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of praying and giving thanks

I. CORINTHIANS.

in an unknown tongue.

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14 For, if I pray in an unknown 16 Else when thou shalt bless with A. M. 4060. Anno Imp. Ne- tongue, my spirit prayeth, but my the spirit, how shall he that occu- A.U. C. 809.

Anno Imp. Ne ronis Cas. 3. understanding is unfruitful.

pieth the room of the unlearned say ronis Cæs. 3. 15 What is it then ? I will pray with the Amen at thy giving of thanks, seeing he unspirit, and I will pray with the understanding derstandeth not what thou sayest ? also : *I will sing with the spirit, and I will 17 For thou verily givest thanks well, but sing with the understanding also.

the other is not edified.

a Eph.5. 19. Col. 3. 16.

Þ Ps. 47.7.ch. 11. 24.

speaks or reads the prophetic declarations in the Old Testa - spirit; but are generally proud, self-willed, contentious ment, in that tongue in which they were originally spoken and arrogant. Do not these persons entirely over-rate and written, pray to God that he may so understand them themselves? Of all the liberal arts, surely music is the himself, and receive the gift of interpretation, that he may | least useful, however ornamental it may be. And should be able to explain them in all their depth and latitude to any thing be esteemed in the church of God, but in proothers.

portion to its utility? A good singer, among the people Verse 14. For, if I pray in an unknown tongue] If my of God, who has not the life of God in his soul, is vor et prayers are composed of sentences and sayings taken out of præterea nihil, as Heliogabulus said of the nightingale's the Prophets, &c. and in their own language : my spirit brains on which he desired to sup, he is nothing but a sound. prayeth; my heart is engaged in the work, and my prayers Some of those persons, I mean they who sing with the unanswer all the purpose of prayers to myself: but my under- derstanding, without the spirit ; suppose themselves of great standing is unfruitful to all others, because they do not un consequence in the church of Christ; and they find foolish, derstand my prayers; and I either do not, or cannot, inter- superficial people, whom they persuade to be of their own pret them. See the Note on ver. 19.

mind, and soon raise parties and contentions if they have Verse 15. I will pray with the spirit] I will endeavour not every thing their own way; and that way is generally as to have all my prayers influenced and guided by the Spirit absurd as it is unscriptural, and contrary to the spirit and of God; and to have my own heart deeply affected in and simplicity of the gospel. by the work.

Verse 16. He that occupieth the room of the unlearned] And I will pray with the understanding also] I will en One who is not acquainted with the language in which you deavour so to pray, that others may understand me; and speak, sing, or pray ; thus be edified and improved by my prayers. And there Say Amen] Give his assent and ratification to what he fore I will pray in a language, in the public congregation, | does not understand. It was very frequent in primitive that may be understood by all present ; so that all may join, times, to express their approbation in the public assemblies not only in the act, but in the spirit of devotion.

by Amen. This practice, soberly and piously conducted, I will sing with the spirit] It does appear that singing might still be of great use in the church of Christ. psulins, or spiritual hymns, was one thing that was implied This response was of the highest authority and merit in what is termed prophesying in the Old Testament, as is among the Jews; they even promised the remission of all evident from 1 Sam. x. 5, 6, 10, &c. And when this came sins; the annihilation of the sentence of damnation; and through an immediate afilatus or inspiration of God, there is the opening of the gates of Paradise to those who fervently no doubt that it was exceedingly edifying; and must have say Amen. And it is one of their maxims, that “greder served greatly to improve and excite the devotional spirit of is he who says Amen, than he who prays.See many tese all that were present. But I rather suppose that their sing. timonies of this kind in Schoettgen. Now, allowing that thris ing consisted in solemn well measured recitativo, than in the was of so much consequence in the time of St. Paul; it was gingling and often foolish sounds which we use when a single a very serious matter for a person to be in a congregation monosyllable is sometimes shivered into thirty-six demi-semi- where prayer was offered, and who could not say Amen, bequavers!

cause the prayers were in a language which he did not un. Ilere it may not be improper to remark that the spirit derstand. and the understanding are seldom united in our Verse 17. Thou verily givest thanks well] Because he gregational singing. Those whose hearts are right with felt gratitude ; and, from a sense of his obligation, gare God, have generally no skill in music; and those who l praise to God: but because this was in an unknown tongue, are well skilled in music, have seldom a devotional || those who heard him, received no edification,

con

The necessity of

CHAP. XIV.:

understanding and prudence.

