תמונות בעמוד



of different persons.

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be with you without fear; for he | but he will come when he shall have A. M. 4060. A.U. C. 809. worketh the work of the Lord, as I convenient time.

Anno Imp.No. ronis Cæs. 3. also do.

13 · Watch ye, 'stand fast in the ronis Cas. 3. 11 Let no man therefore despise him : but faith, quit you like men, 6 be strong. conduct him forth in peace, that he may come 14 Let all your things be done with charity. unto me : for I look for him with the brethren. 15 I beseech you, brethren, (ye know the

12 As touching our brother a Apollos, I greatly house of Stephanas, that it is "the first-fruits desired him to come unto you with the brethren : of Achaia, and that they have addicted thembut his will was not at all to come at this time ; selves to 'the ministry of the saints)

• Rom. 16. 21. Phil. 2. 20, 22. 1 Thess. 3. 2. -61 Tim. 4. 12.• Acts 15. 33.--. ch. 1. 12. & 3. 5.- Matt. 24. 42. & 25. 13. 1 Thess. 5. 6. 1 Pet. 5. 8.

i Ch. 15. 1. Phil. 1. 27. & 4. 1. 1 Thess. 3. 8. 2 Thess. 2. 15. & Eph. 6. 10. Col. 1. 11. ch. 14. 1. 1 Pet. 4. 8.-ich. 1. 16.

Rom. 1.5.2 Cor. 8. 4. & 9. 1. Heb. 6. 10.

very exceptionable subscription at the end of this Epistle, that Quit you like men] Be not like children tossed to and fro the Epistle itself, was not sent by Timothy, as there stated. with every wind of doctrine ; let your understanding receive

That he may be with you without fear] That he may be the truth; let your judgment determine on the absolute netreated well, and not perplexed and harassed with your di- cessity of retaining it ; and give up life rather than give up visions and jealousies; for, he worketh the work of the Lord; | the testimony of God. he is divinely appointed, as I also am.

Be strong.] Put forth all the vigour and energy which Verse 11. Let no mandespise him] Let none pretend God has given you in maintaining and propagating the truth to say that he has not full authority from God, to do the and your spiritual strength will increase by usage. The work of an evangelist.

terms in this verse are all military: Watch ye, yeriyopita, But conduct him forth in peace] I believe with Bp. Pearce, I watch, and be continually on your guard, lest you be surthat this clause should be translated and pointed thus : ac- prized by your enemies; keep your scouts out, and all your company him upon his journey, that he may come unto me centinels at their posts, lest your enemies steal a march upon in peace, (ev elpyyn,) in safety, as the word is used in Mark y. you. See, that the place you are in, be properly defended; 34. and Luke vii. 50.

and that each be alert to perform bis duty. For I look for him with the brethren.] Exeeyouar--autov Stand fast in the faith-ETYXETE EY TY TISEI. Keep in PETU TWY adenowy. This clause should not be understood as your ranks ; do not be disorderly; be determined to keep if Paul was expecting certain brethren with Timothy ; but your ranks unbroken ; keep close together. On your unity it was the brethren that were with Paul, that were looking your preservation depends : if the enemy succeed in breakfor him ; 1, with the brethren, are looking for him. ing your ranks, and dividing one part of this sacred army

Verse 12. As touching our brother Apollos] It appears from another, your rout will be inevitable. from this, that the brethren, of whom the apostle speaks in Quit yourselves like men-Avocigerge. When you are the preceding verse, were then with him at Ephesus ; I, with | attacked, do not flinch; maintain your ground; resist ; press the brethren, greatly desired him to come.

forward; strike home; keep compact; conquer. But his will was not at all to come] As there had been Be strong-Kpatiouobs. If one company or division be a faction set up in the name of Apollos, at Corinth; he pro- opposed by too great a force of the enemy; strengthen that bably thought it pot prudent to go thither at this time, lest division, and maintain your position; if an attack is to be his presence might be the means of giving it either strength | made on any part or intrenchment of the foe, summon up or countenance.

all your courage, sustain each other ; fear not, for fear Verse 13. Walch ye] You have many enemies; be con- | will enervate you. Your cause is good; it is The Faith, tinually on your guard; be always circumspect :- 1. Watch the religion of Jesus; he is your captain in the field; against evil—2. Watch for opportunities to receive good, and, should you even die in the contest, the victory is -3. Watch for opportunities to do good-4. Watch over your's. each other in love-5. Watch that none may draw you Verse 14. Let all your things be done with charity.] Let aside from the belief and unity of the gospel.

love to God, to man, and to one another, be the motive of Stand fast in the faith] Hold, in conscientious credence, all your conduct. . what you have already received as the truth of God; for it Verse 15. Ye know the house of Stephanas] Ye know is the gospel by which ye shall be saved ; and by which ye that Stephanas and his family have addicted them to the are now put into a state of salvation : see chap. xv. 1, 2. | help of the followers of Christ; they have been the chief

Concluding advices


and salutations.

