« הקודםהמשך »
Arguments to prove the
resurrection of the dead.
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28 . And when all things shall be || 29 Else what shall they do which are Anno C Open subdued unto him, then shall the baptized for the dead, if the dead rise A. U.C. 80. ronis Cas. 3. Son also himself be subject unto not at all? why are they then bap- ronis Cas. S. him that put all things under him, that God may tized for the dead? be all in all.
30 And why stand we in jeopardy every hour?
a Pbil. 3. 21.
„b ch. 3. 23. & 11. 3.
c 2 Cor. 11. 26. Gal. 5. 11.
Ile is excepted ] i. e. The Father; who hath put all gether in the likeness of his death, we shall be also in his re. things under him, the Son. This observation seems to be in-surrection.-5. It is evident from this, that all who died in troduced by the apostle to shew, that he does not mean that the faith of Christ, died in the faith of the resurrection ; the Divine Nature shall be subjected to the human nature. and therefore cheerfully gave up their lives to death, as they Christ, as Messiah, and mediator between God and man, took joyfully the spoiling of their goods, knowing in the wimust ever be considered inferior to the Father: and his selves that they had in heaven a better and an enduring subhuman nature, however dignified in consequence of its union 'stunce, Heb. x. 3 1. 6. As is the body, so are the members ; with the Divine Nature, must ever be inferior to God. The those who were properly instructed, and embraced Chriswhole of this verse should be read in a parenthesis.
tianity, believed that, as all who had died in the faith of Verse 28. The Son also himself be subject] When the Christ should rise again, so they were baptized in the same administration of the kingdom of grace is finally closed; faith.—7. As so many of the primitive followers of Christ, when there shall be no longer any state of probation; and sealed the truth with their blood; and Satan and his folconsequently no longer need of a distinction between the lowers continued unchanged : every man who took on him kingdom of grace, and the kingdom of glory: then the Son, the profession of Christianity, which was done by receiving as being man, shall cease to exercise any distinct dominion ; i baptism, considered himself as exposing his life to the most imand God be all in all, there remaining no longer any distinc- ! minent hazard, and offering his life with those who had already tion in the persons of the glorious Trinity, as acting any offered and laid down theirs.—8. He was therefore baptized distinct or separate parts in either the kingdom of grace, or in reference to this martyrdom; and having a regard to those the kingdom of glory: and so the one infinite essence shall dead, he cheerfully received baptism, that, whether he was appear undivided and eternal.
taken off by a natural or violent death, he might be raised in Verse 29. Else what shall they do which are baptized for the likeness of Jesus Christ's resurrection, and that of his the dead] This is certainly the most difficult verse in the illustrious martyrs.-9. As martyrdom and baptism were New Testament ; for, notwithstanding the greatest and thus so closely and intimately connected, fattiger has to be wisest men have laboured to explain it, there are to this day baptized, was used to express being put to a violent death by nearly as many different interpretations of it as there are in the hands of persecutors. So Matt. xx. 22, 23. “ But Jesus terpreters. I shall not employ my time, nor that of my answered and said, Are ye able to drink of the стер that I shall Reader, with a vast number of discordant and conflicting | drink of, &c.” (can ye go through my sufferings.?)—“They opinions : I shall make a few remarks-1. The doctrine of say unto him, We are able: He saith unto them, Ye shall the resurrection of our Lord, was a grand doctrine among indeed drink of my cup,” (ye shall bear your part of the the apostles: they considered and preached this as the de- || afflictions of the gospel,)“ And be baptized with the bapmonstration of the truth of the gospel-2. The multitudes tism that I am baptized with,”—That is, ye shall suffer who embraced Christianity, became converts on the evidence i martyrdom,) see also Mark x. 38. So Luke xii. 50. “I have of this resurrection.-3. This resurrection was considered a baptism to be baptized with ; and how am I straitened till it the pledge and proof of the resurrection of all believers in be accomplished?” That is, I must die a violent death, for Christ, to the possession of the same glory into which he the salvation of men.-10. The sum of the apostle's meanhad entered.—4. The baptism which they received, they ing appears to be this : If there be po resurrection of the considered as an emblem of their natural death and resurrec- || dead, those who, in becoming Christians, expose themselves tion. This doctrine St. Paul most pointedly preaches, Rom. to all manner of privations, crosses, severe sufferings, and a vi. 3, 4, 5. Know ye not that so many of us as were baptized violent death, can have no compensation, nor any motive into Jesus Christ, were baptized into his death? Therefore sufficient to induce them to expose themselves to such miseries. we are buried with him by baptism into death; that like us But as they receive baptism as an emblem of death, in voChrist was raised up from the dead, even so we also should luntarily going under the water; so they receive it as an walk in newness of life : for, if we have been planted to- | emblem of the resurrection unto eternal life, in coming up
Arguments to prove the
resurrection of the dead.