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18 I thank my God, I speak with ling: how beit in malice bbe ye Anno Imp. Ne tongues more than ye all :

children, but in understanding be A. U.C. 809.

Anno Imp.Ne 19 Yet in the church I had ra- men. ther speak . five words with my understand- ! 21 “In the law it is written, With men of ing, that by my voice I might teach others other tongues and other lips will I speak unto also, than ten thousand words in an unknown this people : and yet for all that will they not tongue.

hear me, saith the Lord. 20 Brethren, abe not children in understand 22 Wherefore tongues are for a sign, not to

Ps. 131. 2. Matt. 11. 25. & 18. 3. & 19. 14. Rom. 16. 19. ch. 3. 1.

Eph. 1. 14. Hebr. 5, 12, 13.

• Matt. 18. 3. 1 Pet. 2.2. Gr. perfect, or, of a ripe age, ch. 2.6.

d John 10. 31. e Isai. 28. 11, 12.

Verse 18. I speak with tongues more than ye all] He ticularly such as are grown up, so as to be fit to send to school, understood more languages than any of them did; and this in order to receive instruction—2. 77,T105, from vn not, and was indispensably necessary, as he was the apostle of the Elte, I speuk, signifies an infunt, one that cannot yet speak, Gentiles in general; and had to preach to different provinces and is in the lowest stage of infancy-3. TENE106, from TELEW, where different dialects, if not languages, were used. In the I complete, or perfect, signifies those who are arrived at perIlebrero, Syriuc, Greek and Latin, he was undoubtedly fect maturity, both of growth and understanding. We shall well skilled from his education : and how many he might now see the apostle's meaning, Brethren, be not, tradic, as understand, by miraculous gift, we cannot tell. But, even little children, just beginning to go to school, in order to literally understood, it is very probable that he knew more learn the first elements of their mother tongue; and, with languages than any man in the church of Corinth.

an understanding only sufficient to apprehend those elements. Verse 19. Yet in the church] As the grand object of In mulice] Kariçe in wickedness ; 97,710LETE be ye as inpublic worship is the edification of those who attend ; five fants, who neither speak, do, nor purpose evil. words, spoken so as to convey edification, were of much - But in understanding] Tezeki yıvecit, be ye perfect men, more consequence than ten thousand, which, not being un. whose vigour of body, and energy of mind, shew a complete derstood, could convey none. By the word yawoon tongue, growth ; and a well cultivated understanding. to which we add unknown, I suppose the apostle always Verse 21. In the law it is written] But the passage means the Hebrew, for the reasons offered in the Note on quoted is in Isai. xxviii. 11. Here is no contradiction, for ver. 1.

the term onin torah Law, was used by the Jews to express One of the greatest difficulties, says Bishop Pearce, in the whole Scriptures, law, prophets, and hagiographia ; and this Epistle, is contained in the words TTVEULA and yous, they used it to distinguish these sacred writings from the spirit and understanding, which are frequently used in this words of the scribes. chapter; and, fixing the true meaning of these words, will With men of other tongues] Bp. Pearce paraphrases this solve the difficulty. In this verse the apostle explains ha verse as follows: “ With the tongues of foreigners, and hany Tw you to speak with the understanding, by ira andous with the lips of foreigners, will I speak to this people; and ratrynow, that I might teach others ; so that the sense of yet, for all that, will they not hear me, saith the Lord.” To you understanding, seems to be, that understanding which the enter into the apostle's meaning, we must enter into that of hearer has of what is said : and this sense will agree well the prophet. The Jewish people were under the teaching of with, I will sing with the spirit ; and with the understanding, the prophets who were sent from God: these instructed, rever. 15.

proved, and corrected them by this Divine authority. They He observes also, that Trevua spirit, and vous understand however became so refractory and disobedient, that God puring, have a sense opposite to each other; so that if yous is posed to cast them off, and abandon them to the Babylonians : rightly rendered, the understanding which another hus of then, they had a people to teach, correct, and reprove them, what is suid ; then treuua will signify a man's own mind; whose language they did not understand. The discipline i. e. his own understanding of what he himself speaks : and that they received in this way, was widely different from that this sense agrees well with ver. 2. In the spirit he speaketh which they received while under the teaching of the promysteries.

phets, and the government of God: and yet for all this, Verse 20. Be not children in understanding] There are they did not humble themselves before their Maker, that three words here to which we must endeavour to affix the this affliction might be removed from them. proper sense~l. Tardio signifies children in general, but par- | Verse 22. Wherefore tongues are for a sign] The mi

Order and regularily should be

I. CORINTHIANS.

observed in the worship of God.

