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St. Paul's method of securing

I. CORINTHIANS.

final perseverance

A. M. 4060.

A. D. 56. A. U. C. 809. and Anno linp. Ne

b

27 But I keep ụnder my body, || have preached to others, I myself A M.1.1960.

bring it into subjection : | should be a cast-away. ronis Cres. 3. lest that by any means, when I

A. U.C. 809. Anno Imp. Ne ronis Cæs. 3.

a Rom. 8. 13. Col. 3. 5.- Rom. 6. 18, 19.

c Jer. 6. 30. 2 Cor. 13. 5, 6.

Abduxere retro longè capita ardua ab ictu ;
Immiscentque manus manibus, pugnamque lacessunt.
Ille, [Dares pedum melior motu, fretusque juventa;
Ilic, [Entellus] membris et mole valens; sed tarda trementi
Genua labant, vustos quatit ager anhelilus artus.
Multa viri nequicquam inter se vulnera jactant,
Multa cavo lateri ingeminant, et pectore vasto
Dant sonitus ; erratque aures et tempora circum
Crebra manus ; duro crepitant sub vulnere malæ.
Stat gravis Entellus, nisuque immotus codem,
Corpore tela modò atque oculis vigilantibus exit.
Ille, velut celsam oppugnat qui molibus urbem,
Aut montana sedet circum castella sub armis ;
Nunc hos, nunc illos aditus, omnemquc pererrut
Arte locum, et variis assultibus irritus urget.
Ostendit dextram insurgens Entellus, et alte
Extulit: ille ictum venientem à vertice velox
Prævidit, celerique elapsus corpore cessit.
Entellus viRES IN VENTUM EFFUDIT ; et ultro
Ipse gravis, graviterque ad terram pondere vasto
Concidit : ut quondam cava concidit, aut Erymantho,
Aut Idú in magna, radicibus eruta pinus.---
Consurgunt studüs Teucri et Trinacria pubes ;
It clamor cælo: primusque accurrit Acestes,
Equævumque ab humo miserans attollit amicum.
At non tardatus casu, neque territus heros,
Acrior ad pugnam redit, ac vim suscitat iru:
Tum pudor incendit vires, et conscia virtus ;
Præcipitemque Daren ardens agit æquore toto;
Nunc dextrâ ingeminans ictus, nunc ille sinistra.
Nec mora, nec requies : quàm multa grandine nimbi

Culminibus crepitant ; sic densis ictibus heros
Creber utraque manu pulsut versatque Dareta.

A storm of strokes well meant, with fury fies,
And errs about their temples, ears, and eyes:
Nor always errs; for oft the gauntlet draws
A sweepivg stroke along the crackling jaws.

Iloary with age, Entellus stands his ground;
But with his warping body wards the wound;
His head and watchful eye keep even pace,
While Dares traverses, and shifts his place;
And like a captain who beleaguers round
Some strong built castle, on a rising ground;
Views all the approaches, with observing eyes,
This, and that other part, in vain he tries;
And more on industry than force relies.
With hands on high, Entellus threats the foe;
But Dares watch'd the motion from below,
And slipp'd aside, and shund the long descending blow.)
Entellus wastes his forces on the wind;
And thus deluded of the stroke designed,
Ileadlong, and heavy fell: his ample breast,
And weighty limbs, his ancient mother press'd.
So falls a hollow pine, that long had stood
On Ida's height, or Erymanthus' wood.-
Dauntless he rose, and to the fight returned,
With shame his cheeks, his eyes with fury burnd :
Disdain and conscious virtue fir'd his breast,
And, with redoubled force, his foe he press'd;
He lays on loads with either hand amain,
Aud headlong drives the Trojan o'er the plain,
Nor stops, nor stays ; nor rest, nor breath allows;
But storms of strokes descend about his brows;
A rattling tempest, and a hail of blows.

Dryden.

Both on the tiptoe stand, at full extent ;
Their arms aloft, their bodies inly bent ;
Their heads from aiming blows, they bear afar,
With clashing gauntlets then provoke the war.
One [Dares) on his youth and pliant limbs relies;
One [Entellus] on his sinews, and his giant size.
The last is stiff with age, his motions slow;
He heaves for breath, he staggers to and fro..
Yet equal in success, they ward, they strike;
Their ways are different, but their art alike.
Before, behind, the blows are dealt; around
Their hollow sides, the rattling thumps resound.