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you much

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A. M. 4060. 16 * That ye submit yourselves unto 19 The churches of Asia salute you.

A. D. 56.

A. U. C. 809. Anno Imp. Ne, such, and to every one that helpeth Aquila and Priscilla salute

Anno Imp. Ne ronis Cæs. 3. with us, and blaboureth.

in the Lord, with the church that is ronis Cas. 3. 17 I am glad of the coming of Stephanas and in their house. Fortunatus and Achaicus : for that which was

20 All the brethren greet you.

* Greet ye one lacking on your part they have supplied. another with a holy kiss. 18 "For they have refreshed my spirit and

21 The salutation of me Paul with mine your's: therefore 'acknowledge ye them that are

own hand. such.

22 If any man love not the Lord Jesus

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. Heb. 13. 17. Heb. 6. 10.-- 2 Cor. 11.9. Phil. 2. 30. Philem.

13. d Col. 4. 1. el Thess. 5. 12. Phil. 2. 29.

? Rom. 16. 5. 15. Philem. 2. Rom. 16. 16.- Col. 4. 18. 2 Thes

3. 17. Eph. 6. 24.

instruments of supporting the work of God in Achaia; of churches in Asia Minor. Ephesus was in this Asia, and it which work they themselves have been the first-fruits. See is clear from this, that the apostle was not at Philippi ; had the Note on Rom. xvi. 5.

he been at Philippi, as the subscription states, he would have Verse 16. That ye submit yourselves unto such] That said, the churches of Macedonu, not the churches of Asia, ye have due regard to them, and consider them as especial salute you. How these places lay, in reference to each

instruments in the hand of God, for countenancing and car- other, the Reader will at once perceive, by consulting the , rying on his great work. The submission here recommended | Map in Acts.

does not imply obcdience, but kind and courteous demeanour. Aquila and Priscilla] Of these eminent persons we have Kypke vindicates this sense of the word from Eph. v. 21. heard before : See Acts xviii. 2, 18, 26. and Rom. xvi. 3. , 1 Pet. v. 5.

With the church that is in their house.] That is, the comVerse 17. I am glad of the coming of Stephanas, &c.]pany of believers who generally worshipped there. There It was by these that the Corinthians had sent that letter to were no churches or chapels at that time built; and the 24the apostle, to answer which, was a main part of the design semblies of Christians were necessarily held in private of St. Paul in this Epistle.

houses. It appears, that Aquila and Priscilla, devoted their Fortunatus] This man is supposed to have survived St. house to this purpose. The house of Philemon was of the Paul; and to be the same mentioned by Clement in his same kind, Philem. ver. 2. So was likewise the house of Epistle to the Corinthians, sect. 59. as the bearer of that Nymphas, Coloss. iv. 15. See the Note on Rom. xvi. 5. Epistle from Clement at Rome, to the Christians at Corinth. Verse 20. With a holy kiss.] The ancient patriarchs,

For that which was lacking on your part] This may either and the Jews in general, were accustomed to kiss each other refer to additional communications, besides those contained in whenever they met; and this was a token of friendship and the letter which the Corinthians sent to the apostle; which peace with them, as shaking of hands is with us. The priadditional circumstances were furnished by the persons mitive Christians naturally followed this example of the above; and from them St. Paul had a fuller account of their | Jews. See the Note on Rom. xvi. 16. spiritual state, than was contained in the letter: or to some Verse 21. The salutation of me Paul with mine own hand.] contributions on their part, for the support of the apostle in This should be rendered 6 The salutation is written by the his peregrinations and labours.

hand of me Paul ;" yeypanto is written, being understood. Verse 18. They have refreshed my spirit and your's] | It is very likely that the apostle wrote this and the follor. They have been a means of contributing greatly to my | ing verses with his own hand. The rest, though dictated by comfort; and what contributes to my comfort, must in- him, was written by an amanuensis. crease your's. This is probably the meaning of the apostle. Verse 22. If any man lave not the Lord Jesus] This is

Therefore acknowledge ye them] Pay them particular re- directed immediately against the Jews. From chap. xii. 3. spect; and let all be held in esteem in proportion to their we find that the Jews who pretended to be under the Spiri work and usefulness. When this is made the rule of re- || and teaching of God, called Jesus arabeux, or accursed; spect and esteem, then foolish und capricious attachments will i. e. a person who should be devoted to destruction : see the have no place. A man will then be honoured in proportion | Note there. In this place, the apostle retorts the whole to his merit ; and bis merit will be estimated by his useful- upon them selves, and says, If any man love not the Lord ness among men.

