תמונות בעמוד

Account of the institution


of the Lord's supper. MAI 13, 1960. the church, 'I hear that there be "di-| 23 For 'I have received of the s.1.0.9060. Anno imp. Ne visions among you ; and I partly be- Lord that which also I deliver- 1. U.C. sing. ronis Crs. 3. lieve it.

ed unto you,

m That the Lord ronis Caes. 3. 19 For there must be also "heresies among Jesus the same night in which he was beyou, 'that they which are approved may betrayed took bread: made manifest among you.

24 And when he had given thanks, he brake 20 When ye come together therefore into one | it, and said, Take, eat: this is my body, which place, this is not to eat the Lord's supper. is broken for you: this do "in remembrance

21 For in eating every one taketh before other of me. his own supper: and one is hungry, and san 25 After the same manner also he took the cup, other is drunken.

when he had supped, saying, This cup is the 22 What? lave ye not houses to eat and to New Testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft drink in? or despise ye "the church of God, as ye drink it, in remembrance of me. and shame them that have not ? What shall 26 For as often as ye eat this bread, and I say to you ? shall I praise you in this ? I praise | drink this cup, oye do shew the Lord's death

P till he come.

you not.


a Ch. 1. 10, 11, 12. & 3. 3. Or, schisms. c Matt. 18. 7. Luke 17. 1. Acts 20. 30. 1 Tim. 4. 1. 2 Pet. 2.1, 2. d Or, sects Luke 2. 35. 1 John 2. 19. See Deut. 13. 3.- Or, ye cannot eat. - 2 Pet. 2. 13. Jude 12. ch. 10. 32. James 2. 6.

* Or, them that are poor.- ch. 15. 3. Gal. 1. 1, 11, 12.-m Matt.
26. 26. Mark lt. 29. Luke 22. 19. A Or, for a remembrance.
• Or, sher ye. John 14. 3. & 21. 22. Acts 1.11. ch. 4. 5. & 15. 23.
1 Thess. 4. 16. 9 Thess. 1. 10. Jude 14. Rev. 1. 7.

up, even in the place where they assembled to eat the Lord's cred assembly and the place contemptible by your conduct; Supper. The Paulinians, the Kephites, and the Apollonians, and ye shew yourselves destitute of that respect which ye continued to be distinct parties, and ate their meals separately, love to the place set apart for divine worship. even in the same house.

And shame them that have not?] TOUS No 7, 8Xotas, them Verse 19. There must be also heresies] Aiçeces: not a that are poor, not them who had not victuals at that time; but common consent of the members of the church, either in the those who were so pour as to be in capable of furnishing them. doctrines of the gospel, or in the ceremonies of the Christian selves as others had done. See the Note on Matt. xiii. 12. religion. Their difference in religious opinion led to a dif Verse 23. I have received of the Lord] It is possible ference in their religious practice; and thus the church of that several of the people at Corinth did receive the bread God, that should have been one body, was split into sects and wine of the Eucharist, as they did the Paschal bread and and parties. The divisions and the heresies, sprung out of wine; as a mere commemoration of an event. And, as our each other. I have spoken largely on the word heresy Lord had, by his institution, consecrated that bread and wine, in Acts v. 17. to which. place I beg leave to refer the not to be the means of commemorating the deliverance from Reader.

Egypt, and their, joy on the account; but their deliverance Verse 20. This is not to eat the Lord's supper.] They from sin, and death, by his passion and cross: therefore, the did not come together to eat the Lord's Supper exclusively, || apostle states that he had received from the Lord what he which they should have done; and not have made it a part delivered ; viz. that the Eucharistic bread and wine were ta of an ordinary mcal.

