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Sown

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in dishonour; 44 It is sown a "natural body; it is AM..4060. A.U.C. 809. it is raised in glory: it is sown raised a spiritual body. There is a A. U.C. 809. ronis Ces. 3. in weakness;

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raised in natural body, and there is a spiri- ronis Cæs. 3. power :

tual body.

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“ The sixth, is for 197 nya yu nipigin tinukoth shel beith no longer dependent on natural productions for its support; raban, the scholars and tender ones ; who have not trans- || being built up on indestructible principles ; and existing in gressed.”

a region where there shall be no more death ; no more causes “ The seventh, is for O'Toon chasidim, the godly; and this of decay leading to dissolution ; and consequently, no more is the innermost of all the departments.” These seven de necessity for food, nutrition, &c. The body is spiritual, and grees require a comment by themselves.

has a spiritual existenice, and spiritual support. There is a saying among the rabbins, very like that of the What the apostle says here, is quite consistent with the apostle, in this and the preceding verse. Siphri, in Yalcut views his countrymen had on this subject. Simeoni, pag. 2. fol. 10.-" The faces of the righteous In Sohar Chadash, fol. 43. it is said, “So shall it be in shall be in the world to come, like suns, moons, the hea- the resurrection of the dead ; only, the old uncleanness shall ven, stars, lightnings: and like the lilies and candlesticks not be found.” of the temple.”

R. Bechai, on the law, fol. 14. says, “ When the godly It is sown in corruption] The body is buried in a state of shall arise, their bodies shall be pure

and innocent ; obedient degradation, decay, and corruption. The apostle uses the to the instinct of the soul; there shall be no adversary, nor word sown to intimate that the body shall rise again, as a any evil disease.” seed springs up that has been sown in the earth.

Rab. Pinchas

says,

“ The holy blessed God shall make It is raised in incorruption.] Being no more subject to the bodies of the righteous as beautiful as the body of Adam corruption, dissolution, and death.

was, when he entered into Paradise.” Verse 43. It is sown in dishonour] Being now stripped Rab. Levi

says,

" When the soul is in heaven, it is of all the glory it had as a machine, fearfully and wonder- clothed with celestial light ; when it returns to the body, it fully made by the hands of God; and also consigned to shall have the same light; and then the body shall shine like death and destruction because of sin. This is the most dis- the splendor of the firmament of heaven. Then shall men honourable circumstance.

gain the knowledge of what is perfect.” Sohar. Gen. fol. 69. It is raised in glory] It is raised a glorious body, be The Jews have an opinion that the os coxendicis, the lower cause immortal, and for ever redeemed from the empire of joint of the backbone, survives the corruption of the body; death.

and that it is out of this bone that the resurrection body is It is sown in weakness] The principles of dissolution, formed. In the place last quoted, fol. 70. we have the fole corruption, and decay, have prevailed over it; disease un- lowing teachings on this subject : “ Let us borrow an exdermined it, and death made it his prey.

ample from what relates to the purifying of silver. First, It is raised in power] To be no more liable to weakness the ore is cast into the burning furnace, that it may

be sepathrough labour; decay, by age; wasting, by disease; and rated from its earthly impurities; it is then silver, but not dissolution, by death.

perfect silver. They put it in the furnace a second time, Verse 14. It is sown a natural body] Ewua Yuxixov, and then all its scoriæ are separated from it, and it bean animal body, having a multiplicity of solids and fluids of comes perfect silver, without any adulteration. Thus does different kinds, with different functions; composed of mus- the holy blessed God : He first buries our bodies under the cles, fibres, tendons, cartilages, bones, arteries, veins, earth, where they putrefy and corrupt, that nothing remains nerves, blood, and various juices, requiring continual sup- but that one bone : from this, a new body is produced, which port from aliment; and hence the necessity of labour to is indeed a body, but not a perfect body. But in that great provide food, and skill to prepare it ; which food must be day, when all bodies are hidden in the earth, and the soul masticated, digested, and refined ; what is proper for nou-departs, then even that bone decays, and the body which rishment secreted, brought into the circulation, farther was formed out of it remains, and is as the light of the sun, elaborated, and prepared to enter into the composition of and the splendor of heaven. Thus, as the silver was puri. every part; hence growth and nutrition; without which, nofied, so is the body; and no imperfect mixture remains.” organized body can possibly exist.