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A. M. 4060. them that believe, but to them that || will worship God, and report that
A.0.0.8%: believe not : but prophesying serveth God is in you of a truth.

ronis Cæs. 3. not for them that believe not, but for 26 How is it then, brethren ? when reais Cas. 3. them which believe.

ye come together, every one of you hath a 23 If therefore the whole church be come psalm, hath a doctrine, hath a tongue, hath a together into one place, and all speak with revelation, hath an interpretation. Let all tongues, and there come in those that are un- things be done unto edifying. learned, or unbelievers, « will they not say that

man speak in an unknown

tongue, let it be by two, or at the most by 24 But if all prophesy, and there come in one three, and that by course; and let one inthat believeth not, or one unlearned, he is con- | terpret. vinced of all, he is judged of all :

28 But if there be no interpreter, let him keep 25 And thus are the secrets of his heart made silence in the church; and let him speak to himmanifest; and so falling down on his face he self, and to God.

27 If any

ye are mad?

a Acts 2. 13.- Isai. 45. 14. Zech. 8. 23.

c Ver. 6. ch. 12. 8, 9, 10.

ch. 12. 7. 2 Cor. 12. 19. Eph. 4. 12.

raculous gift of tongues was never designed for the benefit of particular design. The sinner, therefore, convinced that God those who have already believed, but for the instruction of alone could uncover the secrets of his heart; would be often unbelievers; that they might see, from such a miracle, that obliged to fall down on his face, abashed and confounded, this is the work of God; and so embrace the gospel. But, and acknowledge that God was truly among them. This as in the times of the prophet, the strange Babylonish seems to be the plain meaning of the passages before us. tongues came in the way of punishment, and not in the

way Verse 26. How is it-every one of you hath a psalm, &c.] of mercy, take heed that it be not the case now ; that, by Dr. Lightfoot understands this in the following manner :dwelling on the gift, ye forget the giver : and what was de- When the congregation came together, some were for spendsigned for you as a blessing, may prove to you to be a curse. ing the time in psalmody; others in explaining particular For, if, because ye have the gift of tongues, ye will choose doctrines; others in reading, praying, or speaking in the for

your own aggrandisement, to use them in the public con Hebrew tongue; others were curious to hear of farther regregation where none understands them, God may curse your velations; and others wishes to spend the time in the interblessings.

pretation of what had already been spoken. This may be Prophesying] Teaching the things of God in a known specious, but to me it is not satisfactory. It seems more language, is of infinitely more consequence than speaking in likely that, when the whole church came together, among all the foreign tongues in the universe.

whom there were many persons with extraordinary gifts, Verse 23. Will they not say that ye ure mud?] So they each of whom wished to put himself forward, and occupy well might, finding a whole assembly of people talking lan- the time and attention of the congregation : hence confusion guages, which those who had most need of instruction could must necessarily take place; and perhaps, not a little con. not understand.

tention. This was contrary to that edifying, which was the Verse 24. But if all prophesy] If all those who teach, intention of these gifts. do it in the tongue which all understand ; if an unbeliever, Verse 27. Speak in an unknown tongue The Hebrer, or one who knows nothing of the sacred language come in, as has already been conjectured. and hears things just suited to his own state, he is convicted Let it be by two, or at the most by three, and that by course] by all, and he is judged by all.

Let only two or three, in one assembly, act in this way, Verse 25. And thus are the secrets of his heart] As that too much time may not be taken up with one exercise; these, who were the prophets or teachers, had often the and let this be done by course, the one after the other, that discernment of spirits, they were able, in certain cases, and two may not be speaking at the same time : and let one isprobably very frequently, to tell a man the secrets of his terpret, for all that shall thus speak. own heart; and, where this was not directly the case, God Verse 28. But if there be no interpreter] If there be often led his ministers to speak those things that were suit- none present who can give the proper sense of this Hebrew able to the case before them, though they themselves had no reading and speaking, then let him keep silence, and not of

Order and regularity should be

CHAP. XIV.

observed in the worship of God.

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29 Let the prophets speak two or 32 And “the spirits of the prophets A.M.1960. A. U.C. 809 three, and “let the other judge. are subject to the prophets.