A. M. 4060.
31 I protest by your rejoicing fought with beasts at Ephesus, what A M. 4060. A. U.C. 809. which I have in Christ Jesus our advantageth it me, if the dead rise Apoc.80% ronis Cas. 3. Lord, I die daily.
not ? flet us eat and drink; for to32 If, d after the manner of men, I have morrow we die.
Anno Imp. Ne-
* Some read our.-i Thess. 2. 19.-- Rom. 8. 36. ch. 4. 9. 2 Cor.
4. 10, 11. & 11. 23.
4 Or, to speak after the manner of men._ 2 Cor. 1. 8. Isai. 22. 13.
& 56. 12. Eccles. 2. 24. Wisd. 2. 6. Luke 12. 19.
out of the water ; thus they are buptized for the dead, in capitur urbs nostra, quotidie diripitur. “ Daily, is our city
Verse 32. If after the manner of men, &c.] Much Verse 30. And why stand we in jeopardy every hour ?] learned criticism has been employed on this verse, to ascerIs there any reason why we should voluntarily submit to so tain whether it is to be understood literally or metaphorically. many sufferings, and every hour be in danger of losing our Does the apostle mean to say, that he had literally fought lives, if the dead rise not. On the conviction of the possi-, with wild beasts at Ephesus ? or, that he had met with bility and certainty of the resurrection, we are thus bap- brutish, savage men, from whom he was in danger of his tized for the dead. We have counted the cost, despise suf-life? That St. Paul did not fight with wild beasts at Ephesus, ferings, and exult at the prospect of death, because we know may be argued, 1. From his own silence on this subject, we shall have a resurrection unto eternal life.
when enumerating his various sufferings, 2 Cor. xi. 23, &c. Verse 31. I protest by your rejoicing] Nn Tru Vuletiçay2. From the silence of his historian Luke, who, in the Acts xauyroly, by your exultation or boasting. Dr. Lightfoot un of this Apostle, gives no intimation of this kind; and it cerderstands this of “the boasting of the Corinthians against tainly was too remarkable a circumstance to be passed over, the apostle ; that he considered himself continually trampled either by Paul, in the catalogue of his own sufferings, or by on by them ; rejected and exposed to infamy and contempt; Luke in his history. 3. From similar modes of speech, but that he took this as a part of the reproach of Christ, and which are employed metaphorically, and are so understood. was happy in the prospect of death and a glorious resurrec 4. From the improbability that a Roman citizen, as Paul was, tion, when all those troubles and wrongs would terminate should be condemned to such a punishment, when, in other for ever." Instead of Cuetecay your erultation or boasting, cases, by pleading his privilege, he was exempted from being GILETEDOX our exultation, is the reading of the Codex Alex- scourged, &c. And, 5. From the positive testimony of Terandrinus, and several others ; with the Æthiopic, Origen, tullian and Chrysostom, who deny the literal interpreand Theophylact. This will lead to an easier sense: I declare tation. by the exultation which I have in Christ Jesus, as having On the other hand, it is strongly argued, that the apostle died for my offences, and risen again for my justification, is to be literally understood; and that he did, at some parthat I neither fear sufferings nor death ; and am daily ready ticular time, contend with wild beasts at Ephesus ; from to be offered up, and feel myself continually exposed to death. which he was miraculously delivered. 1. That the phrase But the common reading is probably to be preferred : for, xar' arbownov signifies as men used to do, and never means your glorying is the same as glorying on your account. I according to the manner of men, as implying their purposes, profess by the glorying or exultation which I have on account or, to use their forms of speech, &c. 2. From the circumof your salvation ; that I anticipate with pleasure the end of stances of the case in Ephesus, usually referred to, viz. the ipmy earthly race.