See Schoettgen. It is raised a spiritual body] One perfect in all its parts; These things must not be treated as rabbinical dotages; the

The difference between the

I. CORINTHIANS.

first and last Adam.

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45 And so it is written, The first but that which is natural; and after-
man Adam was made a living soul ; | ward that which is spiritual.

the last Adam was made a quicken- 47 «The first man is of the earth, ronis Cas. 3. ing spirit.

* earthy: the second man is the Lord 'from 46 Howbeit, that was not first which is spiritual, heaven.

d John 3. 31.

· Gen. 2.7. Rom. 5. 14.- John 5. 21. & 6. 33, 39, 40, 51, 57.

Phil. 3. 21. Col. 3. 4.

-- Gen. 2. 7. & 3. 19.-John 3. 13, 31.

different similes used by the apostle, have the same spirit out the rational, the latter the sensitive soul. All these re. and design : as the seed which is sown in the earth rots, and ferences to Jewish opinions and forms of speech, the apostle out of the germ contained in it, God, in his providence, pro uses to convince them that the thing was possible; and that duces a root, stalk, leaves, ear, and a great numerical in the resurrection of the body was generally credited by all crease of grains ; is it not likely, that God, out of some their wise and learned men. The Jews, as Dr. Lightfoot essential parts of the body that now is, will produce the re- observes, speak frequently of the Spirit of the Messiah ; surrection body; and will then give the soul a body as it and they allow that it was this Spirit that moved on the face pleaseth him; and so completely preserve the individuality of the waters, Gen. i. 2. And they assert that the Messiah of every human being, as he does of every grain ; giving to shall quicken those who dwell in the dust. each its own body? ver. 38. So that as surely as the grain “ It ought not to be passed by,” says the same author, of wheat shall produce wheat after it is cast in the earth,' “ That Adam, receiving from God the promise of Christ, corrupts and dies ; so surely shall our bodies produce the The seed of the woman shall bruise the head of the serpent, same bodies as to their essential individuality. As the ger- and believing it, named his wife 797 Chuvah, that is life ; so mination of seeds is produced by his wisdom and power, so the Septuagint, και εκαλεσεν Αδαμ το ονομα της γυναικος shall the pure and perfect human body be, in the resurrec AUTOU, Zwm And Adam called the name of his wife, Lije. tion. Ilence he does not say the body is buried, but the What! Is she called Life that brought death into the body is sown; it is sown in weakness, it is sown in dis world ? But Adam perceived τον εσχατον Αδαμ, the last honour, &c. &c.

Adam, exhibited to him in the promise, to be revua *sThere is a natural body, and there is a spiritual body.] Tobuv, a quickening or life-giving spirit; and had brought This very saying is found in so many words, in Yalcut in a better life of the soul; and should at last bring in a Rubeni, fol. 126. “ There are different kir:ds of men" better life of the body. Hence is that saying, John i. 4. 8:17 078 78 xn901 078 1787 078 78 “ There is a spiri- Ev ausw sun ro-In HIM was LIFE.” tual Adam, and there is also a corporeal Adam.”

Some contend that the first Adam and the last Adam, mean Verse 45. The first mun Adam was made a living soul] the same person in two different states. The first man with These forms of expression are also common among the the body of his creation; the same person with the body of Jews; hence we find puxon 078 Adam hurishon, “ Adam his resurrection. See on ver. 49. the first :" and "x277 78 Adam kadmai, “ Adam the last.” Verse 46. That was not first which is spiritual] Tie They assert that there are two Adams, 1. The mystical natural or animal body described, ver. 44. was the first; heavenly Adam; and, 2. The mystical earthly Adam. See it was the body with which Adam was created. The spiritual Sohar E.cod. fol. 29. and the several examples in Schoettgen. body is the last, and is that with which the soul is to be The apostle says this is written; The first man Adam was clothed in the resurrection. made a living soul: this is found Gen. ii. 7. in the words! Verse 47. The first mun is of the earth] That is, Adam's Sannawi nishmat chayim, the breath of lives; which the body, was made out of the dust of the earth; and henee the apostle translates ψυχην ζωσαν α living soul. .