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Anno Imp. Ne 30 If any thing be revealed to 33 For God is not the author of ronis Cæs. 3. another that sitteth by, olet the first hold his confusion, but of peace, as in all churches of peace.

the saints. 31 For ye may all prophesyone

one by one, 34 ' Let your women keep silence in the that all may learn, and all may be com- | churches : for it is not permitted unto them to forted.

speak; but they are commanded to be under

* Ch. 12. 10.-Thess. 5. 19, 20.--° 1 John 4. 1.- Gr. tumult,

or, unquietness.

• Ch. 11. 16.1 Tim. 2. 11, 12. & ch. 11.3. Eph. 5. 22. Col. 3. 18.

Tit. 2. 5. 1 Pet. 3. 1.

cupy the time of the church, by speaking in a language gifts which God grants are given for the purpose of edificawhich only himself can understand.

tion; but there can be no edification where there is confuVerse 29. Let the prophets] Those who have the giftsion ; therefore let them speak one by one. of speaking to men, to edification, and exhortation and com Verse 32. And the spirits of the prophets, &c.] Let no fort, ver. 3.

one interrupt another; and let all be ready to prefer others Two or three] As prophesying implied psalmody, teach-before themselves: and let each feel a spirit of subjection to ing and exhortation, Dr. Lightfoot thinks that the meaning his brethren. God grants no ungovernable gifts. of the place is this : Let one sing who has a psalm ; let ano.

Verse 33. For God is not the author of confusion] Let ther teach who has a doctrine ; and let a third exhort or not the persons who act in the congregation, in this discomfort, who has a gift of that kind.

orderly manner, say that they are under the influence of And let the other judge.] The other prophets, or qualified God; for he is not the author of confusion : but two, persons, judge of the propriety of what had been spoken; three, or more praying or teaching in the same place, or let them discern glaxpivetwoav, how the revelation under at the same time, is confusion ; and God is uot the authe New Covenant, confirmed and illustrated the revelation thor of such work: and let men beware how they attri. granted under the Old Testament. It appears to have been bute such disorder to the God of order and

peace.

The taken for granted, that a man might pretend to this spirit of apostle calls such conduct arata sarial, tumults, seditions ; prophecy, who was not sent of God; and therefore it was and such they are in the sight of God, and in the sight of the duty of the accredited teachers, to examine whether | all good men. How often is a work of God marred and diswhat he spoke was according to truth, and the analogy of credited by the folly of men ! for nature will always, and fuith. For the spirits of the prophets are subject to the pro- i Satan too, mingle themselves, as far as they can, in the gephets : Every man's gift was to be judged of by those whose nuine work of the Spirit, in order to discredit and destroy it. age, experience, and wisdom, gave them a right to decide. Nevertheless, in great revivals of religion, it is almost imBesides, though the person who did speak, might do it from possible to prevent wild-fire from getting in among the true an impulse of God; yet, if he was not sufficiently knoron, fire: but it is the duty of the ministers of God, to watch his testimony ought to be received with caution; and there against, and prudently check this : but if themselves enfore the aged prophets should judge of his gift, lest false courage it, then there will be confusion and every evil work. doctrines should slide into the church.

Verse 34. Let your women keep silence in the churches] But all these provisions, as Schoettgen justly observes, This was a Jewish ordinance : women were not permitted were in imitation of the practice in the Jewish synagogues ; to teach in the assemblies, or even to ask questions. The for there, it was customary for them to object, interrogute, rabbins taught, that “ a woman should know nothing but the judge, refute, &c.

use of her distaff.” And the saying of Rabbi Eliezer, as Verse 30. Be revealed to another that sitteth byl Pro- delivered, Bammidbar Rubba, sect. 9. fol. 204. are both bably those who were teachers, sat on a particular seat, or worthy of remark and of execration; they are these, 190 place from which they might most readily address the peo- Divab 190 58 min 27 yesrephu dibrey Torah veal yemsuru ple: and this may be the meaning of sitting by. If such a lenashim—“6 Let the words of the Law be burned, rather person could say, I have just received a particular revelation than that they should be delivered to women.” from God; then let him have the liberty immediately to This was their condition till the time of the gospel, when, speak it : as it might possibly relate to the circumstances of according to the prediction of Joel, the Spirit of God was that time and place.

to be poured out on the women as well as the men, that they Verse 31. For ye may all prophesy one by one] The

The || might prophesy, i. e. teach. And that they did prophesy or

Order and regularity should be

I. CORINTHIANS.

observed in the worship of God.