surrection by Demetrius and his fellow-craftsmen; where, I die daily.] A form of speech for, I am continually ex- though Paul would have been in danger had he gone into the posed to death. The following passages will illustrate this. theatre, he was in little or none, as he did not adventure himself. So Philo, pag. 990. Fluccus, who was in continual fear of 3. From his having endured much greater conflicts at Lystra death, says, xa exasy nuspav, uandoy de woay, T.PORTO 9- and at Philippi, than at Ephesus, at the former of which he νησκω, πολλους θανατους υπομενων ανθ' ενος του τελευταιου: was stoned to death, and again miraculously raised to life : "Every day, rather every hour, I anticipate death ; endur see the Notes on Acts xiv. 19, &c. And yet he alls not ing many deaths before that last one comes.” So Libanius, those greater dangers by this name. 4. That it cannot refer speaking of his own miseries, and those of the people of to the insurrection of Demetrius and his fellows, for St. Antioch, Epist. 1320. pag. 615, says, ETI ZWYTES TEbvnxapevo: Paul had no contention with them, and was scarcely in any 6 though living, we are dead.” Liry has a similar form of danger, though Gaius and Aristarchus were ; see the whole expression to signify continual danger, xxix. 17. Quotidie of Acts xix. And, 5. As we do not read of any other im.
Exhortations founded on
the foregoing arguments.
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33 Be not deceived: evil commu- | sin not; for some have not the 4. M. 106€. A. U. C. 809. nications corrupt good manners. Anno Imp.Ne
knowledge of God: “I speak this A.L.C. 509
Anno Imp. Ne 34 Awake to righteousness, and to your shame.
ronis Cæs. 3.
ronis Cæs. S.
. Ch. 5. 6. - Rom. 13. 11. Eph. 5. 14.
• 1 Thess. 4.5. ch. 6. 5.
תרי אורי יבישי וחר רטיבא אוקרן יבישי לרטיכא
minent danger to which he was exposed at Ephesus, and that hath taken us away. Therefore, while we may, let already mentioned is not sufficient to justify the expression, us enjoy life. I have fought with beasts at Ephesus; therefore we must con Verse 33. Be not deceived] Do not impose on your clude that he was, at some time, not directly mentioned by selves ; and permit not others to do it. his historian or himself, actually exposed to wild beasts at Evil communications corrupt good manners.] There are Ephesus. 6. That this is the case that he refers to, 2 Cor. i. many sayings like this among the Greek poets ; but this of 8, 9, 10, For we would not, brethren, have you ignorant of the apostle, and which according to the best MSS. makes, our trouble which came to us in Asia, that we were pressed an Iambic verse, is generally supposed to have been taken ou of measure above strength, xab UTEPLOAT, 862prbruer | from Menander's lost comedy of Thaïs. UT.Ep Curapiy, insomuch that we despaired even of life, But
Φθειρoυσιν ηθη χρησθ' ομιλιαι κακάι: we had the sentence of death in ourselves, that we should not trust in ourselves, but in God, which raiseth the dead; who
Bad company, good morals doth corrupt. delivered us from so great a death : for these expressions refer to some excessive and unprecedented danger, from which There is a proverb much like this among the rabbins : nothing less than a miraculous interference could have saved him ; and that it might have been an actual exposure to wild beasts, or any other danger equally great, or even greater.
