« הקודםהמשך »
How the apostle
preached to the Corinthians.
And in order.] Kata Tačiv, every thing in its place, every this precept. No business, trade, art or science, can be thing in its time, and every thing suitably.
carried on to any advantage or comfort, unless peculiar at.
tention be paid to it. And as to religion, there can be absoLet all things be done decently and in order, is a direction | lutely none without it. Where decency and order are not of infinite moment in all the concerns of religion ; and of observed in every part of the worship of God, no spiritual nó small consequence in all the concerns of life. How worship can be performed. The manner of doing a thing is much pain, confusion, and loss would be prevented, were always of as much consequence as the act itself. And often this rule followed! There is scarcely an embarrassment in the act derives all its consequence and utility from the maicivil or domestic life, that does not originate in a neglect of ll ner in which it is performed.
CHAPTER XV. The gospel which the apostle preached to the Corinthians ; viz. that Christ died for our sins, and rose again the
third day, 1–4. The witnesses of his resurrection, Peter, James, and more than five hundred brethren, 5–7. Lastly, Paul himself saw him, and was called by him to the apostleship, 8-11. Objections against the resurrection of the dead answered, 12—34. The manner in which this great work shall be performed, 35—49. The astonishing events that shall take place in the last day, 50–57. The use we should make of this doctrine, 58.
OREOVER, brethren, I de 2 • By which also ye are saved, if ye
clare unto you the gospel "keep in memory what I preached Anno imp.de Anno Imp.Ne
' which I preached unto you, which unto you, unless 'ye have believed ronis Cás. 3. also ye have received, and wherein ye stand; in vain.
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. Gal. 1. 11.
Lb Rom. 5. 2.-e Rom. 1. 16. ch. 1.21.
d Or, hold fast. Gr. by what speech.
f Gal. 3. 4.
NOTES ON CHAP. XV.
4. The faith of the Corinthians must be vain who believe It appears from this chapter, that there were some false it, ver. 16, 17. apostles at Corinth, who denied the resurrection, see ver. 12. 5. All the believers who have died in the faith of Christ in consequence of which, St. Paul discusses three questions have perished, if Christ be not risen, ver. 18. in this chapter.
6. Believers in Christ are in a more miserable state than 1. Whether there be a resurrection of the dead? ver. any others, if there be no resurrection, ver. 19. 1-35.
7. Those who were baptized in the faith, that Christ died 2. What will be the nature of the resurrection bodies ? for them, and rose again, are deceived, ver. 29. 35–51
8. The apostles, and Christians in general, who suffer per3. What should beconie of those who should be found secution, on the ground that, after suffering a while alive in the day of judgment ? 51-57.
here, they shall have a glorious resurrection, are acting
a foolish and unprofitable part, ver. 30-32. 1.-The resurrection he proves, [ 1. From Scripture, ver. 1-4.
Verse 1. The gospel which I preached unto you] This 2. From eye-witnesses, 5-12.
gospel is contained in Christ dying for our sins, being
buried, and rising again the third day. See the following 11.-He proves the resurrection, by shewing the absurdity of the contrary doctrine.
Verse 2. By which also ye are saved] That is, ye are 1. If the dead rise not, Christ is not risen, ver. 13. now in a salvable state; and are saved from your gentilism, 2. It would be absurd to have faith in him, according to and from your former sins.
the preaching of the gospel, if he be not risen, ver. 14. If ye keep in memory] Your future salvation, or being 3. The apostles must be false-witnesses, who attest this re- || brought finally to glory, will now depend on your faithfulsitrection, ver. 15.
ness to the grace
What were the doctrines
preached among the Corinthians,
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3 For • I delivered unto you first of 6 After that, he was seen of above A, M.,1960. A.U.C. 809. all that which I also received, how five hundred brethren at once ; of A.U.C.S. Anno Imp.Ne
ronis Cæs. 3. that Christ died for our sins 'accord- whom the greater part remain unto ronis Cæs. 8. ing to the scriptures :
this present, but some are fallen asleep. 4 And that he was buried, and that he rose 7 After that, he was seen of James, then 6 of again the third day “according to the scriptures: all the apostles.
