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of eating thing's

I. CORINTHIANS.

offered to idols.

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knoweth any thing, he knoweth no 4 As concerning therefore the eatAU. C. 809: thing yet as he ought to know. Anno Imp.

ing of those things that are of. A.U.C.619 3 But if any man love God, a the fered in sacrifice unto idols, we same is known of him.

know that "an idol is nothing in the world,

Anno Imp. Ve ronis Cas 3.

ronis Cas. 3.

a Exod. 33. 12, 17. Nah. 1. 7. Matt. 7. 23. Gal. 4. 9. 2 Tim. 2. 19.

Isai. 41. 24. ch. 10. 19.

common use.

point of difference between these two sects. The Karaïtes however the words may be understood as to their origin, totally objected to every thing used in idolatrous services : they contain a general truth, as they relate to Christians of the Traditionists, as the Talmud shews, did generally the those times, and may be thus paraphrased : “ All we who same; but it appears that they scrupled not to use any ani are converted to God, by Christ, have sufficient knowledge mal employed in idolatrous worship, provided they did not concerning idols and idol worship; and we know also the see the sign of the idol on it. Now, the sign of the idol liberty which we have through the gospel, not being bound must be that placed on the animal previously to its being sa- by Jewish laws, rites, ceremonies, &c. but many carry crificed; such as gilded horns and hoofs, consecrated fillets, their knowledge in this liberty too far, and do what is gurlands, &c. And, as after it had been sacrificed, and its neither seemly nor convenient, and thus give ofience to flesh exposed for sale in the shambles, it could bear none of others.” these signs, we may take it for granted that the Jews might Knowledge puffeth up, but charily edificth.] This know. think it lawful to buy and eat this flesh : this the Karurle ledge is very nearly allied to pride ; it pufjeth up the mind would most solemnly scruple. It may be just necessary to with vain conceit, makes those who have it bold and rasli, state here, that it was customary, after the blood and life of ' and renders them careless of the consciences of others. And an animal had been offered in sacrifice to an idol, to sell the this knowledge boasted of by the Corinthians, led them to flesh in the market indiscriminately, with that of other ani- contemn others; for so the word quossi is understood by mals, which had not been sacrificed ; but merely killed for some eminent critics.

Even the less scrupulous Jews, knowing that Verse 2. He knoweth nothing yet, &c.] The person who any particular flesh had been thus offered would abhor the acts in this rash unfeeling way, from the general knowledge use of it: and, as those who lived among the Gentiles as the which he has of the vanity of idolatry, and the liberty Jews at Corinth, must know that this was a common case ; which the gospel affords from Jewish rites; with all his hence they would be generally scrupulous ; and those of knowledge, does not know this, that though the first and them that were converted to Christianity, would have their greatest commandment says, Thou shalt love the Lord thy scruples increased, and be as rigid on this point as the God with all thy heurt, &c. yet the second is like unto it, Karaïtes themselves. On the other hand, those of the Gen- Thou shalt lore thy neighbour as thyself. He then that can tiles, who had received the faith of Christ, knowing that torment his neighbour's weak or tender conscience, with his an idol was nothing in the world, nor was evea a representa-food or his conduct, does not love him as himself; and tion of any thing, (for the beings represented by idol images therefore knows nothing as he ought to know. were purely imaginury.) made no scruple to buy and eat the Verse 3. But if any man love God]

In that way Aesh as they used to do, though not with the same intention : which the commandment requires, which will necessarily for, when in their heathen state, they ate the flesh offered to beget love to his neighbour, the same is known of him; is idols, they ate it as a feast with the idol, and were thus sup- approved of God, and acknowledged as his genuine folposed to have communion with the idol ; which was the lower. grossest idolatry.

Verse 4. Things that are offered in sacrifice] See on From these observations, it will at once appear, that much the first verse. misunderstanding and offence must have existed in the Corin An idol is nothing in the world] Dr. Lightfoot translates thian church; the converted Jews abominating every thing that this, we know that there is no idol in the world; which he they kuew had been used in the heathen worship; while the explains thus--Erownoy idol, ομοίωμα, είκής σημείο, converted Gentiles, for the reasons above assigned, would 79.cax7700V, CXIosides; a likeness, an image, a sign, a cha fcel no scruple on the account.

racter, a shadow : now, wudsy sodwzor, signifies there is no We know that we all have knowledge] I am inclined to idol, no representation of God in the world. Images there think that these are not St. Paul's words; but a quotation are of stone, wood, and metal, but none of these is any refrom the letter of the Corinthians to him : and a proof of presentation of the infinite Spirit. But I prefer the meaning what the apostle says below, knotcledge puffeth up: but given in the note on verse 1. As the expression an idol is

is

of ealing things

CHAP. VIII.

offered to idols.