Jesus Christ, let an be avabsua accursed, and der oted to Verse 19. The churches of Asia salute you.] i.e. The destruction. This is not said in the way of a zish or impro

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cation, but as a prediction of what would certainly come ren be exposed at the doors of their enemies! And let posupon them if they did not repent; and, of what did come terity be astonished at his day! Let him be accursed by the on them because they did not repent; but continued to hate mouth of Addiriron and Achturiel ; by the mouth of Sanand execrate the Lord Jesus: and of what still lies upon dulphon and Iladraniel; by the mouth of Ansisiel and Pate them, because they continue to hate and execrate the Re- chiel ; by the mouth of Seraphiel and Sagansuel; by the deemer of the world.

mouth of Michael and Gabriel; by the mouth of Raphael · It is generally allowed, that the apostle refers here to and Mesharetiel! Let him bé anathematized by the mouth some of the modes of excommunication among the Jews, of of Zafzavif, and by the mouth of Hafavif; who is the which there were three, viz.

great God, and by the mouth of the seventy names of the . i. Niddai 1193, which signified a simple separation, or ex- Supreme King; and, lastly, by the mouth of Tsorlak, the clusion of a man from the synagogue, and from his wife great chancellor. and family, for thiRTÝ days.

« Let him be swallowed up like Korah and his compa2. Cherem $17, which was inflicted on him who had borne nions! Let his soul deparť with fear and terror! Let the the Niddui; and who had not, in the thirty days, made chiding of the Lord slay him! Let him be confounded'as proper compensation, in order to be reconciled to the Achitophel was in his counsel! Let the leprosy of Geħazi synagogue. This was inflicted with dire' execrations, which de his leprosy! and let there be no resurrection of his ruins ! he was informed' must all come upon him if he did not In the sepulchres of the children of Israel, let him not bě repent': but the Cherem always supposed 'place for re- buried! Let his wife be given to another; and let others pentance.

bow themselves upon her in his death! In this anathema, 3. Shammatha xnpu: this was the direst of all, and cut let P. the son of P. be; and let this be his inheritance ! off all hope of reconciliation and repentance ; after which, But upon me, and upon all Israel, may God extend his the man was neither .teconcilable to the synagogue, nor ac- peace and blessing, Amen.” To this is added, the 18th, knowledged as belonging even to the Jewish nation. See these 19th, and 20th verses of Deut. xxix. which the Reader different forms in Buxtorf's Rabbinical and Talmudical Let- may read at his leisure. There are many things in this icon, under their respective words.

Cherem which require a comment, but this is not the place. In the lexicon just now quoted, Buxtorf gives a form Anathema, Maranatha] “Let him be accursed ; our of the Cherem, which he says he copied from an ancient Lord cometh.” I cannot see the reason why these words tlebrew MS. Of this awful piece I shall lay a translation were left untranslated. The former is Greek, and has been before the Reader.

already explained'; the latter is Syriac 127:50 maran atha, “ By the sentence of the Lord of lords, let P. the son our Lord is coming; i. e. to execute the judgment deof P. be anathematized in both houses of judgment, the su-nounced. Does not the apostle refer to the last verse in the perior and inserior. Let him be anathematized among the Bible? Lest I come and smite the land, (

Scherem,) with highest saints ; let him be anathematized among the Serd a curse? And does he not intimate that the Lord was comphim and Ophanim : and, finally, let him be anathematized | ing to smite the Jewish land with that curse ? Which took hy all the congregations of the great and the small! Let place a very few years after, and continues on that gain. great and continued plagues rest upon him; with great and saying and rebellious people to the present day. What the horrible diseases ! Let his house be the habitation of dra- apostle has said, was prophetic, and indicatioe of what was gons! and let his constellation be darkened in the clouds ! about to happen to that people. God was then coming to Let him be for indignation, and wrath, and burning! Let 'inflict punishment upon them: He came; and they were his carcase be thrown to the wild beasts and serpents! Let broken and dispersed. his enemies, and his adversaries, triumph over him! Let Verse 23. The grace of our Lord Jesus] May the his silver and gold be given to others! And let all his child-l; favour, influencë, mercy, and salvation procured by Jesus

General observations


on this Epistle.

