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Exhortations to steadfastness,

I. CORINTHIANS.

and persevering obedience.

A. M. 4060.
A. D. 56.

57 « But thanks be to God, which stedfast, unmoveable, always abound- A. Molte Anno Im... giveth us "the victory through ouring in the work of the Lord ; for- A. U.C. 09. roois Caes. 3. Lord Jesus Christ.

asmuch as ye know that your labour ronis Cas. S. 58 Therefore, my beloved brethren, be ye is not in vain in the Lord.

a Rom. 7. 25.- 1 John 5. 4, 5.

e 2 Pet. 3. 14.

deh.3. 8.

binding power from the law. The law curses the transgres- || ficulties, much has been written in the preceding Notes. sor, and provides no help for him; and if nothing else in. Though I have used all the helps in my power to guide me in tervene, he must, through it, continue ever under the empire explaining it, I have, upon the whole, been obliged to think of death.

for myself, and claim only the praise of severe labour, ever Verse 57. But thanks be to God] What the law could directed by honest intention; and an earnest desire to find not do, because it is law, and law cannot provide pardon, is out the truth. done by the gospel of our Lord Jesus Christ: he has died to 2. There are many questions connected with the doctrine slay death; he has risen again to bring mankind from under of the resurrection, which I could not introduce here, with. the empire of llades. All this he has done through his out writing a book, instead of short notes on a very long mere unmerited morcy; and eternal thanks are due to God chapter. On such subjects, I again beg leave to direct the for this unspeakable gift. He has given us the victory over Reader to Mr. Samuel Drew's Essay on that subject. sio, Satan, death, the grave and hell.

3. One remark I cannot help making; the doctrine of the Verse 58. Be ye stedfast] 'E&pacios, from Spa a seut; resurrection, appears to have been thought of much more be settled, contide in the truth of this doctrine of the resur consequence among the primitive Christians than it is now ! rection, and every thing that pertains to it, as confidently as How is this? The apostles were continually insisting on it, a man sits down on a seat, which he knows to be solid, and exciting the followers of God to diligence, obedienice, firm, and safe; and on which he has often sut.

and cheerfulness through it. And their successors in the Unmoveable] AuzTaXIVY,TO), from a negative; and pieta- present day seldom mention it! So apostles preached ; and XivEw to move away ; let nothing shake your

faith : let no so primitive Christians believed : so we preach, and so our thing move you areay from this hope of the gospel which is hearers believe. There is not a doctrine in the gospel on given unto you. What I tell you, I receive from God; your which more stress is laid : and there is not a doctrine in the false teachers cannot say so: in a declaration of God you present system of preaching which is treated with more may unshakenly confide.

neglect ! Always abounding in the work of the Lord] The work 4. Though all men shall rise again ; yet it will be in widely of the Lord is obedience to his holy word: every believer in different circumstances : some will rise to glory and honour; Christ is a workman of God. He that works not, to bring others, to shame and everlasting contempt. Those alone who glory to God, and good to man, is not acknowledged as a here received the salvation of God, and continued faithful servant of Christ : and, if he be not a servant, he is not a unto death, shall have a resurrection to everlasting glory; son; and if not a son, then not an heir. And he must not not every believer, but every loving, obedient believer, shall only work, but abound in that work; ever exceeding his enter into the Paradise of God; and have a body fashioned former self; and this, not for a time, but always ; beginning, like unto his Lord's glorious body. continuing, and ending every act of life to God's glory, and 5. All glorified spirits will not have the same degree of the good of his fellows.