5. And that he was seen of Cephas, then 'of 8 "And last of all he was seen of me also, as the twelve :
of one born out of due time.
a Ch. 11. 2, 23 ► Gal. 1. 12. - Ps. 99. 15, &c. Isai. 53. 5, 6, &c. Dan. 9. 26. Zech. 13. 7. Luke 24. 26, 46. Acts 3. 18. & 26. 23. Pet. 1. 11. & 2. 24. Ps. 2. 7. & 16. 10. Isai. 53. 10. Hos. 69 Luke 24. 26, 46. Acts 2. 25–31. & 13. 33, 34, 35. & 26. 22, 23. 1 Pet. 1. 11.
• Luke 24. 31.-- Matt. 28. 17. Mark 16. 14. Luke 24. 36. John 20. 19, 26. Acts 10. 41.-_6 Luke 24. 50. Acts 1. 3, 4.-Acts 9.4, 17. & 22. 14, 18. ch. 9. 1.-Or, an abortive.
Verse 3. For I delivered unto you first of all] Ex was probably in Galilee, where our Lord had many disciples. TI OWTOs, as the chief things ; or matters of the greatest im- See Matt. xxviii. 16. What a remarkable testimony is this portance.
to the truth of our Lord's resurrection! Five hundred perThat which I received] By revelation from God liimself, sons saw him at one time; the greater part of whom were and not from map.
alive when the apostle wrote, and he might have been con. That Christ died for our sins] The death of Jesus Christ, fronted by many, if he had dared to assert a falsity. as a vicarious sacrifice for sin, is ev T.EWT015 among the things Verse 7. After that, he was seen of James] But where, that are of chief importance, and are essential to the gospel and on what occasion, we are not told; nor indeed do we scheme of salvation.
know which James is intended ; James the son of Zebedee, According to the scriptures] It is not said any where in or James the son of Alpheus. But one thing is sufficiently the scriptures, in express terms, that Christ should rise on evident, from what is here said, that this James, of whom the third day; but it is fully implied in his types, as in the the apostle speaks, was still alive ; for the apostle's manner case of Jonah, who came out of the belly of the fish on the of speaking justifies this conclusion. third day; but particularly in the case of Isaac, who was a Then of all the apostles.] Including not only the eleven, very expressive type of Christ ; for, as his being brought to but, as some suppose, the seventy-two disciples. the mount Moriah, bound and laid on the wood in order to Verse 8. And last of all of me also] It seems that it be sacrificed, pointed out the death of Christ : so, his being was essential to the character of an apostle, that he had seen brought alive on the third day from the mount, was a figure and conversed with Christ : and it is evident, from the history of Christ's resurrection. Bishop Pearce, and others, refer of Saul's conversion, Acts is. 4—7. where see the Notes, to Matt. xii. 40. xvi. 21. and Luke ix. 22. “ which two that Jesus Christ did appear to him ; and he pleaded this Gospels, having been written at the time when Paul wrote ever after, as a proof of his call to the apostleship. And, it this Epistle, were properly called by the name of the Sacred does not appear, that, after this time, Jesus ever did make Scriptures." It might be so, but I do not know of one any personal discovery of himself to any one. proof in the New Testament, where its writings, or any As of one born out of due time.] The apostle considers part of them, is called the Scriptures.
himself as coming after the time in which Jesus Christ per. Verse 5. That he was seen of Cephas, then of the twelve] || sonally conversed with his disciples; and that, therefore, to This refers to the journey to Emmaus, Luke xxiv. 13. and 34. see him at all, he must see him in this extraordinary way. and to what is related Mark xvi. 14.
Some have entered into a very disgusting detail on the figure Then of the twelve) Instead of dwoexa twelve, erdens used here by the apostle. The words CTEÇEL TW EXTPULATI, eleven, is the reading of D*EFG. Syriac in the margin, signifies not merely one born out of due time ; but one born some of the Slavonic; Armenian, Vulgate, Itala, and se before his time, and consequently not bidding fair for vigour, veral of the Fathers : and this reading is supported by usefulness, or long life. But it is likely that the apostle bad Mark xvi. 14. Perhaps the term twelve is used here merely a different meaning; and that he refers to the original instito point out the society of the apostles, who, though at this tution of the twelve apostles, in the rank of whom he never time they were only eleven, were still called the twelve, be stood ; and was appointed not to fill up a place among the cause this was their original number; and a number which twelse ; but, as an extra and additional apostle. Rosetiwas afterwards filled up. See John xx. 24.