To such a combat as this the apostle most manifestly alludes : and, in the above description, the Reader will see the full force and meaning of the words, so fight I, not as one that beateth the air : I have a real and a deadly foe; and, as I fight not only for my honour but for my life, I aim every blow well, and do execution with each.

No man, who had not seen such a fight, could have given such a description as that above : and we may fairly presume that when Virgil was in Greece, he saw such a contest at the Isthmian games; and therefore was enabled to paint from nature.

Homer has the same image of missing the foe and beating the air, when describing Achilles attempting to kill Hector;

General observations

CHAP. IX.

on the preceding chapter.

who, by his agility and skill, (Poeticè by Apollo,) eluded | He who does nothing for the cause of God and religion, and the blow:

yet obliges the church to support him, and minister to his Τρις μεν επειτ' επορουσε ποδαρκης διος Αχιλλεύς

idleness, irregularities, luxury, avarice and ambition, is a

monster, for whom human language has not yet got a name. Εγχει χαλκειω, τρις δ ηερα τυψε βαθειαν

ILIAD. lib. xx. ver. 445.

2. Those who refuse the labourer his hire, are condemned

by God, and by good men. How liberal are many to public Thrice struck Pelides with indignant heart,

places of amusement, or to some popular charity, where their Thrice, in impassive air, he plunged the dart. Pope. I names are sure to be published abroad ; while the man who

watches over their souls, is fed with the most parsimonious Verse 27. But I keep under my body, &c.] This is an hand! Will not God abate this pride, and reprove this hardallusion not only to boxers, but also to wrestlers in the same heartedness? games; as we may learn from the word uTWT15W, which sig 3. As the husbandman plows and sows in hope, and the nifies to hit in the eyes ; and Ecuadaywywo, which signifies to || God of Providence makes him a partaker of his hope ; let trip, and give the antagonist a fall, and then keep him down the upright preachers of God's word take example and enwhen he was down; and, having obliged him to acknowledge couragement by him. Let them labour in hope; God will himself conquered, make him a sluve. The apostle considers not permit them to spend their strength for nought. Though his body as an enemy with which he must contend; he must much of their seed, through the fault of the bad ground, mortify it by self-denial, abstinence, and severe labour; it may be unfruitful; yet some will spring up unto eternal life. must be the slave of his soul, and not the soul the slave of 4. St. Paul became all things to all men, that he might the body; which, in all unregenerate men, is the case. gain all. This was not the effect of a fickle or man-pleasing

Lest-having preached to others] The word xypučas, disposition; no man was ever of a more firm or decided which we translate huving preached, refers to the office of character than St. Paul : but, whenever he could, with a the xmpug, or herald at these games, whose business it was to good conscience, yield so as to please his neighbour, for his proclaim the conditions of the games, display the prizes, | good to edification, he did so; and his yielding disposition exhort the combatants, excite the emulation of those who was a proof of the greatness of his soul. The unyielding were to contend, declare the terms of each contest, pro- || and obstinate mind, is always a little mind : a want of true nounce the name of the victors, and put the crown on their greatness always produces obstinacy and peevishness. Such heads. See my observations on this office in the Notes at the || a person as St. Paul is a blessing wherever he goes : on the end of Matth. ii.

contrary, the obstinate, hoggish man, is either a general Should be a cast-away.] The word adoriuos signifies such curse, or a general cross : and if a preacher of the gospel, a person as the Beacsutki, or judges of the games, reject as his is a burthensome ministry. Reader, let me ask thee a not having deserved the prize. So Paul himself might be re- question : If there be no gentleness in thy manners, is there jected by the Great Judge; and, to prevent this, he run, he any in thy heart? If there be little of Christ without, can contended, he denied himself, and brought his body into sub- there be much of Christ within ? jection to his spirit, and had his spirit governed by the Spirit 5. A few general observations on the Grecian Games may of God. Had this heavenly man lived in our days, he would, || serve to recapitulate the subject in the four last verses. by a certain class of people, have been deemed a legalist; a 1. The Isthmian games were celebrated among the Corinpeople who widely differ from the practice of the apostle; for thians; and therefore the apostle addresses them, ver. 24. they are conformed to the world, and they feed themselves KNOW ye not, &c. without fear.