glory. Two things will necessarily cause great difference : Your labour is not in vain] Your labour in the Lord, 1. The quantum of mind; and, 2. The quantum of grace. is not in vain : you must not only work, but you must (1.) It is idle to suppose that God has made all human Labour, put forth all your strength: and you must work souls with the same capacities: he has not. There is an inand labour in the Lord, under his direction, and by his finite diversity; he who has the greatest mind, can know influence ; for, without Him, you can do nothing. And most, do most, suffer most, and enjoy most. this labour cannot be in vain ; you shall have a resurrec (2.) The quantum of grace will be another great cause of tion unto eternal life : not because you have laboured, but diversity in glory. He who received most of Christ here, because Christ died, and gave you grace to be faithful. and was most devoted to his service, shall have the nearest

approach to him in his own kingdom. But all equally hois, 1. The chapter through which the Reader has passed, is a and equally faithful souls, shall not have equal degrees of chapter of great importance and difficulty; and, on its dif- il glory, for the glory will be according to the capacity

Observations on stars

CHAP. XV.

of different magnitudes.

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of the mind, as well as the degree of grace and improvement. || ferent magnitudes. I will state a remarkable fact : The norThe greater the capacity, provided it be properly influenced thern and southern hemispheres of the heavens, have been by the grace of Christ, the greater will be the enjoyment. divided into 102 constellations, and in these constellations

6. That there will be great diversity in the states of glo- l professor Bode has set down the places of 17,240 stars ; rified saints is the apostle's doctrine ; and he illustrates it simple, nebulous, conglobate, and double.—The stars have by the diữerent degrees of splendor between the sun, moon, been distinguished by their apparent magnitudes, or rather planets, and stars. This needs little application. There splendor, into stars of the first, second, third, fourth, fifth, are some of the heavenly bodies that give heat, light, and sixth, seventh, eighth, &c. magnitudes : of these 17,240, splendor, as the sun ; and are of the utmost service to the only sixteen are, by astronomers in general, agreed to be world : some that give light, and comparative splendor, with of the first magnitude; all of which are set down in the out heat, as the moon; and yet are of very great use to following catalogue ; with some of those that are remark. mankind: others again, which give a steady but not a splendid | able in the second, third, fourth, fifth, and sixth maglight, as the PLANETs; and are serviceable in their parti- nitudes. The Reader will observe, that the name of the cular spheres : and, lastly, others which twinkle in their re- constellation, or star, is first mentioned : the Greek letters, spective systems, as the stars of different magnitudes. &c. are those by which they are distinguished on maps and

7. One star, says the apostle, differs from another in globes ; and they are, by astronomers, referred to by these
glory, i. e. in splendor, according to what is called their dif- || letters and numbers. My inferences shall follow the Table.

A TABLE of the most remarkable Fixed STARS, from the First to the Sixth MAGNITUDE.
First Magnitude.
Second Magnitude.

Third Mag. Fourth Mag. Fifth Mag. Sixth Mag.
In the mouth of Canis In the wing of Pegasus, Brightest of the

In Libra,

In Pisces, d In Cancer, &
Major, or the Greater (Algenib)-

r
Pleiades, n

-19 In the Sextant, 37 Dog, (Sirius, or the In the head of the Phoe. In Taurus, g

38 Dog-star,) . nix,

30 In Leo, 56 Bright star in Lyra, or In the tail of Cetus, B

In Scorpio,

-331

-*79 the Harp, (Wega or In the girdle of Andro In Gemini,

e In Sagittarius, o Vega)

meda,

B
€ In Ophiuchus, $

Mi
Bright star in Boötes, In the Ram's follow-

M

"In Aquarius, *Ę (Arcturus)

ing horn,
a In Virgo, B In Sagittarius, In Cetus, 201

ih In the heart of Leo In the neck of Cetus,

1 In Aries,

X
Major, or the Great In the jaw of Cetus,

7
2 u

1 9 In Orion, 4% Lion, (Regulus) a In the head of Medusa,

3 In Ursa Minor, In the left shoulder of (Algol)

B In Libra,

1

27 Auriga, or the Cha. In Perseus' girdle,

1.