be understood of the accomplishment of that, of which the Verse 21. Every one taketh before-his own supper] Paschal Lamb was the type : the body broken for them; the They had a grand feat, though the different sects kept in blood shed for them. parties by theinselves ; but all took as ample a supper as The Lord Jesus-took bread] Soe the whole of this ac. they could provide, (each bringing his own provisions with count collated with the parallel passages in the four Gospels, him,) before they took włat was called the Lord's Supper. || amply explained in my Discourse on the Eucharist; and in See on ver. 17.

the Nates on Matt. xxvi. Verse 22. Have ye not houses to eat and to drink in?] Verse 26. Ye do shew the Lord's death] As in the PassThey should have taken their ordinary meal at home; and over they shewed forth the bondage they had been in, and have come together in the church to celebrate the Lord's the redemption they had received from it: so, in the Eucha.. Supper.

rist they shewed forth the sacrificial death of Christ, and the . Despise ye the church of God). Yę render the sa. Il redemption frore sin derived from it..

Abuses relative to


the Lord's supper.

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27 a Wherefore whiosoever shall eat 31 For if we would judge ourA. U.C. 60: this bread, and drink this cup of the selves, we should not be judged.

Anno Imp. Ne. ronis Cits. 3. Lord, unworthily, shall be guilty of 32 But when we are judged, we the body and blood of the Lord.

are chastened of the Lord, that we shouid not 28 But "let a man examine himself, and so let be condemned with the world, him cat of that bread, and drink of that cup. 33 Wherefore, my brethren, when ye come

29 For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, together to eat, tarry one for another. eateth and drinketh damnation to bimself, not 34 And if any man 'hunger, let him eat at discerning the Lord's body.

5 home; that ye come not together unto con30 For this cause many arc weak and sickly demnation.

demnation. And the rest will I set in order among you, and many sleep.

when "I come..


4 Numb. 9. 10, 13. John 6.51, 63, 64. & 13. 27. ch. 10.21.- 2 Cor. e Ps. 94. 12, 13. Hebr. 12. 5--11. ver. 21.-5 ver. 29.-- Or, 13. 5. Gal. 6. 4.-_ Or, judgment. Rom. 13. 2. d Ps. 32. 5. judgment.--ch. 7. 17. Tit. 1. 5. ch. 4. 19, 1 John 1. 9.

Verse 27. Whosoever shall eat--and drink-unworthily] the profane, was intended for their emendation ; for in To put a final end to controversies and perplexities relative ver. 32. it is said, when we are judged xpıyou.Evol, we are to these words and the context, let the Reader observe, that chastened, Taloevou.ają corrected as a father does his child. to eat and drink the bread and wine in the Lord's Supper ren, that we should not be condemned with the world. unworthily, is to eat and drink as the Corinthians did ; who Verse 30. For this cause] That they partook of this eat it not in reference to Jesus Christ's sacrificial death ; but sacred ordinance without discerning the Lord's body: many rather in such a way as the Israelites did the Pass-over, which

are weak and sickly; it is hard to say whether these words they celebrated in remembrance of their deliverance from Egyp- refer to the consequences of their own intemperance, or to tian bondage. Likewise these mongrel Christians at Corinth, some extraordinary disorders inflicted immediately by God used it as a kind of historical commemoration of the death himself. That there were disorders of the most reprehensible of Christ; and did not, in the whole institution, discern the kind among these people at this sacred supper, the preceding Lord's body and blood as a sacrificial offering for sin: and, verses sufficiently point out: and, after such excesses, many besides, in their celebration of it, they acted in a way utterly might be weak and sickly among them; and many might unbecoming the gravity of a sacred ordinance. Those who sleep, i. e. die ; for continual experience shews us, that many acknowledge it as a sacrificial offering, and receive it in re- fall victims to their own intemperance. However, acting as membrance of God's love to them in sending his Son into the they did, in this solemn and awful sacrament, they might world, can neither bring damnation upon themselves by so have “provoked God to plague them with divers diseases, doing; nor eat nor drink unzcorthily. See our translation of and sundry kinds of death.”--Communion service. this verse vindicated, at the end of the chapter.