2. Of the five games there used, the apostle speaks only On the various important subjects in this chapter I have of three, running, ver. 23. they which run in a race; and already spoken in great detail ; not, indeed, all that might | ver. 26. I therefore so run, not as uncertainly. WRESTLING, be said, but as much as is necessary. A few general ob- ver. 25. every man that striveth; o aywwi boulevos, he who servations will serve to recapitulate and impress what has wrestleth. Boxing, ver. 26, 27. so fight I, not as one that been already said.

beateth the air; GuTW TIUXTEUW, so fist I, so I hit ; but I keep

my body under ; UTWTiağw, I hit in the eye, I make the face 1. St. Paul contends that a preacher of the gospel has a black and blue. right to his support : and he has proved this from the law, 3. He who won the race by running, was to observe the from the gospel, and from the common sense and consent of || laws of racing; keeping within the white line, which marked men. If a man who does not labour, takes his maintenance | out the path or compass in which they ran; and he was also to from the church of God, it is not only a domestic theft, but outrun the rest, and to come first to the goal : otherwise, he a sacrilege. He that gives up his time to this labour, has a ran uncertainly, ver. 24, 26. and was adoxipos, one to whom right to the support of himself and family : he who takes the prize could not be judged by the judges of the games, more than is sufficient for this purpose, is a covetous hireling. 4. The athletic combatants, or wrestlers, observed a set

2

General observations on

I. CORINTHIANS.

the preceding chapter.

diet : see the quotation from Epictetus, under ver. 25. And | crown, while he and his fellow-Christians expected a crown this was a regimen both for quantity and quality : and they incorruptible and immortal, and that could not fade away. carefully abstained from all things that might render them 8. On the subject of the possibility of St. Paul becoming less able for the combat : whence the apostle says they were a cast-away, much has been said in contradiction to his own temperate in all things, ver. 25.

words : He most absolutely states the possibility of the 5. No person who was not of respectable family and con case : and who has a right to call this in question? The nections was permitted to be a competitor at the Olympic | ancient Greek commentators, as Whitby has remarked, have games. St. Chrysostom, in whose time these games were still || made a good use of the apostle's saying, E. de llaudos TOUTO celebrated, assures us that no man was suffered to enter the dedolxev, Ó TOOCUTOUS di dažas, to ar ELTE OBLEV quels ; “ If Paul, lists who was either a servant or a slave, ouders aywri ÇETAI so great a man, one who had preached and laboured so δουλος, ουδεις τρατευεται οικετης" And if any such was much, dreaded this, what cause have we to fear lest this found who had got himself inserted on the military list, his should befal us?” name was erased, and he was expelled and punished. Ara 9. On the necessity of being workers together with God, εαν αλω δουλος ων, μετα τιμοριας εκβαλλεται του της σρατιω- | in order to avoid apostasy, Clemens Alexandrinus has some Twx naranoyou. To prevent any person of bad character useful observations in his Stromata, lib. vii. pag. 448, from entering the lists at the Olympic games, the Kerux, or

Edit. Oberthur-125 de, says he, o fatpos üyelay Traceyerah herald, was accustomed to proclaim aloud in the theatre, τους συνεργoυσι προς υγειαν, ουτως και ο Θεος την αιδιον when the combatant was brought forth, Μη τις τουτου κατη σωτηρίαν τους συνεργoυσι προς γνωσιν τε και ευπραγειαν γορει; ωςε αυτον αποσκευασαμενον της δουλειας την υποψιαν “ As a physician gives health to those who co-operate with OUTWS Els tous aywvas eu byvau : Who can accuse this man? || him in their cure ; so God also gives eternal salvation to For which he gives this reason; “ that, being free from all them who are workers together with him in knowledge and suspicion of being in a state of slavery, (and elsewhere he || a godly life.” “ Therefore," says he, “it is well said says of being a thief, or of corrupt morals,) he might enter | among the Greeks, that when a certain wrestler, who had the lists with credit." Chrysost. Homil. in Inscript. Altaris, | long inured his body to manly exercises, was going to the &c. vol. iii. pag. 59. Edit. Benedict.