-2x In Taurus, 01 rioteer, (Capella) a In the northern horn of In Scorpio, 8 In Capricorn, g

xl In the right foot of the Bull, B.In Ophiuchus, 9

105

1 Orion, (Rigel) B In Gemini, (Castor). *a In Sagittarius, *y In Aquarius, In Orion,

2 In the southern, or left In Gemini, (Pollux) *8

2%In Cepheus, f eye, of the Bull, (Al In Orion's shoulder

2 T

3 x debaran) a In the belt of Orion, 8

© In Auriga, x In the Dragon, Y In Eridanus, (Alna In the Dove,

In Pisces, In Gemini,

х bar or Acharnar) 2 In the female Hydra, a In Capricorn,

4

W In the shoulder of Orion, In Ursa Major, (Up

In Cancer,

B (Betelgeuse) per Pointer) 22 In Aries,

1 V In the poop of the ship In Ursa Major, (Lower In Ursa Minor, a In Taurus, 10 In Leo,

2 V Argo, (Canopus) Pointer)

In Cassiopeia, y

28 In Virgo, In Cassiopeia, In the loins of Canis The Lion's tail, (De

8 In Gemini, 7 Minor, or the Little neb)

B

y In Libra, M Dog, (Procyon) a In the Cross,

B

B In Cancer, y In Scorpio, lw Bright star in the foot In the Dragon's tail,

2 w of the Cross, - a In the Balance, a In Perseus

7

In Ophiuchus, y
In the spike of the Vir In the Balance,
B

d
gin,
a In the Swan's tail, a In Ursa Major, u

o In Sagittarius, w In Perseus, In the foot of the Cen. In Pegasus, (Markab) a

à

In Capricorn, P taur, a In Andromeda's bead, a

In Aquarius, In the Scorpion's heart, In the shoulder of Pe.

λ (Antares)

gasus,
In the Dragon,

IT
In the mouth of the In the Crane's wing,

B In Virgo, 6

14 south fisb, (Fomal In the Eagle, (Atteer) *a

2 In Auriga,

ha haut) a In the ship Argo, BlIn the Swan,

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Observations on stars

I. CORINTHIANS.

of different magnitudės.

Observations on the preceding Table :

and B in the ship Argo, which I have placed among those of The five stars of the second magnitude in the above list, the second magnitude, because astronomers are not agreed marked with an asterisk, are, by some writers, deno on the subject, some ranking them with stars of the first minated of the first magnitude ; and those named of the magnitude ; others, with stars of the second. Third, fourth, fifth, and sixth magnitudes, (the stars of the The Reader is probably amazed at the paucity of large last-mentioned order being barely visible to the naked eye,) stars in the whole firmament of heaven! Will be permit me dre such as the moon can occult, or make a near appulse to carry his mind a little farther, and either stand astonished fo; except the last sixteen, in the column of stars of the at, or deplore with me the fact, that, out of the millions of third magnitude, and the last twenty-nine in that of the Christians in the vicinity and splendor of the eternal Sun of sixth magnitude, which never set in the latitude of Lon- righteousness, how very few are found of the first order! don. The stars Algol, and o Ceti, are set down according How very few can stand examination by the test laid down in to their brightest appearance; the former varying from the the 13th chapter of this Epistle! How very few love God second to the fourth magnitude every two days, 20 hours, with all their heart, soul, mind, and strength ; and their 48 minutes, 58 seconds, 18 thirds, and 25 fourths ; and the neighbour as themselves! How few mature Christians are latter, from the second to the seventh, and sometimes to the found in the church! How few are in all things living for tenth, every 331 days and 10j hours. The stars of the first ! eternity! How little light, how little heat, and how little magnitude, Capella and Lyra, never set in the latitude of influence and activity are to be found among them that bear London : Acharnar, Canopus, B in Argo, and a in the the name of Christ! How few stars of the First magniCross and Centaur, never rise. Of the stars of the second tude will the Son of God have to deck the crown of his magnitude, in the preceding list, B in Medusa's head, or glory! Few are striving to excel in righteousness; and it Algol, a in Perseus, the Two Pointers, the Dragon's tail, seems to be a principal concern with many, to find out ånd the Swan's tail, never set; the head of the Phænix, how little grace they may have, and yet escape hell! How and the bright star in the Crane, never rise. The stars little conformity to the will of God they may have, and marked with an asterisk in the third column, are between yet get to heaven! In the fear of God I register this the third and fourth magnitudes ; and those in the last co- testimony, that I have perceived it to be the labour of many tumn, with the same mark, are between the fifth and sixth to lower the standard of Christianity, and to soften down, magnitudes. Stars fainter than those of the sixth magnitude, or explain away, those promises of God that himself has cannot be discerned without the help of a glass, and are linked with duties; and because they know that they cantherefore called telescopic. The a in the tail of the Dragon not be saved by their good works, they are contented to is marked by Bode of the third magnitude, and the 3 in the have no good works at all: and thus the necessity of same constelation of the second.