apostle says, he was goixos of the dust; for the body was The lust Adama quickening spirit.] This is also said to made 72787 ya noy aphar min ha-adamah ; dust from the be written; but where, says Dr. Lightfoot, is this written in ground, Gen. ii. 7. the whole sacred book ? Schoettgen replies, In the very

The second man is---from heaven] Heavenly oup 2405, as same verse, and in these words on wo3b =787479 vayehi several good MSS. and Versions read. The resurrection ha-Adam le-nephesh chaiyah, and Adam became a living body shall be of a heavenly nature, and not subject to decay soul; which the apostle translates tiveCM.a {WOTIGIOUV, a quick or death. What is formed of earth, must live after an ening, or life-giving spirit. Among the cabalistic Jews w earthly manner; must be nourished and supported by the Nephesh, is considered as implying greater dignity than earth : what is from heaven, is of a spiritual nature, and nawa Nishmuh. The former may be considered as pointing I shall have no farther connection with, nor dependence upel

The difference between the

CHAP. XV.

first and last Adam.

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48 As is the earthy, such are they

49 And as we have borne the Anno Imp. Ne also that are earthy : ‘and as is the image of the earthy, we shall A. U.C. 809.

heavenly, such are they also that are also bear the image of the hea- ronis Cæs. 3. heavenly

venly.

ronis Caes. 3.

. Phil. 3. 20, 21. Gen. 5. 3.

e Rom. 8. 29. 2 Cor. 3. 18. & 4. 11. Phil. 3. 21. 1 John 3. 2.

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earth. I conceive both these clauses to relate to man, and Verse 19. And as we have borne the image of the earthy] to point out the difference between the animal body, and the As being descendants from Adam, we have all been born in spiri/ual body : or between the bodies which we now have, : his likeness, and subject to the same kind of corruption, disand the bodies which we shall have in the resurrection. But grace, and death; we shall also be raised to a life immortal, can this be the meaning of the clause, the second man is the such as he now enjoys in the kingdom of God. This interLord from heaven?. In the quotation, I have omitted pretation proceeds on the ground that, what is here spoken, kocios, the Lord, on the following authorities ; first, MSS. belongs to Adam in his twofold state, viz. of mortality BCDEFG. and two others. VERSIONS--Coptic, Ethiopic, and immortality; of disgrace and honour; of earth and Armenian in the margin, Vulgate and Itala FATUENS— heaven. Origen, who quotes it once and omits it once; Athanasius, But by many commentators, the words are understood to Basil, the two Greguries, Nyssen and Nazianzen ; Isidore, refer to Adam and Christ, in ver. 45, 47, 48 and 49. By Cyril, Tertullian, Cyprian, Tlilary, zeno, Ambrose, Au- these, Christ is called the second Adum, the quickening Spirit, gustin, Jerom, Anbrosiaster, Philaster, Leo, Pucianus, Pri- the second mun, and the heavenly, whose image of righteousmasius, Sedulius, Bede and others. See these authorities ness and true holiness we are to bear. more at large in leistein. Some of the most eminent of But when I consider, 1st. How all these terms are used modern cuiti - Irare out the word, and Tertullian says that and applied in the Jewish writings, it appears to me that, as it was put in by the heretic Marcion. I do think that the this was not their import amoug them, so it was not the de. word is not legitimate in t' is place. The verse is read by sign of Pau!; and it would be very difficult to find any the MSS, Versions and Fathers, above referred to, thus, The place where Jesus Christ is called the second Adam, in either first mun is of the earth, earthy; the second man is of heaven, Old or New Testament. The discourse of the apostle, heuvenly; Kupios being omitted, and ouparios added. The Rom. v. 14–19. will not prove it, though in those verses first man, and the second man, of this verse, are the same as there is a comparison drawn between Adam and Christ ; but the first Adam and the second Adam of ver. 45. and it is that compari on refers to the extent of the sin and condemnot clear that Christ is meant in either place. Some sup- | nation brought upon all men by the transgression of the pose that there is a reference here to what Eve said, when first; and the redemption purchased for all men by the sashe brought forth Cain, I have gotten a man from the Lord, crifice of the last; and the superabundant grace procured by 5179 Os rup kuniti Ish, et Yehovah, I have possessed or that sacrifice. But here, the comparison most evidently is beobtained a man, the Lord; that is, as Dr. Lightfoot ex. tween the state of man in this mortal life, and his state after plaius it, that the Lord himself should become man : and he the resurrection. Here, all men are corrupt and mortal ; thinks that Eve had respect to the promise of Christ when and here, all men die. There, al men shall be incorrupt she named her son; as Adam had when he named his wife. and immortal ; and, whether holy or unholy, shall be eterIf Exe had this in view, we can only say, she was sadly mis- nally immortal. taken : indeed the conjecture is too refined.