Verse 31. If we would judge ourselves] If, having acted Shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord.] If he improperly, we condemn our conduct, and humble ourselves, use it irreverently, if he deny that Christ suffered unjustly, we shall not be judged, i. e. punished for the sin we have (for of some such persons the apostle must be understood to committed. speak,) then he in effect joins issue with the Jews in their Verse 32. But when we are judged] See on ver. 29. condemnation and crucifixion of the Lord Jesus ; and renders Verse 33. When ye come together to eat] The Lord's himself guilty of the death of our blessed Lord. Some, | Supper, tarry one for another ; do not eat and drink in par. however, understand the passage thus; is guilty, i. e. eats) ties, as ye have done heretofore ; and do not connect it with and drinks unworthily, and brings on himself that punishment any other meal. mentioned ver. 30.

Verse 31. And if any man hunger] Let him not come Verse 28. Let a man examine himself] Let him try to the house of God to eat an ordinary meal, let him eat the whether he has proper faith in the Lord Jesus; and whether home; take that in his own house which is necessary for the he discerns the Lord's body ; and whether he duly considers support of his body, before he comes to that sacred tethat the bread and wine point out the crucified body and spilt || past ; where he should have the feeding of his soul alone blood of Christ?

in view. Verse 29. Eateth and drinketh damnation] Klua, judg That ye come not together unto condemnation] That Fe ment, punishment ; and yet this is not unto damnation, for | may avoid the curse that must fall on such worthless com. the judgment or punishment inflicted upon the disorderly and "municants as those above-mentioned ; and that ye may get

Observations and criticisms


on-the preceding chapter.

that especial blessing which every one that discerns the Lord's : And, have ñ and vel, or : Whosoever shull eat this bread, or body, in the Eucharist, must receive.

drink this cup. As this criticism is made to countenance their The rest will I set in order, &c.] All the other matters upscriptural communion in one kind, it may be well to ex. relative to this business, to which you have referred in your amine the ground of the complaint. Supposing even this letter, I will regulate when I come to visit you; as, God objection to be valid, their cause can gain nothing by it permitting, I fully design. The apostle did visit them about while the 26th and 28th verses stand, both in the Greek one year after this, as is generally believed.

text and Vulgate, as they now do; For, as often as ye eut

this bread and drink this cup, Sc.-Let him eat of that bread, I have already been so very particular on this long and And drink of that cup. But although yor, be the reading difficult chapter, that I have left neither room nor necessity of the common printed text, xz1 And, is the reading of the for many supplementary observations. A few remarks are Codex Alexandrinus, and the Codex Claromoniunus, two of all that is requisite.

the best MSS. in the world: as also of the Coder Lincol. 1. The apostle inculcates the necessity of order and sub- niensis, 2. and the Codex Petuviunus, 3. both MSS. of the jection; especially in the church. Those who are impatient first character: it is also the reading of the ancient Syriac, of rule, are generally those who wish to tyrannize. And all the Arabic, the Coptic, the margin of the latter Syriuc, the those who are loudest in their complaints against authority, Æthiopic, different MSS. of the Vulgate, and of one in my whether civil or ecclesiastical, are those who wish to have the own possession; and of Clemens, Chromatius and Cassiodorus. power in their own hands, and would infallibly abuse it if they Though the present text of the Vulgate has vel or, yet this is had. They alone who are willing to obey, are capable of a departure from the original editions, which were all prorule; and he who can rule well, is as willing to obey as to fessedly taken from the best MSS. In the famous Bible withgovern. Let all be submissive and orderly; let the woman out dute, place, or printer's name, 2 vols, fol. two columns, know that the man is head and protector ; let the man know, and forty-five lines in each, supposed by many to be the that Christ is his head and redeemer; and the gift of God's first Bible ever printed, the text stands thus: Itaque quiendless mercy for the salvation of a lost world.