Christian obedience, and Christian holiness, makes no pro

minent part of some modern creeds. Let all those who re8. This subject, as far as it concerns the present place, tain the apostolic doctrine, that the blood of Christ cleanseth admits of few remarks or reflections. It has already been from all sin in this life, press every believer to go on to perobserved, that, of all the stars which our best astronomers || fection; and expect to be saved, while here below, into the have been able to describe and lay down in tables anů fulness of the blessing of the Gospel of Jesus. To all such, maps, only sitteen are of the first magnitude ; i. e. appear my soul says, labour to shew yourselves approved unto God; more luminous than any other stars in the firmament: some

workmen that need not be ashamed; rightly dividing the indeed increase the number to twenty-one, by taking in word of truth; and may the pleasure of the Lord prosper Castor and Pollur, the upper pointer, Atteer in the Eagle, ll in your hands !-Amen.

CHAPTER XVI.

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The apostle exhorts the Corinthians to make a contribution for the relief of the poor Christians at Jerusalem; and

directs to the best mode of doing it, 1–4. Promises to pay them a visit after Pentecost, 5–9. Gives direc* tions about the treatment of Timothy and Apollos, 10-12. And concerning watchfulness, 8c. 13, 14. Com

mends the house of Stepħanas, and expresses his satisfaction at the visit paid him by Stephanas, Forixi natus, and Achaicus, 15—18. Sends the salutations of different persons, 19–21. Shews the awful state of those who were enemies to Christ, 22. And concludes the Epistle with the apostolical benediction, 23, 24,

Concerning contributions

CHAP. XVI.

for poor Christians.

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COW concerning 'the collection be no gatherings when I come.

for the saints, as I have given 3 And when I come, "whomsoever ronis Cæs. 3. order to the churches of Galatia, ye shall approve by your letters, ronis Cas. S; even so do ye.

them will I send to bring your "liberality unto : 2 Upon the first day of the week let Jerusalem. everyone

of

you Jay by him in store, 4. And if it be meet that I go also, they shall as God hath prospered him, that there go with me.

Acts 11. 29.& 94. 17. Rom. 15. 26. 2 Cor. 8. 4. & 9. 1, 12. Gal. 2. 10.

b Acts 20. 7. Rev. 1. 10.

• 2 Cor. 8. 19.

- Gr. gift. 2 Cor. 8. 4, 6, 19, 2 Cor. 8. 4, 19.

NOTES ON CHAP. XVI.

lay by him in store ; let him put it in the alms purse, or in The collection for the saints] lepions horas, the poor's box. 9. It was a maxim also with them, that, if from asyw to gather, or collect ; translated by the Vulgate, they found any money, they were not to put it in their prie de collectis, a contribution made by the rich for the relief of vate purse, but in that which belonged to the poor. 10. The the poor. The Christians living at Jerusalem, we may na- pious Jews believed that, as salt seasoned food, so did alms, turally suppose, were greatly straitened; as the enmity of riches; and that he who did not give alms of what he had, his their countrymen to the gospel of Christ led them to treat riches should be dispersed. The moth would corrupt the those who professed it, with cruelty, and spoil them of their bags, and the canker corrode the money, unless the mass goods. See Heb. x. 34. and Rom. xv. 26.; and see the was sanctified by giving a part to the poor. Note on the 27th verse of that chapter; and the apostle hereby Verse 3. Whomsoever ye shall approve by your letters] teaches that it was the duty of one Christian congregation to Why should Paul require letters of approbation in behalf of help another when in distress.