müller says, that those who were beyond the number of Verse 6. Above five hundred brethren at once] This ll twelve senators, were termed abortivi, abortives; and refers
Arguments in proof of the
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9 For I am 'the least of the apostles, 12 Now, if Christ be preached that 4. M. 4060. A. U.C.809. that am not meet to be called an he rose from the dead, how say some
Anno Imp. Neronis Cæs. 3. apostle, because I persecuted the among you that there is no resurrecchurch of God.
tion of the dead? 10 But, by the grace of God I am what I am: 13 But, if there be no resurrection of the dead, and his grace which was bestowed upon me was 'then is Christ not risen : not in vain ; but I laboured more abundantly 14 And if Christ be not risen, then is our than they all : "yet not I, but the grace of God preaching vain, and your faith is also vain. which was with me.
15 Yea, and we are found false witnesses 11 Therefore whether it were I or they, so we of God; because we have testified of God preach, and so ye believed.
that he raised up Christ : whom he raised
Eph. 3. 8.
b Acts 8. 3. & 9.1. Gal. 1. 13. Phil. 3.6. 1 Tim. 1. 13.
e Matt. 10. 20. Rom. 15. 18, 19. 2 Cor. 3. 5. Gal. 2. 8. Eph. 3. 7.
to Suetonius in Octavio, cap. 35. I have examined the || resurrection is the pledge and proof of ours. Whoever
true that we have thus preached Christ, and ye have credited Verse 9. I am the least of the apostles] This was lite- this preaching ; how say some among you, who have professed rally true, in reference to his being chosen last, and chosen to receive this doctrine from us, that there is no resurrection not in the number of the twelve, but as an extra apostle. | of the dead? though we have shewn that his resurrection How much pains do some men take to make the apostle con- || is the proof and pledge of ours. That there was some false tradict himself, by attempting to shew, that he was the very | teacher or teachers among them, who was endeavouring to greatest of the apostles; though he calls himself the least. incorporate Mosaic rites and ceremonies with the Christian Taken as a man, and a minister of Christ, he was greater | doctrines, and even to blend Sadduceism with the whole; than any of the twelve ; taken as an apostle, he was less appears pretty evident. To confute this mongrel Christian, than any of the twelve, because not originally in that body. ' and overturn his bad doctrine, the apostle writes this
Am not meet to be called an apostle] None of the twelve chapter. had ever persecuted Christ, nor withstood his doctrine : Saul Verse 13. If there be no resurrection of the dead] As of Tarsus had been, before his conversion, a grievous per- | Christ was partaker of the same flesh and blood with us ; secutor ; and therefore, he says, oux Eiled oxavos, I am not | and he promised to raise mankind from the dead, through his proper to be called an apostle, because I persecuted the church resurrection; if the dead rise not, then Christ has had no of God, i. e. of Christ, which none of the apostles ever did. resurrection. There seems to have been some at Corinth,
Verse 10. But by the grace of God I am what I am] who, though they denied the resurrection of the dead, ada God, by his mere grace and good will, has called me to be mitted that Christ had risen again : the apostle's argument an apostle, and has denominated me such.
goes therefore to state, that, if Christ was raised from the And his grace, &c.] Nor have I been unfaithful to the dead, mankind may be raised: if mankind cannot be raised Divine call; I used the grace which he gave me; and when from the dead, then the body of Christ was never raised. my labours, travels, and sufferings are considered, it will be Verse 14. Then is our preuching vain] Our whole docevident, that I hade laboured more abundantly than the whole trine is useless, nugatory, and false. twelve. This was most literally true.
And your faith is also vuin.] Your belief of a false docYet not I, but the grace of God] It was not through my | trine, must necessarily be to you unprofitable. own power or wisdom, that I performed these things; but Verse 15. False-witnesses] As having testified the fact through the Divine influeuce which accompanied me. of Christ's resurrection, as a matter which ourselves had
Verse 11. Whether it were I or they] All the apostles witnessed; when we knew that we bore testimony to a falseof Christ agree in the same doctrines; we all preach one and hood. But could five hundred persons agree in this imposithe same thing; and, as we preached, so ye believed ; having tion ? And if they did, is it possible that some one would received from us the true apostolical faith, that Jesus died for not discover the cheat, when he could have no interest in our sins, and rose again for our justification ; and that lis I keeping the secret; and might greatly promote his secular
Arguments to prove the
resurrection of the dead.