cunque manducaverit punem et biberit calicem, &c.Where2. The apostle insisted on the woman having her head co-'fore whosoever shall eat this bread and drink this cup, &c. here tered in the church, or Christian assembly. If he saw the is no vel, or. The Bible printed by Fust, 1462, the first Bible manner in which Christian women now dress, and appear in with a date, has the same reading. Did the Protestants corthe ordinances of religion, what would he think? What rupt these texts? In the editio princeps of the Greek Tes. would he say? How could he even distinguish the Christiuntament, printed by the authority of Cardinal Ximenes at Com. from the infiilel? And if they who are in Christ, are new plutum, and published by the authority of Pope Leo X. though creatires, and the persons who ordinarily appear, in religious i or, stands in the Greek text; yet, in the opposite column, assemblies, are really new creatures, as they profess in which contains the Vulgate, and in the opposite line, rt und, general, to be in Christ; he might reasonably enquire, if is found, and not vel or ; though the Greek text would these are new creatures, what must have been their appear- have authorised the editor to have made this change : but he ance when they were old creatures ? Do we dress to be conscientiously preserved the text of his Vulgate. Did the seen?

And do we go to the house of God to exhibit our Protestants corrupt this Catholic text also ? Indeed, so little selves? Wretched is that man or woman who goes to the design had any of those who differed from the Romish house of God to be seen by any but God himself.

church, to make any alteration here, that even Wiclif, having a 3. The Lord's Supper may be well termed the feast of faulty MS. of the Vulgate by him, which read vel instead of charily; how unbecoming this sacred ordinance, to be the et, followed that faulty MS. and translated, and so who ever subject of dispute, party spirit, and division! Those who sch.1 ete the breed or Drink? the cup. make it such, must answer for it to God. Every man who That xe. And, is the true reading; and not vor, both MSS. believes in Christ as his atoning sacrifice, should, as fre- and Versions susficiently prove: also that et, not vel, is the quently as he can, receive the sacrament of the Lord's Sup- proper reading in the Vulgate, those original editions formed per. And every minister of Christ is bound to administer it by Roman Catholics, and one of them by the highest authority to every man who is seeking the salvation of his soul, as well in the Papal church, fully establish : likewise those MSS. as to all believers. Let no man dare to oppose this ordi- | Versions, Fathers, and original editions, must be allowed to bance; and let every man receive it according to the institu- be not only competent, but also unsuspected and incontro. tion of Christ.

vertible witnesses. 4. Against the fidelity of our translation of ver. 27 of But as this objection to our translation is brought forward this chapter, Whosoever shall eat this bread and drink this to vindicate the withholding the cup from the laity in the cup unzorthily, several Popish writers have made heavy Lord's Supper; it may be necessary to shew that without the complaints, and accused the Protestants of wilful corruption; | cup there can be no Eucharist. With respect to the bread, as both the Greek and Vulgrite texts, instead of xai and et, ll our Lord had simply said, Take, eat, this is my body: but

Diversities of spiritual


gists and administrations:

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concerning the cup, he says, Drink ye all of this ; for as this

all of this ; for as this monstrable, that there is not a Popish priest under heaven, pointed out the very essence of the institution, viz. the blood who denies the cup to the people, and they all do this,) of atonement, it was necessary that each should have a par- that can be said to celebrate the Lord's Supper at all; nor ticular application of it, therefore he says, Drink ye all of is there one of their votaries that ever received the holy sa. THIS. By this we are taught that the cup is essential to the crament. All pretension to this is an absolute farce, so long sacrament of the Lord's Supper; so that they who deny the as the cup, the emblem of the atoning blood, is denied. cup to the people, sin against God's institution ; and they low strange is it, that the very men, who plead so much who receive not the cup, are not partakers of the body and for the bare literal meaning of this is my body, in the precedblood of Christ. If either could, without mortal prejudice, ling verse, should deny all meaning to drink ye all of this be omitted, it might be the bread; but the cup, as pointing cup, in this verse! And though Christ has, in the most po. out the blood, poured out, i. e. the life, by which alone the sitive manner, enjoined it, they will not permit one of the great sacrificial act is performed, and remission of sins pro-laity to taste il! See the whole of this argument, at large, cured, is absolutely indispensable. On this ground it is de llin my Discourse on the Nature and Design of the Eucharist.