Olympic games, as he was passing by the statue of Jupiter, 6. The boxers used to prepare themselves by a sort of | he offered up this prayer, Eu Tarta, w Zev, dEQYTWS LLOI TA TfO σκιομαχια, Or going through all their postures of defence, τον αγωνα παρεσκευασαι, αποδος φερων δικαιως την νικην εμοι and attack, when no adversary was before them. This was 50 Jupiter, if I have performed every thing as I ought, in termed beating the air, ver. 26. but when such came to the reference to this contest, grant me the victory!'” May we combat, they endeavoured to blind their adversaries by | not feel something of this spirit in seeking the kingdom of hitting them in the eye, which is the meaning of unwTIAÇELY, | God? And can any thing of this kind be supposed to de as we have seen under ver. 27.

rogate from the glory of Christ ? St. Paul himself says, if 7. The rewards of all these exercises were only a crown a man contend for the mastery, yet is he not crowned er. made of the leaves of some plant, or the bough of some cept he strive lawfully. Shall we pretend to be wiser than tree; the olide, bay, laurel, parsley, &c. called here by the the apostle, and say, that we may gain the crown, though we apostle çfaçtoy otscavov, a corruptible, withering, and fuding Il neither fight the good fight, nor finish the course ?

CHAPTER X. Peculiar circumstances in the Jewish history were typical of the greatest mysteries of the gospel; particularly

their passing through the Red Sea, and being overshadowed with the miraculous cloud, 1, 2. The manna with which they were fed, 3. And rock out of which they drank, 4. The punishments inflicted on them for their disa obedience, are warnings to us, 5. We should not lust as they did, 6. Nor commit idolatry, 7. Nor fornication as they did; in consequence of which twenty-three thousand of them were destroyed, 8. Nor tempt Christ as they did, 9. Nor murmur, 10. All these transgressions, and their punishments, are recorded as warnings to us, that we may not fall away from the grace of God, 11, 12. God never suffers any to be tempted above their strength, 13. Idolatry must be detested, 14. And the Sacrament of the Lord's Supper properly cone sidered and taken, that God may not be provoked to punish us, 15—22. There are some things which may be

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legally done which are not expedient; and we should endearour so to acl as to edify each other, 23, 24. The question concerning eating things offered to idols, considered, and finally settled, 25—30. Ile should do all things to the glory of God, avoid whatsoever might be the means of stumbling ancther, and sock the profit of others in spiritual matters, rather than our own gratification, 31-33. A. M. 4060.

OREOVER, brethren, I would 3 And did all eat the same spiritual

not that Anno Imp. Ne

, ye

Anno Imp. Neronis l'ès. 3. how that all our father's were under 4 And did all drink the same "spiri- ronis Cæs. 3. the cloud, and all passed through the sea ; tual drink : (for they drank of that spiritual

2 And were all baptized unto Moses in the rock that e followed them: and that rock was cloud and in the sea ;

Christ.)

A. D. 56. A. U. C. 809,

Mmtihat ve should be ignorant, meat ;

A. M. 4060.

A. D. 56. A. U. C. 809.

* Exod. 13. 21. & 40. 31. Num. 9. 18. & 14. 14. Deut. 1. 33. Neh. 9. 19, 19. Ps. 78. 14. & 105. 39.-- Exod. 14. 22. Num. 33. 8. Josh. 4. 23. Ps. 78. 13.

• Exod, 16. 15, 35. Neh. 9. 15, 20. Ps. 78. 21.-- Exod. 17. 6. Num. 20. 11. P:, 78. 15.- Or, went with then. Deut, 9, 21. Po. 105. 41.