Of the image of Adum, in his heavenly or paradisiacal The terms first man of the earth, and second man from state, the rabbins talk largely: They say that “God created heaven, are frequent among the Jews; mboga nx the supe- Adam with a double image, earthly and heavenly; that he rior Adam; and neon 7x Adam the inferior ; that is, the was the most perfect of all beings; tkat his splendor shone earthly and the heavenly Adam: Adam before the resurrec from one extremity of the earth to the other; that all feared tion, and Adam after it.

before him : that he knew all wisdom, both earthly and Verse 48. As is the earthy, &c.] As Adam was, who heavenly; but when he sinned, his glory was diminished, and was formed from the earth ; so are all his descendants, frail, his wisdom departed from him.” Yalcut Rubeni, fol. 10. decaying, and subject to death.

They add further, that, “In the time in which Adam reAs is the heavenly] As is the heavenly state of Adam and ceived naboy napra the heavenly image, that all the creaall glorified beings, so shall be the state of all those who, at tures came to him, and acknowledged him king of the earth." the resurrection, are found fit for glory.

Ibid, fol. 21.

All shall not die,

I. CORINTHIANS.

but all shall be changed.

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-50 Now this I say, brethren, that || shall sound, and the dead shall be AM, 4060. A. U.C. 809. * flesh and blood cannot inherit the raised incorruptible, and we shall be A.D.C.89.

Anno Imp. Ne ronis Cæs. 3. kingdom of God; neither doth cor- | changed. ruption inherit incorruption.

53 For this corruptible must put on incor51 Behold, I shew you a mystery ; We shall ruption, and this mortal must put on imnot all sleep, but we shall all be changed, mortality.

52 In a moment, in the twinkling of an 54 So, when this corruptible shall have put on eye,

at the last trump: "for the trumpet incorruption, and this mortal shall have put on

2 Matt. 16. 17. John 3. 3,5.- 1 Thess. 4. 15, 16, 17.- Phil. 3. 21.

d Zech. 9. 14. Matt. 24. 31. John 5. 25. 1 Thess. 4. 16.

