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Transgressions and punishments

CHAP. X.

of the ancient Jews.

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some of them also tempted, and they are written for our adıno- ronis Cees. 3. • were destroyed of serpents.

nition, "upon whom the ends of the world are 10 Neither murmur ye, as some of them also come. murmured, and were destroyed of the de 12 Wherefore let him that thinketh he standstroyer.

eth take heed lest he fall.

• Exod. 17. 2, 7. Numb. 21. 5. Deut. 6. 16. Ps. 78. 18, 56. & 95. 9. & 106. 14.-Numb. 21.6.- Exod. 16. 2. & 17. 2. Numb. 14. 2, 29. & 16. 41. a Numb. 14. 37. & 16. 49.

• Exod. 12. 23. 2 Sam. 24. 16. 1 Chron. 21. 15.- Or, types.--& Rom. 15. 4. ch. 9. 10. ch. 7. 29. Phil. 4. 5. Hebr. 10. 25, 37. 1 John 2. 18. Rom. 11. 20.

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21,000 ; but this authority is too slender to establish a va with Zimri and Cosbi, and the rebellion of Corah and his rious reading, which recedes so much from the received text. || company, &c. &c. I think the discordance may be best accounted for, by sup Destroyed of the destroyer.] The Jews suppose that God posing, as above, that Phineas and his companions, might employed destroying angels to punish those rebellious Israel. have slain 1000 men, who were heads of the people, and ites; they were five in number, and one of them they call chief in this idolatry, and that the plague sent from the nun Meshachith, the destroyer; which appears to be an. Lord destroyed 23,000 more; so an equal number to the other name for Samael, the angel of death; to whose inwhole tribe of Levi perished in one day; who were just fluence they attribute all deaths which are not uncommon or 23,000. See Numb. xxvi. 62. and see Lightfoot.

violent. Those who die violent deaths, or deaths that are Verse 9. Neither let us tempt Chrisl] I have already not in the common manner of men, are considered as perishsupposed, in the Note on ver. 4. that Christ is intended by ing by immediate judgments from God. the Spiritual Rock that followed them; and that it was Fle, Verse 11. Upon whom the ends of the world are come.] not the rock, that did follow or accompany the Israelites in Ta TENY TWY alwww. The end of the times included within the wilderness. This was the Angel of God's presence who the whole duration of the Mosaic economy. For; although was with the church in the wilderness, to whom our fathers the word awww means, in its primary sense, endless being, or would not obey, as St. Stephea says, Acts vii. 38 and 40. duration ; yet in its accommodated sense, it is applied to any Instead of Xpisov Christ; several MSS. and a few Versions, round or duration, that is complete in itself. And here it have Kupoor the Lord, and some few @eor God. But though evidently means the whole duration of the Mosaic æconomy. some respectable MSS. have the Lord instead of Christ; “ Thus therefore,” says Dr. Lightfoot, “ the apostle speaks yet this latter has the greatest proportion of authority on its in this place that those things which were transacted in the side. And this affords no mean proof that the person who is beginning of the Jewish ages, are written for an example to called 91.7 Yehovah, in the Old Testament, is called Christ you, upon whom the ends of those ages are come : and the in the New. By tempting Christ, is meant disbelieving the beginning is like to the end ; and the end to the beginning. providence and goodness of God; and presuming to pre- Both was forty years; both consisted of temptation and un. scribe to Him how he should send them the necessary sup-belief ; and both ended in the destruction of the unbelievers. plies ; and of what kind they should be, &c.

That, in the destruction of those who perished in the wil. Verse 10. Neither murmur ye] Ilow the Israelites mur derness; this, in the destruction of those that believed not: mured because of the manna, which their souls despised as a viz. the destruction of their city and nation.” The phrase light bread, something incapable of affording them nourish- ***1910 soph yomia, the end of days, says the Targum of ment, &c. and because they had been brought out of Jerusalem, Gen. iii. 15. mean xn'un *3597 213 beyomoi Egypt into the wilderness, and pretended that the promises de malca Mashicha, in the days of the king Messiah. of God had failed; and how they were destroyed by ser are to consider the apostle's words as referring to the end of pents, and by the destroyer or plague, may be seen at large the Jewish dispensation, and the commencement of the in the texts referred to in the margin, on this and the pre- Christian ; which is the last dispensation which God will ceding verses. It appears from what the apostle says here, vouchsafe to man in the state of probation. that the Corinthians were murmuring against God and his

Verse 12. Let him that thinketh he stanuleth] 'O Boxwe apostle, for prohibiting them from partaking of the idolatrous savo: Let him who must confidently standeth ; him who has feasts; just as the Israelites did in the wilderness, in re- the fullest conviction in his own conscience, that his heart is ference to a similar subject. See the history of Phineas, I right with God, and that his mind is right in the truth, take

We

The nature and design of

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the Lord's supper.