A. U. C. 809. Anno Imp. Ne

A. M. 1960. obedience, as also saith the . law. || that I write unto you are the com- A.M., 1960 A. U.C. 809.

35 And if they will learn any thing, mandments of the Lord. Anno Imp. Neronis Cæs. 3. let them ask their husbands at home : 38 But if any man be ignorant, ronis Cas. s. for it is a shame for women to speak in the let him be ignorant. church.

39 Wherefore, brethren, 'covet to prophesy, 36 What? came the word of God out from and forbid not to speak with tongues. you ? or came it unto you only ?

40 Let all things be done decently, and in 37 "If any man think himself to be a prophet, order. or spiritual, let him acknowledge that the things

& Gen. 3. 16.- 2 Cor. 10. 7. 1 John 4. 6.

c Ch, 12. 31. 1 Thess. 5. 20.-dver. 33.

teach, is evident, from what the apostle says, chap. xi. 5. || synagogue; though a servant, or even a child, had this where he lays down rules to regulate this part of their con permission ; but the apostle refers to irregular conduct ; duct, while ministering in the church.

such conduct as proved that they were not under obedience, But does not what the apostle says here, contradict that

ver. 31. statement; and shew that the words in chap. xi. should be Verse 36. Came the word of God out from you.?] Was understood in another sense? For, here it is expressly said, it from you that other churches received the gospel ? Are that they should keep silence in the church; for it was not you the mother church .2 that you should have rules, and ora permitted to a woman to speak ? Both places seem perfectly ders, and customs, different from all others; and set your, consistent. It is evident, from the context, that the apostle selves up for a model to be copied by all the churches of refers here to asking questions, and what we call dictating, || Christ? in the assemblies. It was permitted to any man to ask ques Or came it unto you only?] 'Are you the only church of tions, to object, altercate, attempt to refute, &c. in the syna- God? Are there not many others founded before you, that gogue; but this liberty was not allowed to any woman: St. have no such customs, and permit no such disorders ? Paul confirms this, in reference also to the Christian church; Verse 37. If any man think himself to be a prophet, &c.] he orders them to keep silence : and, if they wished to learn Ile who is really a spiritual man, under the influence of the any thing, let them enquire of their husbands at home; be- Spirit of God, and capable of teaching the Divine will, he cause it was perfectly indecorous for women to be contending will acknowledge that what I now say, is from the same with men in public assemblies, on points of doctrine, cases Spirit ; and that the things which I now write, are the com, of conscience, &c. But this by no means intimated that, | mandments of God, and must be obeyed, on pain of his diswhen a woman received any particular influence from God, | pleasure. to enable her to teach, that she was not to obey that influence; Verse 38, But if any man be ignorant] If he affect to on the contrary, she was to obey it, and the apostle lays be so, or pretend that he is ignorant; let him be ignorant. down directions in chap. xi. for regulating her personal ap- Let him be so at his peril. pearance when thus employed. All that the apostle opposes

Verse 39. Covet to prophesy] Let it be your endeavour here, is their questioning, finding fault, &c. in the Christian and prayer, to be able to teach the way of God to the ignorchurch, as the Jewish men were permitted to do in their ant : this is the most valuable, because the most useful gift of synagogues; together with the attempts to usurp any autho- | the Spirit. rity over the man, by setting up their judgment in opposition And forbid not to speuk with tongues.] Let every gift to them ; for the apostle has in view, especially, acts of dis- have its own place and operation; let none envy another ; obedience, arrogance, &c. of which no woman would be nor prevent him from doing that part of the work to which guilty who was under the influence of the Spirit of God. God, by giving the qualification, has evidently called him.

But to be under obedience, as also saith the law.] This is Verse 40. Let all things be done decently] EvrXqueres a reference to Gen. iii. 15. Thy desire shall be to thy hus- in their proper forms, with becoming reverence ; accordband, and he shall rule over thee. From this, it is evident, ing to their dignity and importance. Every thing in the that it was the disorderly and disobedient that the apostle had church of God should be conducted with gravity and code in view; and not any of those on whom God had poured posure suitable to the importance of the thiogs; the in. out his Spirit.

finite dignity of the object of worship, and the necessity Verse 35. For it is a shame for women to speak in the of the souls in behalf of which those religious ordinances are church.] The Jews would not suffer a woman to read in the || instituted.

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