2 Cor. 5.4.

2. From all this, and much more might be produced on the as he does all his works : He calls, and it is done. The resubject, (See Schoettgen,) it appears that the apostle follows, surrection of all the dead, from the foundation of the world as far as it could comport with his design, the sentiments of to that time, and the change of all the living then upon his countrymen; and that he adopts their very phraseology : | earth, shall be the work of a single moment. and that it is through the medium of these sentiments, and At the last trump] This, as well as all the rest of the pethis phraseology, that he is to be understood and interpreted.culiar phraseology of this chapter, is merely Jewish; and we Others may understand all these passages differently ; and must go to the Jewish writers to know what is intended. still consider them as a parallel between Adam and Christ, | On this very subject, the rabbins use the very same expression. which is the general view of interpreters. The view whichThus Rabbi Akiba, “How shall the holy blessed God raise I have taken of them appears to me to be much more con the dead? We are taught that God has a trumpet, a thousistent with the nature of the discourse, and the scope and sand ells long, according to the ell of God : this trumpet he design of the apostle. The common opinion is orthodox : shall blow, so that the sound of it shall extend from one ex. what I here propose is no heresy. There are many difficul- || tremity of the earth to the other. At the first blast, the ties in the chapter; and not a few in the verses immediately | earth shall be shaken ; at the second, the dust shall be sepa. under consideration.

rated ; at the third, the bones shall be gathered together; at Verse 50. Flesh and blood cannot inherit the kingdom] || the fourth, the members shall wax warm; at the fifth, the This is a Hebrew periphrasis for man; and man in his pre- heads shall be covered with skin ; at the sixth, the souls shal} sent state of infirmity and decay. Man, in his present state, be rejoined to their bodies ; at the seventh, all shall revive cannot inherit the kingdom of God; his nature is not suited and stand clothed : See Wetstein. This tradition shews us to that place : he could not, in his present weak state, endure what we are to understand by the last trump of the apostle : an exceeding great and eternal weight of glory. Therefore, it is the seventh of Rab. Akiba, when the dead shall be all it is necessary that he should die, or be changed; that he raised, and being clothed upon with their eternal vehicles, they should have a celestial body suited to the celestial state. The shall be ready to appear before the judgment-seat of God. apostle is certainly not speaking of flesh and blood in a For the trumpet shall sound] By this the apostle confirms moral sense, to signify corruption of mind and heart; but the substance of the tradition ; there shall be the sound of a in a natural sense ; as such flesh and blood cannot inherit trumpet on this great day; and this, other Scriptures teach : glory, for the reasons already assigned.

See Zach. ix. 14. Matt. xxiv. 31. John v. 25. 1 Thess. Verse 51. I shew you a mystery] That is, a thing which iv. 16. in which latter place, the apostle treats this subject you have never known before. But what is this mystery ? | among the Thessalonians; as he does here among the Corin. Why, that we shall not all sleep; we shall not all die ; but thians. See the Notes there. we shall all be changed: of this the Jews had not distinct Shall be raised incorruptible Fully clothed, with a new notions. For, as flesh and blood cannot inherit glory, and body, to die no more. all shall not be found dead, at the day of judgment; then We shall be changed.] That is, those who shall then be all must be changed; undergo such a change that their found alive. bodies may become spiritual, like the bodies of those who Verse 53. For this corruptible, &c.] Because flesh and shall be raised from the dead.

blood cannot inherit glory ; therefore, there must be a refineVerse 52. In a moment] Ex atouw, in an atom; that is, ment by death, or a change without it. an indivisible point of time. In the twinkling of an eye ; as Verse 54. Death is swallowed up in victory.] Katero soon as a man can wink : which expressions shew that this, o baratos Els vixos. These words are a quotation from Isai. mighty work is to be done by the Almighty power of God, xxv. 8. where the Hebrew is maar nie wha bila he-moueth

Death itself shall be

CHAP. XV.

swallowed up

in victory.

4.42010. jinmortality, then shall be brought|| 55 O death, where is thy sting? O
AU .. to pass the saying that is writ-||° grave, where is thy victory?
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ten, • Death is swallowed up in 56 The sting of death is sin; and ronis Caes. 3. victory.

the strength of sin is the law.