CHAPTER XII. The apostle proceeds to the question of the Corinthians concerning Spiritual Gifts, 1. Ile calls to their remem.

brance their former state, and how they were brought out of it, 2,3. Shews that there are diversities of gifts which proceed from the Spirit, 4. Diversities of administrations which proceed from the Lord Jesus, 5. And diversities of operations which proceed from God, 6. What these gifts are, and how they are dispensed, 7-11. Christ is the Head, and the church his members ; and this is pointed out under the similitude of the human body, 12, 13. The relation which the members of the body have to each other; and how necessary their mutual support, 14—26. The members in the church, or spiritual body, and their respective ofices, 27—30. We should earneslly covet the best gifts, 31.

OW concerning spiritual gists, || away unto these dumb idols, even

brethren, I would not have Anno Imp. Ne

as ye were led.

Anno Imp. Ne you ignorant.

3 Wherefore I give you to under- ronis Cas. 3. 2 Ye know that ye were Gentiles, carried || stand, that no man speaking by the Spirit of

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* Ch. 14.1, 37.ch. 6. 11. Ephes. 2. 11, 12. 1 Thess. I. 9. Tit. 3.3.

1 Pet. 4.3. .--. Ps. 115.5.-- Mark 9. 39. 1 John 4. 2, 3.


into a senseless worship, the chief part of which was calcu. Verse 1. Now concerning spiritual gifts] This was a sub- | lated only to excite and gratify animal propensities. ject about which they appear to have written to the apostle ; Dumb idols] Though often supplicated, could never se and concerning which there were probably some contentions turn an answer; so that not only the image could not speak, among them. The words υπερ των πνευματικων may as well but the god or dæmon pretended to be represented by it, be translated concerning spiritunl persons, as spiritual gifts; could not speak : a full proof that an idol tas nothing in and indeed the former agrees much better with the context. the world.

I would not hare you ignorant.] I wish you fully to Verse 3. No man speaking by the Spirit of God] It was know whence all such gifts come, and for what end they are granted on all hands, that there could be no religion without given, that each person may serve the church in the capacity divine inspiration; because God alone, could make his will in which God has placed him; that there may be no mis. | known to men: hence heathenism pretended to this inspiraunderstandings, and no schism in the body.

tion. Judaism had it in the law and the prophets; and it Verse 2. Ye were Gentiles) Previously to your conver was the very essence of the Christian religion. The heathen sion to the Christian faith ; ye were heathens, carried away, priests and priestesses pretended to receive, by inspiration pot guided by reason or truth, but lurried by your passions from their god, the answers which they gave to their vota.

Diversities of spiritual gifts


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Anno Imp. Ve runis Cas. 3. the Lord, but by the Holy Ghost. 7 But the manifestation of the

Now, there are diversities of gifts, but Spirit is given to every " man : to profit d the same Spirit.


I. 5 And there are differences of administra 8 For to one is given by the Spirit, the word tions, but the same Lord.

of wisdom ; to another, k the word of knowledge 6 And there

there are diversities of operations, by the same Spirit;

* Or, anathema. b Matt. 16. 17. John 15. 26. 2 Cor. 3. 5. • Rom. 12. 4, &c. Hebr. 2. 4. 1 Pet. 4. 10.- Eph. 4. 4.-- Rom. 12. 6, 7, 8. Eph. 4. 11.