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13 There hath no temptation taken ll 16 6 The cup of blessing, which we Anno Imp. Ne you but a such as is common to man: bless, is it not the communion of the A. U.C.400.

Anno linp. Ne ronis Cæs. 3. but God is faithful, who will not blood of Christ ? The bread which "suffer you to be tempted above that ye are able; we break, is it not the communion of the body but will, with the temptation, also make a way of Christ? to escape, that ye may be able to bear it.

17 For, 'we being many, are one bread, and 14 Wherefore, my dearly beloved, * flee from one body: for we are all partakers of that one idolatry.

bread. 15 I speak as to wise men; judge ye what 18 Behold *Israel 'after the flesh: "are not they

which eat of the sacrifices partakers of the altar?

I say.

d Jer.

2 Or, moderate.--~h ch. 1. 9.-_ Ps. 125. 3. 2 Pet. 2. 9. 29. 11. ever. 7. 2 Cor. 6. 17. 1 John 5. 21. ch. 8. 1.-Mati. :25. 26, 27, 28,

h Acts 2. 42, 46. ch. 11. 23, 24. 1 Rom. 12. 5. ch. 12. 27.

Rom. 4. 12. Gal. 6. 16.-- Rom. 4. 1. & 9.3, 5. 2 Cor. 11. 18. m Lev. 3. 3. & 7. 15.

heed lest he fall from his faith, and from the state of holi Verse 11. Wherefore-flee from idolatry.] This is a ness in which the grace of God has placed him. I have trial of no great magnitude; to escape from so gross a tempalready shewn that the verb è0781, which we render to seem, tation requires but a moderate portion of grace and circunto think, to suppose, is used by the best Greek writers not spection. to lessen or weaken the sense, but to render it stronger, and

Verse 15. I speak as to wise men] The Corinthiaris more emphatic. See the Note on Luke viii. 18.

valued themselves not a little on their wisdom and various In a state of probation, every thing may change; while gifts; the apostle admits this, and draws an argument from we are in this life, we may stand or full: our standing in the it against themselves. As ye are so wise, surely ye can see faith depends on our union with God; and that depends on the propriety of abominating idolatry of every kind : for an our watching unto prayer, and continuing to possess that idol is nothing in the world; and can do nothing for you, and faith that worketh by love. The highest saint under heaven, nothing against you. can stand no longer than he depends upon God, and conti Verse 16. The cup of blessing] The apostle speaks nues in the obedience of faith. Ile that ceases to do

SO,

will here of the Eucharist, which he illustrates by the 13407 03 fall into sin, and get a darkened understanding and a hard cos huburacuh, cup of blessing, over which thanks were er. ened heart : and he may continue in this state till God come pressed at the conclusion of the Pass-over. See this largeis to take away his soul. Therefore, let him who most ussur- explained at the conclusion of the Notes on Matt. xari, and edly standeth, take heed lest le full; not only partially, but in my Discourse upon the Eucharist, 8vo. 2d edit. 1814. finally.

The communion of the blood of Christ] We who partake Verse 13. But such as is common lo mun] Arb EWT. IVOS of this sacred cup, in commemoration of the death of Chrif, Chrysostom has properly translated this word arbEW Tivosare made partakers of his body and blood, and thus have TOUTE51 Pracas, Scaryus, comerces, that is, small, short, mo- fellowship with him; as those who partake of an idol feast; deraie. Your temptations or trials have been but trifling, in thereby, as much as they can, participate with the idol, to comparison of those endured by the Israelites ; they might | whom the sacrifice was offered. This I have proved at large have been easily resisted and overcome : besides, God will in the above Tract, to which I must refer the Reader; as the not suffer you to be tried above the strength he gives you ; subject is too voluminous to be inserted here. but, as the trial comes, he will provide you with sufficient Verse 17. For, we being many, are one bread] The original strength to resist it : as the trial comes in, he will make your would be better translated thus : because there is one breed,

The words are very remarkable, T.617, TEL 600 or loaf, we, who are many, are one body. As only one loaf TIETOP. xai TYY 2001, “he will, with the temptation, was used at the Pass-over, and those who partook of it were make the deliverance, or way out.” Satan is never per considered to be one religious boily; so we who partake of mitted to block up our way, without the providence of God the Eucharistical bread and wine, in commemoration of the making a way through the wall. God ever makes a breuch sacrificial death of Christ, are one spiritual society, because in his otherwise impregnable fortification. Should an up we are all made partakers of that one Christ whose blood right soul get into difficulties and straits, he may rest as was shed for us, to make an atonement for our sins; as the sured that there is a way out, as there was a way in; and blood of the Paschal Lamb was shed and sprinkled in rethat the trial shall never be above the strength that God shali ference to this, of which it was the type. give hin to bear it.