“ There were two dry logs of wood, and one green log; What advantageth it me, if the dead rise not?] I believe but the dry logs burnt up the green log." the common method of pointing this verse is erroneous : I propose to read it thus ; If, after the manner of men, I have There is no difficulty in this saying; he who frequents the fought with beasts at Ephesus, whut doth it advantage me? | company of bad or corrupt men, will soon be as they are. If the dead rise not, let us eat and drink; for to-morrow | He may be sound in the faith, and have the life and power of ae die.
godliness, and at first frequent their company only for the What the apostle says here is a regular and legitimate con sake of their pleasing conversation, or their literary accomclusion from the doctrine, that there is no resurrection ; for, | plishments : and he may think his faith proof against their if there be no resurrection, then there can be no judgment ; | infidelity; but he will soon find, by means of their glozing no future state of rewards and punishments ; why, therefore, | speeches, his faith weakened ; and, when once he gets under should we bear crosses, and keep ourselves under continual | the empire of doubt, unbelief will soon prevail; bis bad discipline! Let us eat and drink, take all the pleasure we company will corrupt his morals, and the two dry logs will can, for to-morrow we die; and there is an end of us for soon burn up the green one.
The words Let us eat and drink, for to-morrow we The same sentiment, in nearly the same words, is found in die, are taken from Isai. xxii. 13. as they stand now in the several of the Greek writers : Æschylus, vii. Theb. ver. 605. Septuagint ; and are a pretty smooth, proverbial saying, Ev TAUTI tipayı 5 E64° ouonsas xaxos xaxoy oudere—“ In which might be paralleled from the writings of several epi. every matter there is nothing more deleterious than evil curean heathens, çaylev xai Tiw.ev auprox yap atokvrs- communication.”—Diodorus Siculus, lib. xvi. cap. 54. xquer. The words of Isaiah are ning navy snur 513x, akol Tals Tore pais ousasais die beipe ta rør Twv arêpwwwye—“With ve shatho, ki machar namuth : “ In eating and drinking, these evil communications he corrupted the morals of men." for to-morrow we die :" i. e. Let us spend our time in eat.
Ταυτα μεν αυτως ισθι κακoισι δε μη προσομιλει mg and drinking, &c. See a similar speech by Trimalchio, Ανδρασιν, αλλ' αιει των αγαθων εχεο: in Petronius Arbiter, Satiric. cap. xxxvii.
Και μετα τοισιν πινε και εσθιε, και μετα τοισιν
1ζε, και αν δανε τοις ων μεγαλη δυναμις, Meu heu nos miseros; quam totus homuncio nil est !
απ' εσθλα μαθησεαι· εν δε κακοισι Sic erimus cuncti, postquam nos auferet orcus. Ergo vivamus dum licet esse benè.
Συμμιχθης απολεις και τον εοντα νουν.
Theoga. Sent. rer. 31–36. Alas! alas! what wretches we are; all mankind are a Know this, Thou must not keep company with the
worthless pack : thus shall we all be, after death wicked, but converse always with good men. With
Εσθλων μεν γαρ
The difference between the
present and the future body.
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35 But some man will say, "How not that body that shall be, but bare A. M. 1960. Anno imple are the dead raised up? and with grain; it may chance of wheat, or of A. U. c. 809.