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of the idol. unto this hour cat it A.U. c. 8.9. Anno Imp. Ne

Anno Imp. Ne 5 For, though there be that are as a thing offered unto an idol ; ronis Cæs. S. "called gods, whether in heaven or in earth, and their conscience being weak is 'defiled. (as there be gods many, and lords many,)

8 But kmeat commendeth us not to God : for 6 But, to us there is but one God, the Fa-neither, if we eat, are we the better ; neither ther, d of whom are all things, and we in him; if we eat not, are we the worse. and 'one Lord Jesus Christ, 5 by whom are all 9 But "take heed, lest by any means this ° liberthings, and we by him.

ty of yours become 'a stumblingblock to them 7 Howbeit, there is not in every man that that are weak.

m

& Dent. 4. $9. & 6. 4. Isai. 44. 8. Mark 12. 29. ver. 6. Eph. 4. 6. 1 Ch. 10. 28, 29. Rom. 14. 14, 23. Rom. 14. 17.- Or, hare 1 Tim. 2. 5. John 10. 31. c Mal. 2. 10. Eph. 4. 6. & Acts we the more. -- Or, have we the less. - Gal. 5. 13.- Or, power. 17. 28. Rom. 11. 36. Le Or, for him.-- John 13. 13. Acts 2. 36. " Roin. 11, 13, 20. ch. 12. 3. Eph. 4. 5. Phil. 2. II. - John 1. 3. Col. 1. 6. Heb. 1. 2.

nothing in the world, was common in the Old Testament, an idol is nothing in the world; for some with a conscience of and among the Jews; and was understood by them in this the idol, viz. that it is something, eat it; the flesh that was way : they are not onze Elohim, the true God; but they offered to the idol, as a thing thus offered, considering the are Disegno nothings, and disan hubelim, vanity.

feast as a sacred banquet, by which they have fellowship with Verse 5. There be that are called gods] There are many : the idol.

the idol. And their conscience being weak, not properly inimages that are supposed to be representations of divinities;structed in divine things, is defiled: he performs what he but these divinities are nothing; the figments of mere does as an act of religious worship, and thus his conscience fancy ; and these images have no corresponding realities. contracts guilt through this idolatry.

Whether in heuven or in earth] As the sun, moon, planets, As in the commencement of Christianity among the Jews stars; the ocean, rivers, trees, 8c. And thus there are, no that were converted, there were many found who incorpominally, gods many and lords muny.

rated the rites of the law with the principles of the gospel; Verse 6. But, to us there is but one God, the Father]. so, doubtless, among the Gentiles there were several who Who produced all things, himself un-created, and un-origin- did not at once throw aside all their idolatry or idolatrous ated. And we in him, xai quets Ei5 AUTO%, and we for him ; l notions, but preserved some of its more spiritual and imposall intelligent beings having been created for the purpose of ing parts, and might thirik it necessary to mingle idolatrous manifesting his glory, by receiving and reflecting his wisdom, feasts with the rites of Christianity---as the sacrament of the goodness, and truth.

Lord's supper was certainly considered as a feast upon a saAnd one Lord Jesus] Only one visible governor of the crifice, as I have proved in my Discourse on the Nature and world and the church ; by whom are all things: who was Design of the Eucharist : as the minds of many of these the Creator, as he is the upholder of the Universe. And youngGentile converts could not, as yet, have been deeply enae by him, being brought to the knowledge of the true God, i dued with spiritual knowledge, they might incorporate these by the revelation of Jesus Christ; for, it is the only be feasts, and confound their nature and properties. gotten Son alone that can reveal the Father. The gods of Verse 8. Meut commendeth us not to God] No such feasts whom the apostle speaks, were their divinities, or objects of as these can be a recommendation of our souls or persons to religious worship; the lords were the rulers of the world, the Supreme Being. As to the thing, considered in itself, such as emperors, who were considered next to gods, and the eating gives us no spiritual advantage; and the eating some of them were deified. In opposition to those gods he not, is no spiritual loss. places God the Father, the fountain of plenitude and being : Verse 9. But take heed] Lest by frequenting such feasts, and in opposition to the lords, he places Jesus Christ, who and eating things offered to idols, under the conviction that made and who governs all things. We, as creatures, live in an idol is nothing, and that you may eat those things inno. reference, Els Avtor to him, God the Father, who is the foun- cently; lest this liberty of yours should become a means of tain of our being: and, as Christians, we live fi' autou, by grievously offending a weak brother, who has not your or through him, Jesus Christ; by whom we are bought, en knowledge; or inducing one, who respects you for your sulightened, pardoned, and saved.