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la-net sach ; He, (God) hath swallowed up death in victory ; | serve also, that the inx ehi, (I will be,) of the Hebrew text, or, for ever. These words in the Septuagint are thus trans- the Septuagint, and the apostle following them, have trans. lated, XATETLEV Gavatos soxuras : death, having prevailed lated tou where, as if the word had been written 7's where, or conquered, hath swallowed up. But in the version of Theo. || the two last letters interchanged ; but n8 ehi, is rendered dotion, the words are the same with those of the apostle. I where in other places : and our translators, in the 16th verse The Hebrew ng la-netsach, the Septuagint sometimes of this same chap. (Hos. xiii.) render 75 7x ehi malca, translate Eng yixos, in victory; but most commonly Eis TENOS “ I will be thy king,” but have this note in the margin, for ever : both, as Bishop Pearce observes, in such kind of ||“ Rather, where is thy king? King Hoshea being then in phrases, signifying the same thing ; because eternity con- prison.” The apostle, therefore, and the Septuagint, are quers all things: and accordingly, in 2 Sam. ii. 26. where sufficiently vindicated by the use of the word elsewhere: the Septuagint have μη εις νικος καταφαγεται η ρομφαια ; our

and the best Jewish commentators allow this use of the word. English version has Shall the sword devour FOR EVER? And The Targum, Syriac, Arabic, Vulgate, and some MSS. of the same may be seen in Job xxxiv. 7. Sam. v. 20. Amos Kennicott and De Rossi, conform this reading. i. 11. and viii. 7. from which authority the bishop translated Having vindicated the translation, it is necessary to en. the clause here Death is swallowed up FOR EVER.

quire into the meaning of the apostle's expressions. Both Death is here personified, and represented as a devouring Death and Hades are here personified; death is represented being, swallowing up all the generations of men; and, by as having a sting, dagger, or goad, by which, like the drie the resurrection of the body, and the destruction of the em ver of oxen, he is continually irritating and urging on; pire of death, God is represented as swallowing him up; or, these irritations are the diseases by which men are urged on that eternity gulps him down; so that he is endlessly lost till they fall into hades, the empire of death. To hades, and absorbed in its illimitable waste. How glorious a time victory is attributed, having overcome and conquered all to the righteous, when the inhabitant shall no more say, I human life, and subdued all to its own empire. By the trans, am sick; when God shall have wiped away all tears from off | position of these two members of the sentence, the victory all faces, and when there shall be no more death. This time is given to Death, who has extinguished all human life ; and must come. Hallelujah ! The Lord God Omnipotent the sting is given to Hades, as in his empire, the evil of reigneth !

death is fully displayed by the extinction of all animal life, Verse 55. O death, where is thy sting? O grave, where and the destruction of all human bodies. We have often, is thy victory?] Ilou cou @avatɛ, TO XEvTpov; TO oo Ady seen a personification of death in ancient paintings ; a ske. TO VIXOS; These words are generally supposed to be taken leton crowned, with a dart in his hand; probably taken from from Hos. xiii. 14. where the Hebrew text stands thus : the apostle's description. The Jews represent the angel of 51280 720p mia 737 78 ehi debareyca mavath; ehi | death as having a sword, from which deadly drops of gall fall kutubca sheol : which we translate, 0 death! I will be thy | into the mouths of all men. plagues ; O grave! I will be thy destruction; and which the Hades, which we here translate grade, is generally under. Septuagint translate very nearly as the apostle, Tou m dixer

, cou || stood to be the place of separate spirits. See the Note on Oavate ; TOU TO XEYT Çox gou Adn; O death, where is thy re Matt. xi. 23. venge, or judicial process? O grave, where is thy sting? Verse 56. The sting of death is sin] The apostle exAnd it may be remarked, that almost all the MSS., Versions, | plains himself particularly here: Death could not have enand many of the Fathers, interchange the two members oftered into the world if sin had not entered first: it was sin this sentence, as they appear in the Septuagint, attributing || that not only introduced death, but has armed him with all victory to Death; and the sting to Hades, or the grave : only || his destroying force: the goad, or dagger of death is sin ; the Septuagint, probably by mistake or corruption of copyists, by this, both body and soul are slain. have fixy, dikè, revenge, or a judicial process, for vixas nikos, The strength of sin is the law] The law of God forbids victory: a mistake which the similarity of the words, both all transgression, and sentences those who commit it, to in letters and sound, might readily produce. We may ob- || temporal and eternal death. Sin has its controuling and

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