Christ, be with you ! prevail amongst you, rule in you, and 2. In closing my observations on this Epistle, I feel it ne. be exhibited by you, in your life and conversation! Amen. | cessary, once more, to call the Reader's attention to the

Verse 21. My love be with you all in Christ Jesus.] It many difficulties contained in it, as an excuse for any thing appears exceedingly strange, that the apostle should say, he may find handled in an unsatisfactory manner. Perhaps My love be with you; as he said, The grace of our Lord it will be of little consequence for him to know, that this Jesus Christ be with you. We can easily conceive what the Epistle has cost me more labour and difficulty than any latter means : the grace of Christ is an active, powerful, portion of the same quantity which I have yet passed over, saving principle ; it is essential to the existence of the Chris- either in the Old or New Testament. tian church, that this grace should be ever with it: and, 3. It has been already noticed, that the church at Cowithout this grace, no individual can be saved. But what i rinth, had writlen to the apostle for advice, direction, and incould the love of the apostle do with them? Has it any formation on a variety of points; and that this Epistle is in meaning? I confess I can see none, unless it be intended to the main, an answer to the Epistle from Corinth. Had we say, I love you; or, I continue to love you. The pronoun that Epistle, all dificulty would vanish in this : but, as the uou my, is wanting in the Codex Alexandrinus, and in 73.lj apostle only refers to their questions, by mere catch words an excellent MS. in the Vatican, written about the eleventh from their letter, it is impossible to know, in all cases, what century. This will help us to a better sense; for it either the questions contained; to them the answers would be says, May love prerail among you! or, supplying the word clear, because they knew on what they had consulted him; sou God, as in 2 Cor. xiii. 13. The love of God be with to us the answers must be as they really are, in some cases, you! This gives a sound sense ; for the love of God is as necessarily obscure, because we know not the whole bearing much a principle of light, life, and salvation, as the grace and circumstances of the questions. Indeed the Epistle con. of Christ. And probably MOT my, is a corruption for Ertains more local matter, and more matter of private appliGod. And this is the more likely, because he uses this very cation, than any other in the New Testament: and there form in the conclusion of his second Epistle to this church, ) is in it, on the whole, less matter for general use, tban ia as we have seen above. I conclude, therefore, that the read- | most other parts of the sacred writings. Yet it is both very ing of the two MSS. above, is the true reading; or else curious and useful; it gives insight into several customs, and that

μου is a corruption for Okou, and that the verse should be not a few forms of speech, and matters relative to the discipread thus, The love of God be with you all, in (or by) | line of the primitive church, which we can find no where Christ Jesus.

else ; and it reads a very awful lesson to those who disturb Amen.] So be it : but this word is wanting in most the peace of society, make schisms in the church of Christ

, MSS. of repute; and certainly was not written by the and endeavour to set up one preacher at the expense of apostle.


4. It shews us also, how many improper things may, in a 1. The subscription to this Epistle, in our common En- state of ignorance, or Christian infancy, be consistent with a glish Bibles, and in the common editions of the Greek text, | sincere belief in the Gospel of Christ; and a conscientious is palpably absurd. That it was not written from Philippi,) and zealous attachment to it. but from Ephesus, see the Notes on ver. 5, 8, 10 and 19. 5. In different parts of the Epistle we find the apostla and that it could not be “ written by Silvanus, and Fortu-speaking very highly of the knowledge of this church ; and natus, and Achaicus, and Timotheus ;” needs no proof. || its various gifts and endowments. How then can we say that But this subscription is wanting in all the best MSS. and its blemishes arose from ignorance. I answer that, cero Versions, either in whole or in part. Iu some, it is simply | tainly, only a few of the people at Corinth could possess said, The first to the Corinthians; in others, The first to those eminent spiritual qualifications; because the things that the Corinthians is finished ;-written from Ephesus,-from are attributed to this church, in other places, are utterly iDAsia, -- from Ephesus of Asia,--from Philippi of Macedonia, consistent with that state of grace for which the apostle, in ---from Philippi of Macedoniu, and sent by the hands of other places, appears to give them credit. The solution of Timothy, so the Syriac. Written from Ephesus, by Ste- the difficulty is this; there were in the church at Corinth, phanas and Fortunatus, Coptic. Written from Philippi by many highly gifted, and very gracious people ; there were Stephanas, and Fortunatus, and Achaicus, Slavonic. also there many more, which, though they might have been Written, &c. by Paul and Sosthenes. Written from the partakers of some extraordinary gifts, had very little el city of Philippi, and sent by Stephanus and Fortunatus, and that religion which the apostle describes in the thirteenth Achaicus, and Timotheus. ARABIC. There are other vari- || chapter of this Epistle. ations which need not be set down.