Verse 18. Behold Israel after the flesh] The Jews not

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We must not partake of the Lord's

CHAP. X.

table and that of dæmons.

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19 What say I then ? a that the | takers of the Lord's table, and of A. M. 4060. AUGOS idol is any thing, or that which is the table of devils.

ronis Cæs. 3, offered in sacrifice to idols is any 22 Do we provoke the Lord to thing?

jealousy? "are we stronger than he ? 20 But I say, that the things which the Gen-23 5 All things are lawful for me, but all things tiles “sacrifice, they sacrifice to devils, and not are not expedient : all things are lawful for me, to God: and I would not that ye should have but all things edify not. fellowship with devils.

21 "Let no man seek his own, but every man 21 Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord, another's wealth. and 'the cup of devils : ye cannot be par 25 'Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, that

Ch. 8. 4.- Lev. 17.7. Deut. 32. 17. Ps. 106. 37. Rev. 9. 20.

2 Cor.6. 15, 16. d Deut. 32. 38.-- Deut. 32.21.

ch. 13. 5.

" Ezek. 22. 14.-6ch. 6.12.-— Rom. 15. 1, 2.

Phil. 2, 4, 21.- Baruch 6. 28. 1 Tim. 4. 4.

Ver. 33.

yet converted to Christianity: the latter being Israel after Vescitur Æneas, simul et Trojana juventus, the Spirit. As the design of the apostle was to withdraw Perpetui tergo bovis et lustralibus extis. his converts at Corinth from all temptations to idolatry, he Quure agite, 6 juvenes, tantarum in munere luudum, produces troo examples, to shew the propriety of his endea Cingite fronde comas, et pocula porgite dextris, vours. 1. All who join together in celebrating the Lord's Communemque vocute Deum, et date vina volentes. supper, and are partakers of that one bread, give proof by this that they are Christians, and have fellowship with The loades were served in canvisters; the wine Christ. 2. All the Israelites who offer sacrifice, and partake In bowls; the priest renewed the rites divine: [chine. of those sacrifices, give proof thereby that they are Jews, Broiled entrails are their food, and beef's continued and are in fellowship with the object of their worship : so Ye warlike youths, your heads with garlands crown, they who join in idol festivals, and eat things which have Fill high the goblets with a sparkling flood, been offered to idols, give proof that they are in communion And with deep draughts invoke our common god. with those idolaters, and that they have fellowship with the dæmons they worship.

Verse 22. Do we provoke the Lord to jealousy] All Verse 19. What say I then.) A Jewish phrase ; for 1 idolatry is represented as a sort of spiritual adultery; it is conclude: and this is his conclusion, that, although an idol is giving that heart to Satan that should be devoted to God : nothing, has neither power nor influence; nor are things of- and he is represented as being jealous, because of the infered to idols any thing the worse for being thus offered ; | fidelity of those who have covenanted to give their hearts yet, as the things sacrificed by the Gentiles are sacrificed to to him. dæmons, and not to God, those who partake of them have Are we stronger than he ?] As he has threatened to fellowship with dæmons; those who profess Christianity, punish such transgressors, and will infallibly do it, can we cannot have fellowship both with Christ and the devil. resist his Omnipotence? A sinner should consider, while he

Verse 21. Ye cannot drink the cup of the Lord] It is is in rebellion against God, whether he be able to resist that in vain that you, who frequent these idol festivals, profess power whereby God will inflict vengeance. the religion of Christ, and commemorate his death and pas Verse 23. All things are lawful for me] I may lawsion in the Iloly Eucharist; for you cannot have that fellow- fully eat all kinds of food ; but all are not expedient, ou ship with Christ which this ordinance implies, while you are TAYTA Gule PECEL It would not be becoming in me to eat of partakers of the table of dæmons. That the Gentiles, in all ; because I should, by this, offend and grieve many weak their sacrifices, fed on the slain beasts, and ate bread and minds. See the Notes on chap. vi. 12, &c. drank wine in honour of their gods, is sufficiently clear, Verse 24. Let no man seek his own, &c.] Let none, from various accounts. See my Discource on the floly Eu- for his private gratification or emolument, disturb the peace charist, where many examples are produced. The following or injure the soul of another. Let every man live, not for from Virgil, Æn. viii. ver. 180–273. is proof in point. himself, but for every part of the great human family with

which he is surrounded. Tunc lecti juvenes certatim aræque sacerdos

Verse 25. Whatsoever is sold in the shambles, that eat] Viscera tosta ferunt taurorum, onerantque canistris The case to which the apostle refers is simply this : it was Dona laboratæ Cereris, Bacchumque ministrant.