NOTES ON CHAP. X.

tized into Christ, and are thereby brought under obliga. Verse 1. I would not that ye should be ignorunt] It seems tion to keep the precepts of the Gospel. as if the Corinthians had supposed that their being made par Verse 3. Spiritual meat] The manna which is here called takers of the ordinances of the gospel, such as baptism and spiritual. 1. Because it was provided supernaturally ; and, the Lord's supper, would secure their salvation; notwith 2. because it was a type of Christ Jesus, who speaking of it, standing they might be found partaking of idolatrous feasts; John vi. 31, &c. tells us that it was a type of that true bread as long, at least, as they considered an idol to be nothing in which came down from heaven, which gives life to the world, the world. To remove this destructive supposition which v. 33. and that himself was the bread of life, v. 48. would have led them to endless errors, both in principle and Verse 4. Spiritual drink] By the Gowa Trybuuatixov, practice; the apostle shews that the Jews had sacramental or- || spiritual meat, and Trou Q TTVEUL QTIXov, spiritual drink; the dinances in the wilderness, similar to those of the Christians; || apostle certainly means both meat and drink, which were and that notwithstanding they had the typical baptism from furnished to the Israelitish assembly miraculously, as well as the cloud, and the typical eucharist from the paschal lamb, typically: and he appears to borrow his expressions from the and the manna that came down from heaven; yet when they Jews themselves, who expressly say "3917 iso onba halechem joined with idolaters, and partook of idolatrous feasts, God halaz rucheni, that bread was spiritual, and 17 D"3717 D"

p3 was not only displeased with them, but signified this dis- | meyim rucheniyim haiu, the waters were spiritual. Alschech pleasure by pouring out his judgments upon them ; so that in legem, fol. 238. to which opinion the apostle seems parin one day 23,000 of them were destroyed.

ticularly to refer. See Schoettgen. Under the cloud] It is manifest from scripture that the The spiritual rock that followed them] There is some difmiraculous cloud in the wilderness performed a three-fold of- ficulty in this verse. How could the rock follow them ? fice to the Israelites. 1. It was a cloud in the form of a pil- it does not appear that the rock ever moved from the place lar to direct their journeyings by day. 2. It was a pillar of where Moses struck it. But to solve this difficulty, it is said, fire to give light to the camp by night. 3. It was a cover that rock here is put by metonymy, for the water of the rock; ing for them during the day, and preserved them from the and that this water did follow them through the wilderness. scorching rays of the sun, and supplied them with a suffi- This is more likely; but we have not direct proof of it. The ciency of aqueous particles, not only to cool that burning at ancient Jews, however, were of this opinion, and state that mosphere, but to give refreshment to themselves and their the streams followed them in all their journeyings, up the cattle ; and its humidity was so abundant, that the apostle mountains, down the vallies, &c. &c. and that when they here represents the people as thoroughly sprinkled and en

came to encamp, the waters formed themselves into cisterns, veloped in its aqueous vapour. See the note on Exodus | and pools, and that the rulers of the people guided them by xiii. 21.

their staves in rivulets to the different tribes and families; Verse 2. And were all baptized unto Moses] Rather and this is the sense they give to Num. xxi. 16. Spring up, O INTO Moses, into the covenant of which Moses was the me. | well, &c. See the places in Schoettgen. diator; and by this typical baptism, they were brought un Others contend that by the rock following them, we are der the obligation of acting according to the Mosaic precepts, to understand their having carried of its waters with them, as Christians receiving Christian baptism, are said to be bap. ll on their journeyings. This we know is a common custom

Transgressions and punishments

I: CORINTHIANS.

of the ancient Jews

ronis Cæs. 3.

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5 But with many of them God was 7 ^ Neither be ye idolaters, as were A.M. 4060. A. D. 56. A.U. C. 809.

not well pleased: for they were over- some of them; as it is written, The A. U.C.SO.. Anno Imp. Ne

Anno Imp. Neronis Cæs. 3. thrown in the wilderness.

people sat down to eat and drink, 6 Now these things were our examples, to and rose up to play. the intent we should not lust after evil things, 8 Neither let us commit fornication, as as they also lusted.

some of them committed, and fell in one

Jude 5.

d Ver. 14.-e Exod. 32. 6.

Num. 14. 29, 32, 35. & 26. 64, 65. Ps. 106. 26. Hebr. 3. 17.

+ Gr. our figures.- Numb. 11. 4, 33, 34. Ps. 106. 14.