Anno Imp. Ne ronis Cæs. 3. what body do they come ?
some other grain : 36 Thou fool, that which thou sowest is not 38 But God giveth it a body as it hath pleased quickened, except it die:
him, and to every seed his own body. 37 And that which thou sowest, thou sowest 39 All flesh is not the same flesh : but there is
such eat, drink, and associate. Please those who have but a fool could act so. At the same time, it is folly in any
I have shewed the propriety of this simile of the apostle, in
the Note on John xii. 24. to which I must refer the Reader. Verse 31. Awake to righteousness] Shake off your! A grain of wheat, &c. is composed of the body or lobes, and slumber ; awake fully, thoroughly, sixalws, as ye ought to the germ. The latter forms an inconsiderable part of the do : so the word should be rendered; not awake to righteous mass of the grain ; the body, lobes or farinaceous part, forms ness. Be in earnest : do not trifle with God, your souls, nearly the whole. This body dies, becomes decomposed, and eternity.
and forms a fine earth, from which the germ derives its first Sin not] For this will lead to the destruction both of nourishment: by the nourishment thus derived, the germ is body and soul. Life is but a moment ; improve it ; Heaven quickened, receives its first vegetative life ; and through this has blessings without end.
means, is rendered capable of deriving the rest of its nourishSome have not the knozeledge of God] The original is ment and support from the grosser earth in which the grain very emphatic, αγνωσιας γαρ Θεου τινες εχουσι, some have was deposited. Whether the apostle would intimate here, an ignorance of God: they do not acknowledge God. They that there is a certain germ in the present body, which shall have what is their bune; and they have not what would be become the seed of the resurrection body, this is not the their happiness and glory. To have an ignorance of God, a place to enquire : and on this point I can with pleasure refer sort of substantial darkness, that prevents the light of God to Mr. Drew's work on the “Resurrection of the Human from penetrating the soul, is a worse state than to be simply Body ;” where this subject, as well as every other subject in the dark; or without the divine knowledge. The apostle connected with this momentous question, is considered in probably speaks of those who were once enlightened; had a very luminous and cogently argumentative point of view. once good morals, but were corrupted by bad company. It Verse 37. Thou sowest not that body that shall be] This was to their shame or reproach that they had left the good is decomposed, and becomes the means of nourishing the way, and were now posting down to the chambers of whole plant, roots, stalk, leares, ear, and full corn in death.
Verse 35. But some man will say] Arna spel tis. It is Verse 38. But God giveth it a body] And is there any very likely that the apostle by T15 sume, some one, some man, other way of accounting for it, but by the miraculous workmeans particularly the false apostle, or teacher at Corinth ; ; ing of God's power? For, out of that one bare grain, is who was chief in the opposition to the pure doctrine of produced a system of roots, a tall and vigorous stalk, with the gospel; and to whom, in this covert way, he often all its appendage of leaves, &c. besides the full corn in the refers.
ear; the whole making several hundred times the quanThe second part of the apostle's discourse begins at this tum of what was originally deposited. No proofs of what verse. What shall be the nature of the resurrection body? some call Nature, can effect this : it will ever be a philoso1. The question is stated, ver. 35. 2. It is answered ; first, phical as well as a scriptural truth, that God giveth it a body by a similitude, ver. 36–38. ; secondly, by an application, as it pleaseth him: and so, doth he manage the whole of the ver. 39—41.; and, thirdly, by explication, ver. 42—50. work, that every seed shall have its own body; that the
Verse 36. Thou fool] Aøpov. If this be addressed, as wheat germ shall never produce barley; nor the rye, oats. it probably is, to the false apostle, there is a peculiar pro- See the Note on Gen. i. 12. priety in it; as this man seems to have magnified his own Verse 39. All flesh is not the same flesh] Though the wisdom, and set it up against both God and man; and none organization of all animals is, in its general principles, the
The difference between the
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one kind of Aesh of men, another 41 There is one glory of the sun, and A, M.4960. A. U. c. 809. Alesh of beasts, another of fishes, and another glory of the moon, and ano
Anno Imp. Ne ronis Caes. 9. another of birds.
ther glory of the stars : for one star ronis Cas. S. 40 There are *also celestial bodies, and bo- || differeth from another star in glory. dies terrestrial : but the glory of the celestial 42 So also is the resurrection of the dead. is one, and the glory of the terrestrial is It is sown in corruption ; it is raised in incoranother.