customary to bring the filesh of the animal to market, the

We must be cautious of

I. CORINTHIANS.

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26 For, " the earth is the Lord's, the Lord's, and the fulness there- ronis Ces. 3. and the fulness thereof.

of : 27 If any of them that believe not bid you 29 Conscience, I say, not thine own, but of to a feast, and ye be disposed to go ; "what-the other : for why is my liberty judged of soever is set before you, eat, asking no question another mun's conscience ? for conscience sake.

30 For, if I by 'grace be a partaker, why 28 But, if any man say unto you, This is of- am I evil spoken of for that s for which I give fered in sacrifice unto idols, eat not, for his thanks ?

ver. 28. Luke

& Exod. 19. 5. Deut. 10. 14. Ps. 21. 1. & 50. 19.

10.7.ch. 8. 10, 12.

d Deut. 10. 14. Ps. 24. 1. ver. 25. Rom. 14. 16.

giving: - Rom. 14. 6. 1 Tim. 4. 3, 4.

Or, thanks

blood of which had been poured out in sacrifice to an idol : | latter were not troubled with such extraordinary scrupuor, taken more particularly, the case was this; one part of | lousness. the sacrifice was consumed on the altar of the idol; a second Verse 26. For the earth is the Lord's] And because part was dressed and eaten by the sacrificer; and a third God made the earth and its fulness, all animals, plants, and belonged to the priest, and was often sold in the shambles. vegetables; there can be nothing in it, or them, impure or To partake of the second share, or to feast upon the sacrifice, unholy ; because all are the creatures of God. St. Paul absolutely forbids ; because this was one part of the Verse 27. If anybid you to a feast] The apostle means religious worship, which was paid to the idol : it was sitting any common meal, not an idol festival: for to such no Chris. down as guests at his table, in token that they were in fel- | tian could lawfully go. lowship with him. This was utterly incompatible with re Whatsoever is set before you, eat] Do not act as the Jews ceiving the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper, which was the generally do, torturing both themselves and others, with ques. communion of the body and blood of Christ. But, as to the tions, such as those mentioned on ver. 25. third share, the apostle leaves them at liberty either to eat Verse 28. This is offered in sacrifice unto idols] While of it or forbear; except that, by eating, their weak brethren they were not apprised of this circumstance, they might law. should be offended : in that case, though the thing was law- | fully eat; but when told that the flesh set before them bad ful, it was their duty to abstain. See the Notes on chap. been offered to an idol, then they were not to eat, for the viii. 1, &c.

sake of his weak conscience, who pointed out the circumAsking no question for conscience sake] Dr. Lightfoot stance. For the apostle still takes for granted, that even observes that, “ the Jews were vexed with innumerable the flesh offered in sacrifice to an idol might be eaten inno. scruples in their feasts, as to the eating of the thing, as well cently, at any private table ; as in that case, they were no as to the company with which they ate; and even the man- longer in danger of being partakers with devils, as this was ner of their eating. Of fruits and herbs brought to the no idol festival. table, they were to enquire whether they were tythed accord.

For the earth is the Lord's, and the fulness thereof ] This ing to custom ? whether they were consecrated by the whole clause, which appears also in ver. 26. is wanting Truma.? or whether they were profane? whether they were here in ABCDEFGH. several others; the Syriuc, Erper. clean, or touched with some pollution, &c. And concerning | Coptic, Sahidic, Æthiopic, Armenian, Vulgate, Itala, and flesh set on the table, they were to enquire whether it was of in several of the Fathers. Griesbach has left it out of the that which had been offered to idols? whether it were the text: and professor White says, “ certissimè delendum;" it flesh of an animal that had been torn by wild beasts? or, of | should most undoubtedly be erased. It has scarcely any arthat which had been strangled, or not killed according to the thority to support it. canons ? &c. &c. All which doubts the liberty of the gos Verses 29, 30. For why is my liberty judged of another pel abolished as to one's own conscience, with this proviso, | man's conscience.? &c.] Though in the case of flesh offered that no scandal or offence be cast before another man's weak to idols, and other matters connected with idolatry, (on or scrupulous conscience.”

which it appears there was much of a tender conscience From this, it is evident, that the apostle had the case of among some of the Corinthians,) it was necessary to sacrifice the Jewish converts in view; and not the Gentiles. The something to an over-scrupulous conscience; yet the gospel of

We should do every thing

CHAP. X.

to the glory of God.