_ch. 6. 18. Rev. 2. 14.
Ps. 106. 29.

Num. 25. 1,9.

gen.

in these desarts to the present day ; and that the Greek verb | Christianity. The apostle shews them that their sin was of amoacusaw, to follow, has this sense, Bishop Pearce has am- | the same nature as that of the murmuring rebellious Israelply proved in his note on this place. The Jews suppose that ites, whom God so severely punished ; and if he did not the rock itself went with the Israelites, and was present with spare the natural branches, there was no likelihood that he them in their thirty-eight stations, for only so many are men- should spare them. tioned. See Alschech in legem, fol. 236. And see Schoett Verse 7. Neither be ye idolaters] The apostle consi.

ders partaking of the idolatrous feasts, as being real acts of Now, though of all the senses already given, that of idolatry ; because those who offered the flesh to their gods, Bishop Pearce is the best ; yet it does appear that the apostle' considered them as feeding invisibly with them, on the flesh does not speak about the rock itself; but of him whom it repre. thus offered; and that every one that partook of the feast, sented, namely Christ : this was the rock that followed them, was a real participator with the god to whom the flesh or and ministered to them; and this view of the subject is ren- | animal had been offered in sacrifice. See ver. 21. dered more probable by what is said ver. 9. that they tempt Rose up to play.] See the note on Exod. xxxii. 6. The ed Christ, and were destroyed by serpents.

Jews generally explain this word, as implying idolatrous Verse 5. They were overthrown in the wilderness] And acts only-I have considered it as implying acts of impurity yet all these persons were under the cloud-All passed with which idolatrous acts were often accompanied. It also through the seaAll were baptized into Moses in the cloud, means those dances which were practised in honour of their and in the seuall ate the same spiritual meat-- all drank gods. That this is one meaning of the verb TasČELY, Kypke bas the same spiritual drink, for they were made partakers of the largely proved. The whole idolatrous process was as follows. spiritual rock Christ. Nothing can be a more decisive 1. The proper victim was prepared and set apart. 2. It was proof than this, that people who have every outward ordi- ' slain, and its blood poured out at the altar of the deity. 3. The dance, and are made partakers of the grace of our Lord flesh was dressed, and the priests and offerers feasted on it, Jesus, may so abuse their privileges and grieve the Spirit of and thus endeavoured to establish a communion between God, as to fall from their state of grace, and perish ever themselves and the object of their worship. 4. After eating, lastingly. Let those who are continually asserting that this they had idolatrous dances in honour of their god : and, 5. as is impossible, beware lest they themselves, if in a state of might be expected, impure mixtures, in consequence of those grace, become not, through their overmuch security, proofs dances. The people sat down to eat and to drink, and rose in point of the possibility of ending in the flesh, though they up to play; and it is in reference to this issue of idolatrous began in the spirit Reader, remember who said, Ye shall feasts and dancings, that the apostle immediately subjoins, not surely die ; and remember the mischiefs produced by a Neither let us commit FORNICATION, &c. belief of his doctrine.

Verse 8. Fell in one day three and twenty thousand] Verse 6. These things were our examples] The punish. In Numb. xxv. 9. the number is 24,000; and, allewing this ments which God inflicted on them, furnish us with evi- to be the genuine reading, and none of the Hebrew MSS. dences of what God will inflict upon us, if we sin after the exhibits any various reading in the place, Moses and the similitude of those transgressors.

apostle may be thus reconciled : in Numb. xxv. 4. God cosWe should not lust after evil things] It is most evident mands Moses to take all the heads, (the rulers,) of the pes that the apostle refers here to the history in Num. xi. 4, &c. ple, and hang them up before the Lord against the sur; and the mixed multitude fell a lusting, and said, Who shall these possibly amounted to 1000; and those who fell by the give us flesh to eat. Into the same spirit the Corinthians had plague were 23,000, so that the whole amounted to 24,000 most evidently fallen; they lusted after the flesh in the idol Instead of eixosITpEis gestrades, 23,000, two MSS. with the feasts, and therefore frequented them to the great scandal of latter Syriac and the Armenien, have fixosiTEOFAFES Zavading

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