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not up, if so be that the dead rise 20 But now is Christ risen from A. M. 4060,
Anno Imp. Ne 16 For, if the dead rise not, then is fruits of them that slept. not Christ raised :
2 For, osince by man came death, 'by man 17 And if Christ be not raised, your faith is came also the resurrection of the dead. vain ; ' ye are yet
22 For, as in Adam all die, even so in Christ 18 Then they also which are fallen asleep in shall all be made alive. Christ are perished.
23 But every man in his own order : Christ 19 "If in this life only we have hope in Christ, the first-fruits ; afterward they that are Christ's we are of all men most miserable.
at his coming
· Rom. 4. 25.-2 Tim. 3. 12.el Pet. 1. 3.
Col. 1. 18. Rev. 1.5.
& Acts 26. 23. ver, 23.
Rom. 5. 12, 17. Jolin 11. 25. Rom. 6. 23.6 ver. 20. 1 Thess.
4. 15, 16, 17.
interest by making the discovery ? Such a case never oc and hope in one who is not existing ; and therefore can curred, and never can occur. The testimony, therefore, neither succour us here, nor reward us hereafter. Bishop concerning the resurrection of Christ, is incontrovertibly Pearce. true.
Verse 20. But now is Christ risen] On the contrary, If so be that the dead rise not.] This clause is wanting in Christ is raised from the dead, and is become the first-fruits of DE. Syriac, some of the Slavonian and Itala: several also them thut slept. His resurrection has been demonstrated, and of the primitive Fathers omit it. Its great similarity to the our resurrection necessarily follows: as sure as the firstfollowing words might be the cause of its omission by some fruits are the proof that there is a harvest ; so surely the recopyists.
surrection of Christ is a proof of ours. The Judaising Verse 17. Ye are yet in your sins.] •If Christ has not teacher at Corinth would feel the force of this observation risen from the dead, there is no proof that he has not been much sooner than we can, who are not much acquainted justly put to death. If he were a malefactor, God would with Jewish customs. “ Although,” says Dr. Lightfooty not work a miracle to raise him from the dead. If he have " the resurrection of Christ, compared with some first-fruits, not been raised from the dead, there is a presumption that has very good harmony with them; yet especially it agrees he has been put to death justly; and if so, consequently he with the offering of the sheaf, commonly called 1218 omide has made no atonement: and ye are yet in your sins, under not only as to the thing itself, but also as to the circumstances the power, guilt, and condemnation of them. All this rea of the time. For, first there was the Pass-over, and the soning of the apostle, goes to prove that, at Corinth, even day following was a subbatic day, and on the day follosamong those false teachers, the innocency of our Lord was ing that, the first-fruits were offered. So Christ, our Passo allowed, and the reality of his resurrection not questioned. over, was crucified: the day following his crucifixion, was
Verse 18. They also which are fallen asleep] All those the sabbath; and the day following that, he, the first-fruits who, either by martyrdom or natural death, have departed of them that slept, rose again. All who died before Christ, in the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ, are perished; their and were raised again to life, died afterwards : but Christ is hope was without foundation, and their faith had not reason the first-fruits of all who shall be raised from the dead to die and truth for its object. Their bodies are dissolved in the no more. earth, finally decomposed and destroyed, notwithstanding Verse 21. For, since by man came death] Mortality the promise of Christ to such, that he would raise them up at came by Adam, immortality by Christ; so sure as all have the last day. See John v. 25, 28, 29. xi. 25, 26, &c. been subjected to natural death by Adam, so sure shall all
Verse 19. If in this life only we have hope] It would be be raised again by Christ Jesus. Mortality and immortality, better to translate and point this verse as follows:
on a general ground, are the subject of the apostle's reasoriAnd, if in this life we have hoped in Christ only, we are ing here: and, for the explanation of the transgression of more to be pitied than all men. If, in this life, we have no other Adam, and the redemption by Christ, see the Notes on hope and confidence but in Christ, (and if he be still dead, Rom. v. 10, &c. and not yet risen,) we are more to be pitied than any other Verse 23. But every man in his own order] The apostle men: we are sadly deceived : we have denied ourselves, and mentions three orders here:-1. Christ, who rose from the been denied by others : have mortified ourselves, and been dead by his own power_2. Them that are Christ's ; all his persecuted by our fellow-creatures on account of our belief apostles, martyrs, confessors, and faithful followers-Thirdlys
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24 Then cometh the end, when he 26. The last enemy that shall be AM4060. A. U.C. 809: shall have delivered up the kingdom destroyed is death. Anno Imp. Ne
Anno limp. Nem ronis Cæs. 3. to God, even the Father ; when he 27 (For he hath put all things ronis Caes. 3. shall have put down all rule, and all authority under his feet. But when he saith, , all
things are put under him, it is manifest that 23' For he must reign, till he hath put all he is excepted, which did put all things unenemies under his feet.