certain persons, when he himself should be among them, and Verse 2. Upon the first day of the week] The apostle could have their characters vivá voce? It is probable that prescribes the most convenient and proper method of making he refers here to letters of recommendation which they had this contribution. 1. Every man was to feel it his duty to sent to him, while he was away; and he now promises, that, succour his brethren in distress. 2. He was to do this ac when 'he should come to Corinth, he would appoint these cording to the ability which God gave him. 3. He was to persons whom they had recommended, to carry the alms to do this at the conclusion of the week, when he had cast up Jerusalem. If doxiuaarte be read ye shall have approved, his weekly earnings; and had seen how much God had pros as Bp. Pearce does, the difficulty will vanish. pered his labour. 4. He was then to bring it on the first

Some MSS. and several Versions, join ai' ET150Mwy by day of the week, as is most likely, to the church or assembly, letters, to the following words; and read the verse thus : that it might be put in the common treasury. 5. We learn when I come, those whom ye shall approve, I will send with from this, that the weekly contribution could not be always letters to bring your liberality to Jerusalem. This seems the same, as each man was to lay by as God had prospered most natural. him : now some weeks he would gain more; others, less. Verse 4. And if it be meet, &c.] If it be a business that 6. It appears from the whole, that the first day of the week, requires my attendance, and it be judged proper for me to which is the Christian sabbath, was the day on which their go to Jerusalem, I will take those persons for my compaprincipal religious meetings were held in Corinth, and the nions. On the delicacy with which St. Paul managed the churches of Galatia ; and, consequently, in all other places business of a collection for the poor, Arch-deacon Paley where Christianity had prevailed. This is a strong argu- makes the following appropriate remarks :ment for the keeping of the Christian sabbath. 7. We may “ The following observations will satisfy us concerning observe, that the apostle follows here the rule of the syna- the purity of our apostle's conduct in the suspicious business gogue ; it was a regular custom among the Jews, to make of a pecuniary contribution. their collections for the poor on the sabbath-day, that they “ 1st. He disclaims the having received any inspired au. might not be without the necessaries of life, and might not thority for the directions which he is giving: “I speak not be prevented from coming to the synagogue. 8. For the by commandment, but by occasion of the forwardness of purpose of making this provision, they had a purse, which others, and to prove the sincerity of your love. (2 Cor. was called inpas bu p378 Arneki shel tsidekah, “ The purse chap. viii. 8.) Who, that had a sinister purpose to answer by of the alms," or what we would term the poor's bor. This the recommending of subscriptions, would thus distinguish, is what the apostle seems to mean, when he says, Let him and thus lower the credit of his own recommendation ?

The apostle mentions

I. CORINTHIANS.

his plan of journeying.

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5 Now I will come unto you, when I trust to tarry a while with you,

if AU.C. 809. I shall pass through Macedonia : for the Lord permit. ronis Caes. 3. I do pass through Macedonia.

8 But I will tarry at Ephesus until nonis Cas. 3, 6 And it may be that I will abide, yea, and Pentecost. winter with you, that ye may bring me on my 9 For d a great door and effectual is opened journey whithersoever I go.

unto me, and there are many adversaries. 7 For I will not see you now by the way : but 10 Now, 'if Timotheus come, see that he may

4 Acts 19. 21. 2 Cor. 1. 16. Acts 15. 9. & 17. 15. & 21. 5. Rom.

15. 24. 2 Cor. 1. 16.- Acts 18. 21. ch. 4. 19. James 4. 15.

& Acts 14. 27. 2 Cor. 2. 12. Col. 4. 3. Ror. 3. 8. Acts 19.9.