Or, ministeries.--- Eph. 1. 23. - Rom. 12, 6, 7, 8. ch. 14. 26. Ephes. 4.7. 1 Pet. 4. 10, 11.-ich. 2. 6, 7.-kchi 1. 5. & 13. 2. 2 Cor. 8.7.

ries. And, as far as the people believed their pretensions, so Verse 6. Diversities of operations] 'Evety Hardy, mifar they were led by their teaching,

raculous influences exerted on others; such as the expulsion Both Juduism and heathenism were full of expectations of of dæmons, inflicting extraordinary punishments, as in the a fiiture teacher and deliverer : and to this person, especially case of Ananias and Sapphira, Elymas the sorcerer, &c. the among the Jews, the Spirit in all the prophets gave witness. healing of different diseases, raising the dead, &c. all This was the Anointed One, the Messiah who was manifested these proceeded from God the Father, as the fountain of all in the person of Jesus of Nazareth ; and him the Jews re goodness and power, and the immediate dispenser of every jected, though he proved his divine mission, both by his doc- good and perfect gift. trines and his miracles. But as he did not come as they In the three preceding verses we find more than an indirect fancied he would, as a mighty secular conqueror; they not reference to the doctrine of the Sacred Trinity. only rejected, but blasphemed him; and persons among them, Gifts, are attributed to the Holy Spirit, ver. 4. professing to be spiritual men, and under the influence of the

ADMINISTRATIONS, to the Lord Jesus, ver. 5. Spirit of God, did so. But as the Holy Spirit, through all OPERATIONS, to God the Father, ver. 6. He who may the law and the prophets, gave testimony to the Messiah ;; think this fanciful, must account for the very evident distincand as Jesus proved himself to be the Christ, both by his tions here, in some more satisfactory way. miracles and doctrines, no man, under the inspiration of the Verse 7. The manifestation of the Spirit] avspuris Divine Spirit, could say to him Anathema, thou art a de TOU IIEUMATOS : this is variously understood by the fathers; ceiver, and a person worthy of death, &c. as the Jews did :

some of them rendering @ave wors by illumination, others therefore the Jews were no longer under the inspiration of demonstration, and others operation. The apostle's meanthe Spirit of God. This appears to be the meaning of the ing seems to be this : whatever gifts God has bestowed, or apostle in this place; No man speaking by the Spirit, 8c. in what various ways soever the Spirit of God may have ma,

And that no man can say that Jesus is the Lord] Nor cannifested himself, it is all for the common benefit of the we demonstrate this person to be the Messiah and the Saviour church ; God has given no gift to any man for his oren priof men, but by the Holy Ghost, enabling us to speak with vate advantage, or exclusive profit. He has it for the benefit divers tongues, to work miracles : He attesting the truth of of others, as well as for his own salvation. our doctrines to them that hear, by enlightening their minds, Verse 8. Word of wisdom] In all these places, I conchanging their hearts, and filling them with the peace and sider that the proper translation of loyos, is doctrine, as in love of God.

many other places of the New Testament. It is very difVerse 4. There are diversities of gifts] Xapropar wv,ficult to say what is intended here by the different kinds of gracious endowments ; leading to miraculous results : such gifts mentioned by the apostle: they were probably all superas the gift of prophecy, speaking different tongues, &c. And natural, and were necessary at that time only for the benefit these all came by the extraordinary influences of the Holy of the church. On the 8th, 9th, and 10th verses, much may Spirit.

be seen in Lightfoot, Whitby, Pearce, and others. Verse 5. Differences of administrations] Alaxoviwy, By doctrine of wisdom, we may understand, as Bp. Pearce various offices in the church, such as apostle, prophet, and and Dr. Whitby observe, the mystery of our redemption, in teacher, under which were probably included bishop or pres- || which the wisdom of God was most eminently conspicuous : byter, pastor, deacon, &c. the qualifications for such offices, see chap. ii. 7, and 10. and which is called the manifold as weil as the appointments themselves, coming immediately | wisdom of God, Eph. iii. 10. Christ, the great teacher of from the one Lord, Jesus Christ.

it, is called the wisdom of God, 1 Cor. i. 24. and in him are

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