· Dan. 7. 14, 27.-Ps. 110. 1. Acts 2. 34, 35. Eph. 1. 22. Hebr. 1.13.
& 10. 18.
• 2 Tim. 1. 10. Rev, 20. 14.- Ps. 8. 6. Matt. 28. 18. Hebr. 2. 8.
1 Pet. 3. 22.
then cometh the end, when the whole mass shall be raised. kings, princes, &c. though angels, principalities, and powers, Whether this order be exactly what the apostle intends, and the rulers of the darkness of this world, and all spiritual shall not assert. Of the first, Christ's own resurrection, wiekednesses in high places, may be also intended. Our there can be no question. The second, the resurrection of Lord Jesus is represented here as administering the concerns his followers, before that of the common dead, is thought of the kingdom of grace in this lower world, during the by some, very reasonable.
They had here a resurrection time that this divine economy lasts; and when the end, the from a death of sin, to a life of righteousness, which the time determined by the wisdom of God, comes; then, as others had not ; because they would not be saved in Christ's || there is no longer any need of this administration, the kingvay. That they should have the privilege of being raised | dom is delivered up unto the Father; an allusion to the case first, to behold the astonishing changes and revolutions of Roman viceroys, or governors of provinces, who, when which shall then take place, has nothing in it contrary to their administration was ended, delivered up their kingdom propriety and fitness;" but it seems contrary to ver. 52. in or government into the hands of the emperor. which all the dead are said to arise in a moment, in the The apostle may refer also to an opinion of the ancient twinkling of an eye. “And, thirdly, that all the other mass Jews; that there should be ten kings, who should have the of mankind should be raised last, just to come forward and supreme government of the whole world : the first and last receive their doom, is equally reasonable:" but it is apparently of which, should be God himself; but the ninth should be inconsistent with the manner in which God chuses to act : the Messiah, after whose empire the kingdom should be de. see ver, 53. Some think that, by them that are Christ's livered up into the hands of God for ever. See the place in at les coming, "we are to understand Christ's coming to reign Schoettgen on this verse, and on Luke i. 33. or corth a thousund years with his saints, previously to the Verse 25. For he must reign, &c.] This is according to general judgment;" but I must confess, I find nothing in the the promise, Psal. cx. 1. “The Lord said unto my Lord, Sit Sacred Writings distinctly enough marked, to support this thou on my right hand, till I make thine enemies thy footopinion of the Millennium, or thousand years' reign : nor can stool.” Therefore the kingdom cannot be given up, till all I conceive any important end that can be answered by this rule and government are cast down. So that while the procedure.
world lasts, Jesus, as the Messiah and Mediator, must reign ; We should be very cautious how we make a figurative ex and all human beings are properly his subjects, are under his pression, used in the most figurative book in the Bible, the government, and are accountable to him. foundation of a very important literal system, that is to oc Verse 26. The last enemy] Death shall be destroyed ; cupy a measure of the faith, and no small portion of the watapytat, shall be counter-worked, subverted, and finally hope of Christians. The strange conjectures formed on this overturned. But death cannot be destroyed by there being very, uncertain basis, have not been very creditable either to simply no farther death : death can only be destroyed and reason or religion,
annihilated by a general resurrection : if there he no general Verse 24. When he shall have delivered up the kingdom] resurrection, it is most evident that death will still retain his The mediatorial kingdom ; which comprehends all the dis- empire. Therefore, the fact that death shall be destroyed, plays of his grace io saving sinners; and all his spiritual assures the fact that there shall be a general resurrection : influence in governing the church.
and this is a proof also, that, after the resurrection, there All rule, and all authority, and power.] Apxmo---eçourlarshall be no more death. wou dur ajust. As the apostle is here speaking of the end of Verse 27. For he hath put all things under his feet.] the present system of the world; the rule, authority, and The Father hath put all things under the feet of Christ, ac. power, may refer to all earthly governments, emperors, || cording to the prophecy, Psal. cx.