Hipparchus, by Ptolemy in his astronomical observations, by Censorinus, and others, 805. (The years of this æra constantly contained 365 days, so that 1460 Julian were equal to 1461 Nabonassarean years.
This epoch commenced on the fourth of the calends of March, (Feb. 26,) B. C. 747; and, consequently, the beginning of the 805th year of the æra of Nabonassar coincided with the Vth of the Ides of August, (Aug. 9,) A. D. 57-Year of the æra of the Seleucidæ, or since Seleucus, one of the generals of Alexander the Great, took Babylon, and ascended the Asiatic throne, sometimes called the Grecian æra, and the æra of principalities, in reference to the di. vision of Alexander's empire, 369—Year of the Cesarean æra of Antioch, 105– Year of the Julian æra; or year since the calendar of Numa Pompilius the second Roman king, was reformed by Julius Cæsar, 102-Year of the Spanish æra,
Chronological Notes relative to this Epistle.
or since the second division of the Roman provinces among the Triumviri, 95.—Year since the defeat of Pompey by Julius Cæsar, at Pharsalia, called by Catrou and Rouillé the commencement of the Roman empire, 105—Year of the Actiac, or Actian æra, or proper epoch of the Roman empire, commencing with the defeat of Antony by Augustus, at Actium, 87– Year from the birth of Jesus Christ, 61-Year of the vulgar æra of Christ's nativity, 57– Year of the Dionysian Period, or Easter Cycle, 58—Common Golden Number, or year of the Grecian or Metonic Cycle of nineteen years, 1, or the first common year-Jewish Golden Number, or year of the Rabbinical Cycle of nineteen years, 17, or the sixth embolismic-Year of the Solar Cycle, 10-Dominical Letter B; or, which is the same thing, the Calends of Ja. nuary, (Jan. 1,) happened on the Jewish sabbath, or our Saturday— Jewish Pass-over, (15th of Nisan, or Abib,) Tuesday, April 5, or on the Nones of April-Number of Direction, or number of days that Easter Sunday happens after the 21st of March, 21; or the XIIth of the Calends of May—Mean time of the Paschal Full Moon, at Corinth, (its longitude being twenty-three degrees to the East of London,) according to Ferguson's Tables, which are sufficiently exact for this purpose, April 7, or the VIIth of the Ides of April, at forty-eight minutes and thirty-eight seconds past eight in the evening. True time of the Paschal Full Moon at Corinth, according to Ferguson's Tables, April 8, or the VIth of the Ides of April, at thirty-seven minutes and one second past five in the morning; the true time of the Paschal Full Moon being eight hours, forty-eight minutes, and twenty-three seconds after the mean.-Easter Sunday, April 10, or the IVth of the Ides of April.—Epact, or moon's age, on the twenty-second of March, or the Xth of the Calends of April, (the day on which the earliest Easter happens,) 29-Year of the reign of Nero Cæsar, the Roman Emperor and fifth Cæsar, 4-Year of Claudius Felix, the Jewish governor, 5—Year of the reign of Vologesus, king of the Parthians, of the family of the Arsacidæ, 8—Year of Caius Numidius Quadratus, governor of Syria, 7-Year of Ishmael, highpriest of the Jews, 3-Year of the reign of Corbred I. king of the Scots, brother to the celebrated Caractacus, who was carried prisoner to Rome, but afterwards released by the Emperor, 3.-Roman Consuls; Nero Cæsar Augustus, (the second time,) and L. Calpurnius Piso.
Eminent men contemporaries with St. Paul. L. Annæus Seneca, the Stoic philosopher and poet, son of M. Annæus Seneca, the rhetorician ; born about the commencement of the Christian æra, and put to death about A. D. 65: Annæus Cornutus, the stoic philosopher, and preceptor to Persius the satyrist ; flourished under Nero : Lucan, nephew to Seneca the philosopher; born about A. D. 29, put to death about A. D. 65: Andromachus of Crete, a poet, and Nero's physician : T. Petronius Arbiter, of Massilia, died A. D. 68 : Aulus Persius Flaccus, the Latin poet, of Volaterræ in Italy; died in the ninth year of the reign of Nero, aged 28: Dioscorides, the physician; the age in which this physician lived is very uncertain : Justus, of Tiberias in Palestine: Flavius Josephus, the Jewish historian; born A. D. 37, died A. D. 93 : Silius Italicus, the poet, who was several times consul ; born about A. D. 23, died in the beginning of the reign of Trajan, aged 75: Valerius Flaccus, the Latin poet; flourished under Vespasian : C. Plinius Secundus, of Verona, born under Tiberius, flourished under Vespasian, and died under Titus, A. D. 79, aged 56: Thraseas Pætus, the stoic philosopher, famous for his independence and generous sentiments ; slain by order of Nero, A. D. 65: Quintus Curtius Rufus, the historian ; the time when he flourished is uscertain, some placing him under Claudius, others under Vespasian, and others under Trajan : Asconius Pedianus, the historian and annotator, died A. D. 76, aged 85: Marcus Valerius Martialis, the epigrammatist ; born about A. D. 29, died A. D. 104, aged 75: Philo-Byblius, born about A. D. 53, died A. D. 133, aged 80 : Acusilaus the rhetorician; flourished under Galba : Afer, an orator and preceptor of Quintilian, died A.D. 59: Afranius, the satyrist, put to death by Nero, in the Pisonian conspiracy: Marcus Aper, a Latin orator of Gaul, died A. D. 85: Babilus the astrologer, who caused the emperor Nero to put all the leading men of Rome to death : C. Balbillus, the historian of Egypt; flourished under Nero : Pb. Clodius Quirinalis, the rhetorician, flourished under Nero: Fabricius the satyrist; flourished under Nero : Decius Junius Juvenalis, the satyrist; born about A. D. 29, died A. D. 128, aged about 100 years: Longinu? the lawyer, put to death by Nero : Plutarch, the biographer and moralist; born about A. D. 50, died about A. D. 120, or A. D. 140, according to others : Polemon the rhetorician, and master of Persius the celebrated satyrist; died in the reign of Nero: Seleucus the mathematician, intimate with the emperor Vespasian: Servilius Nonianus, the Latin his torian; flourished under Nero: Caius Cornelius Tacitus, the celebrated Roman historian ; born in the reign of Nero, and died at an advanced age in the former part of the second century.