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31 · Whether therefore ye eat, or 33 Even as ° I please all men in all A, M. 4060. A. 1.c.89 drink, or whatsoever ye do, do all to things, 'not seeking mine own profit, Anno Imp. Nronis Cæs. 3. the glory of God.

but the profit of many, that they may 32 "Give none offence, neither to the Jews, nor' be saved. to the Gentiles, nor to the church of God :

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Christ did not lay any man under this general burthen, that 2. However conscious we may be of our own sincerity he must do nothing at which any weak brother might feed and uprightness, we should ever distrust ourselves. God has hurt, or be stumbled: for the liberty of the gospel must not made nothing independent of himself; the soul has no printake for its rule the scrupulosity of any conscience ; for, ifciple of self-dependence, either in itself or in its attaina man, by grace, by the allowance or authority of the gos- ments: it is wise, powerful, and happy, only while it is depel, partake of any thing that God's bounty has sent, and pending on infinite wisdom, unlimited power, and endless which the gospel has not forbidden, and give thanks to God for mercy. the blessing; no man has right or authority to condemn such 3. The Gentiles were in communion with dæmons, by a person. This seems to be the meaning of these two verses : their idolatrous services. In what communion are those who and they read a lesson of caution to rash judgers; and to feed themselves without fear; who eat with the glutton those who are apt to take offence.

and drink with the drunkard ? Do they partake of the Verse 31. Whether therefore ye eat, or drink] As no Lord Jesus who are under the influence of pride, self-will, general rule can be laid down in reference to the above par- hatred, censoriousness, &c. and who carry their self-imticulars, there is one maxim, of which no Christian must lose portance, and worldly spirit, even into the house and worsight ; that, whether he eats or drinks of this, or the other ship of God. kind of aliments, or whatever else he may do, he must do it 4. A spirit of curiosily, too much indulged, may, in an so as to bring glory to God. This is a sufficient rule to re- irreligious man, lead to covetousness and theft: in a godly gulate every man's conscience and practice in all indifferent man, to a troublesome and unscriptural scrupulosity of conthings, where there are no express commands or prohibitions. science; productive of nothing but uneasiness to itself, and

Verse 32. Give none offence, &c.] Scrupulously avoid disturbance to others. Simplicity of heart saves from this, giving any cause of offence either to the unconverted Jews, and is an excellent gift. or the unconverted Gentiles, so as to prejudice them against 5. In many actions we have a two-fold rule: the testimony Christianity : nor to the church of God, made up of converts of God and charity: and, in many things charity is the best from the above parties.

interpreter of the testimony. The testimony often permits Verse 33. Even as I please all men] Act as I do; for what charity forbids, because circumstances, in time, place, getting myself, my own interests, conveniencies, ease, and &c. may render a thing improper on one occasion that might comfort, I labour for the welfare of others; and particu- be proper on another. larly that they may be saved. How blessed and amiable was 6. Pious Quesnel has well said, Every thing honours God the spirit and conduct of this holy man!

when it is done for his sake ; every thing dishonours him

when any ultimate end is proposed beside his glory. It is This chapter has already presented the serious reader with an unchangeable principle of the Christian morality, That all a variety of maxims for his regulation-1. As to his own comes from God by his love; and all should be returned to private walk-2. His domestic dutiesAnd, 3. his connection, him by ours. This rule we should keep inviolate. with the church of God. Let us review some of the prin 7 Though many of the advices given in this chapter, apcipal parts.

pear to respect the Corinthians alone, yet there is none of 1. We should be on our guard against what are called them that is not applicable to Christians in general, in certain little sins; and all occasions and excitements to sin. Take circumstances. God has given no portion of his word to any heed what compuny you frequent. One thing, apparently people or age exclusively; the whole is given to the church harmless, may lead, by almost imperceptible links, to sius of universal in all ages of the world. In reading this Epistle let the decpest dye. See the example in this chapter-1. The us seriously consider what parts of it apply to ourselves; and people sat down to eat and to drink. 2. They rose up to if we are disposed to appropriate its promises. let us act consciplay, dance, and sing : and, 3. They committed fornication, entiously, and enquire how many of its reprehensions we and brought upon themselves swift destruction.

may fairly appropriate also.

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