1 Matt. 28. 3. Luke 9. 29.
D Dan. 12. 3. Matt. 13. 43.
same; yet, there are no two different kinds of animals that splendor, will belong to that which does not belong to this : have flesh of the same flavour; whether the animal be here there is a glory of excellence; there, there will be a glory beust, fowl or fish. And this is precisely the same with of light, and effulgence ; for the bodies of the saints shall vegetables.
shine like the sun in the kingdom of their Father. See In opposition to this general assertion of St. Paul, there Matt. xiii. 43. are certain people who tell us that fish is not flesh: and, Verse 41. There is one glory of the sun] As if he had while their religion prohibits, at one time of the year, the said, This may be illustrated by the present appearance of flesh of quadrupeds and fowls, it allows them to eat fish, the celestial bodies which belong to our system. The sur fondly supposing that fish is not flesh: they might as well has a greater degree of splendor than the moon; the moon tell us that a lily is not a vegetable, because it is not a cab- than the planets; and the planets, than the stars. And bage. There is a Jewish canon produced by Schoettgen, which even in the fixed stars, one has a greater degree of splendor
Readers may not be displeased to find inserted here; Ne- than another; which may proceed either from their different darim, fol. 40. Disini D'7 703 7108 879 9Van 97130 He magnitudes, or from the greater proximity of some of them who is bound by a vow to abstain from flesh, is bound to abstain to our earth; but from which of these causes, or from some from the flesh of fish and of locusts. From this it appears, | other cause unknown, we cannot tell; as it is impossible to that they acknowledged that there was one flesh of beasts, ascertain the distance of any of the fixed stars ; even the and another of fishes; and that he was religiously bound to nearest of them being too remote to afford any parallax, abstain from the one, who was bound to abstain from the without which their distances cannot be measured. See the other.
concluding observations. Verse 40. There are also celestial bodies, and bodies terres. Verse 42. So also is the resurrection of the dead] That trial] The apostle certainly does not speak of celestial and is, the bodies of the dead, though all immortal, shall possess terrestrial bodies in the sense in which we use those terms; we different degrees of splendor and glory, according to the state invariably mean by the former, the sun, moon, planets and of holiness in which their respective souls were found. The stars ; by the latter, masses of inanimate matter. But the rabbins have some crude notions concerning different degrees apostle speaks of human beings; some of wbich were clothed of glory, which the righteous shall possess in the kingdom with celestial, others with terrestrial bodies. It is very of heaven. They make out seven degrees : likely, therefore, that he means by the celestial bodies such “ The first of which is possessed by Dipany isadikim, the as those refined human bodies with which Enoch, Elijah, just, who observe the covenant of the Holy blessed God, and Christ himself appear in the realms of glory : to and subjugate all evil affections.” which' we may add, the bodies of those saints which arose “ The second, is possessed by those who are d'u* yeskafter our Lord’s resurrection; and, after having appeared to arim, the upright, whose delight it is to walk in the ways of many, doubtless were taken up to Paradise. By teri estrial God, and please him.” bodies, we may understand those in which the saints now “ The third, is for b'pion tamimim, the perfect; those live.
who, with integrity, walk in the ways of God; and do not But the glory of the celestial is one] The glory, the ex- curiously pry into his dispensations." cellence, beauty and perfection. Even the present frail “ The fourth, is for o'wnip kadushim, the holy ones ; those human body, possesses an indescribable degree of contrivance, who are the excellent of the earth, in whom is all God's de art, æconomy, order, beauty, and excellence. But the celes- | light.” Ps. xvi. 3. tial body, that in which Christ now appears, and according “ The fifth, is for ngyon pa baaley teshubah, the chief to which, ours shall be raised, Phil. iii. 21. will exceed the of the penitents; who have broken through the brazen doors, excellence of this beyond all comparison. A glory, orland returned to the Lord.”