Those only appear

6. Besides, we must not suppose that eminent endomment to be correct that state the Epistle to have been sent from necessarily imply gracious dispositions. A man may hari Ephesus ; of which there can be no reasonable doubt. much light, and little love: he may be very wise in secular

General observations


on this Epistle.

matters; and know but little of himself, and less of his God. || and forms of speech, in order to enter into the spirit of the There is as truly a leurned ignorance, as there is a refined | apostle's meaning. His ignorance of this, caused a late and useful learning. One of our old writers said, “ Know- eminent writer and philosopher, to charge the apostle with ledge that is not applying, is only like a candle which a man “ inconsistent reasoning.” Had he understood the apostle's holds to light himself to hell.” The Corinthians abounded || language, he would not have said so: and, as he did not in knowledge, and science, and eloquence, and various er understand it, he should have said nothing. A man may be traordinary gifts; but, in many cases, distinctly enough mark- l qualified to make great and useful discoveries in the doctrine ed in this Epistle, they were grossly ignorant of the genius of gases, or factitious airs; who may be ill qualified to elu. and design of the gospel. Many, since their time, have put || cidate the meaning of the Holy Spirit. words and observances in place of the weightier matters of 8. Before I finish my concluding observations on this the law; and the spirit of the GOSPEL. The apostle has | Epistle, I must beg leave to call the Reader's attention taken great pains to correct these abuses among the Corin once more, to the concluding words of the apostle, If any thians, and to insist on that great, unchangeable, and eternal man love not the Lord Jesus Christ, let him be Anathema, truth, that love to God and man, filling the heart, hallowing | Maran-atha. These words have been as often misunder. the passions, regulating the affections, and producing uni- || stood, and perhaps as dangerously applied, as another passversal benevolence and beneficence, is the fulfilling of all age in this Epistle, He that eateth and drinketh unworthily, law; and that all professions, knowledge, gifts, &c. with-eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, &c. Though I am out this, are absolutely useless. And did this Epistle con- ready to grant that the bad Christian, i. e. the man who protain no more than what is found in the 13th chapter, yet | fesses Christianity, and yet lives under the power of sin, is that would be an unparalleled monument of the apostle's || in a very dangerous state; and that he, who, while he credits deep acquaintance with God; and an invaluable record of Christianity, is undecided as to the public part he should the sum and substance of the gospel, left by God's mercy take in its profession and practice, is putting his eternal in. to the church ; as a touch-stone for the trial of creeds, con terests to the most awful hazard; yet I must also grant, that fessions of faith, and ritual observances, to the end of the the meaning generally put on the words in question, is not world.

correct. The words apply to the gainsaying and blasphe. 7. I have often had occasion to note, that the whole mous Jews; to those who were calling Christ Anathema, or Epistle refers so much to Jewish affairs, customs, forms of accursed; and cannot be applied to any person who respects speech, ceremonies, &c. that it necessarily supposes the peo- his name, or con fides in him for his salvation : much less do ple to have been well acquainted with them : from this I in- they apply to him, who finds through the yet prevalence of fer, that a great majority of the Christian church at Corinth, evil in his heart, and the power of temptation, that he has was composed of converted Jews : and it is likely that this little, and, to his own apprehension, no lode to the Lord Jesus. was the case in all the churches of Asia Minor and Greece. | The Anathema of the apostle is denounced against him only Many Gentiles were undoubtedly brought to the knowledge who gives the Anathema to Christ. Of this, not one of my of the truth; but the chief converts were from among the Readers is capable. It is the duty of all to love Him Hellenistic Jews. In many respects, Jewish phraseology pre- with an undivided heart; if any be not yet able to do it, let vails more in this Epistle than even in that to the Romans. | him not be discouraged ; if the Lord cometh to execute judgWithout attention to this, it would be impossible to make ment on him who calleth Jesus accursed, he cometh also to any consistent sense out of the 15th chap. where the apostle || fulfil the desire of them wbo fear him ; to make them partreats so largely on the doctrine of the resurrection; as take of the Divine Nature, and so cleanse their hearts by the almost every form and turn of expression, is Jew188; and inspiration of his Holy Spirit, that they shall perfectly love we must know what ideas they attached to such words | him, and worthily magnify his name, .

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