" Acts 19. 22. ch. 4. 17.

66 2nd. Although he asserts the general right of Christian | Though Macedonia was not in the direct way from Ephesus ministers to a maintenance from their ministry, yet he pro- to Corinth, yet the apostle intended to make it in his way. tests against the making use of this right in his own person : And it was because it was not in the direct road, but lay • Even so bath the Lord ordained, that they which preach at the upper end of the Ægean sea, and very far out of the gospel, should live of the gospel ; but I have used none | his direct line, that he says, I do pass through Macedonia ; of these things ; neither have I written these things that it I have purposed to go thither before I go to Corinth. should be so done unto me; for it were better for me to die, Verse 6. Yea, and winter with you] He purposed to than that any man should make my glorying, i. e. my pro- || stay till Pentecost, at Ephesus; after that, to go to Macefessions of disinterestedness, void.' (1 Cor. chap. ix. 14, 15.) ||donia, and probably to spend the summer there, and come

“ 3rd. He repeatedly proposes that there should be asso in the autumn to Corinth, and there spend the winter. ciates with himself in the management of the public bounty; That ye may bring me on my journey] That ye may fornot colleagues of his own appointment, but persons elected | nish me with the means of travelling. It appears that, in for that purpose by the contributors themselves. “And when most cases, the different churches paid his expenses to other I come, whomsoever ye shall approve by your letters, them | churches : where this was not done, then he laboured at his will I send to bring your liberality unto Jerusalem; and if business, to acquire the means of travelling. it be meet that I go also, they shall go with me.' (1 Cor. Verse 7. I will not see you now by the way] From Ephechap. xvi. 3, 4.) And in the second Epistle, what is here sus to Corinth, was merely across the Ægean sea, and comproposed, we find actually done, and done for the very paratively a short passage. purpose of guarding his character against any imputation Verse 8. I will tarry at Ephesus] And it is very prothat might be brought upon it, in the discharge of a pe- || bable that he did so; and that all these journies were taken cuniary trust : . And we have sent with him the brother, | as he himself had projected. See on ver. 5. whose praise is in the gospel throughout all the churches; Verse 9. A great door and effectual is opened] Oupa and not that only, but who was also chosen of the churches || γαρ μοι ανεωγε μεγάλη και ενεργης, α great and energetic to travel with us with this grace, (gift,) which is administered door is opened to me: that is, God has made a grand ope3by us to the glory of the same Lord, and the declaration of ing to me in those parts, which I perceive will require much your ready mind : avoiding this, that no man should blame labour; and besides, I shall have many adversaries to opus in this abundance which is administered by us; providing | pose me. So Bp. Pearce understands the word ενεργης, , for things honest, not only in the sight of the Lord, but also as signifying effectual, but as implying full of labour. in the sight of men :' i.e. not resting in the consciousness | Door, often signifies occasion or opportunity ; but here, the of our own integrity, but, in such a subject, careful also to apostle may allude to the throwing open of the great doors approve our integrity to the public judgment. (2 Cor. chap. of the Circus Maximus, before the chariot races began; and viii. 18–21.)" Horæ Paulinæ, pag. 95.

the many adversaries, may refer to the numeroas competitors Verse 5. I will come unto you when I shall pass through | in those races. Macedonia) St. Paul was now at Ephesus; for, almost all God gave him a grand opportunity to preach the gospel ; allow, in opposition to the subscription, at the end of this but he was not to expect that either Satan, or wicked men, Epistle, that states it to have been written from Philippi, would leave him unmolested. that it was written from Ephesus; and this is supported by Verse 10. Now, if Timotheus come} Of Timothy we many strong arguments; and the 8th verse here seems to have heard before, chap. iv. 17. And we learn from Acts put it past all question : I will tarry at Ephesus, i. e. I am | xix. 22. that Paul sent him with Erastus from Ephesus to in Ephesus, and here I purpose to remain until Pentecost. | Macedonia. It is evident, therefore, in opposition to the

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