perior knowledge, to partake of these things with the conVerse 7. There is not in every man that knozledgc] This science, the persuasion and belief that an idol is something, s spoken in reference to what is said, ver. 4. We know that and you partake of such things, so he may also, and with

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We must not cause a

I. CORINTHIANS.

weak brother to stumble

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10 For, if any man see thee which 12 But, when ye sio so against the A. M. 4000. A: 0.160.80% hast knowledge sit at meat in “ the brethren, and wound their weak con

Anno Imp. Ne ronis Cæs. 3. idol's temple, shall not "the conscience science, ye sin against Christ. of him which is weak be emboldened to eat 13 Wherefore, 'if meat make my brother to those things which are offered to idols; offend, I will eat no flesh while the world stand

11 And through thy knowledge shall the eth, lest I make my brother to offend. weak brother perish, for whom Christ died?

a 1 Mac. 1. 47.ch. 10. 26, 32. - Gr. edified. Rom. 14. 15, 20.

• Matt. 25. 40, 45.Rom. 14.21. 2 Cor. 11. 29.

сот.

safety. He is not possessed of your superior information on Verse 12. But, when ye sin so against the brethren] this point, and he eats to the idol, what you take as Against Christians, who are called by the gospel to abhor and mon meal.

detest all such abominations. Verse 10. If any man sec thee which hast knowledge] Of Ye sin against Christ.] By sending to perdition, through the true God, and who art reputed for thy skill in divine your bad example, a soul for whom he shed his blood; and things.

so far defeating the gracious intentions of his sacrificial death. Sit at meat in the idol's temple] Is it not strange that any, | This is a farther intimation, that a person for whom Christ professing the knowledge of the true God, should even enter died, may perish ; and this is the drift of the apostle's ar. one of those temples! And is it not more surprising that gument. any Christian should be found to feast there ? But by all Verse 13. Wherefore, &c.] Rather than give any occathis we may see, that the boasted knowledge of the Corinthi- | sion to a Christian to sin against, and so to harden his conans had very little depth in things purely spiritual.

science that he should return to idolatry and perish; I would There are many curious, thin-span theories in the Rabbin- not only abstain from all meats offered to idols, but I would ical writings, concerning entering idol-temples and eating eat no flesh, should I exist through the whole course of time, there, and even worshipping there; providing the mind be but live on the herbs of the field, rather than cause my brotowards the true God. Dr. Lightfoot produces several quo-ther to stumble, and thus fall into idolatry and final ruin. tations to prove this. Perhaps the man of knowledge men The following words of Origen contain a very solemn les tioned by the apostle, was one of those who, possessing a son and warning-“If we did more diligently attend to these convenient conscience, could accommodate himself to all cir- things, we should avoid sinning against our brethren, and cumstances : be a heathen without, and a Christian within, wounding their weak conscience, that we might not sin and vice versa, as circumstances might require.

against Christ; our brethren that are among us, for whom Be emboldened to eat] Oixodour, Sretai, be built up, be Christ died, often perishing, not only by our knowledge, confirmed and established in that opinion which before he' but by many other ways, and things, in which things, wey doubtingly held, that on seeing you eat, he may be led to sinning against Christ, shall suffer punishment; the souls of think there is no harm in feasting in an idol-temple, nor in them that perish by us, being required of, and avenged upon eating things offered to idols.

See Whitby on this place. Verse 11. Shall the weak brother perish] Being first taught by thy conduct that there was no harm in thus eating, 1. The greater our reputation for knowledge and sanctity, grieves the Spirit of God, becomes again darkened and hard- the greater mischief we shall do by our influence and es. ened; and sliding back into idolatry, dies in it, and so fi- ample, if we turn aside from the holy commandment delinally perishes.

vered unto us. Every man should walk so as either to light For whom Christ died. So we learn that a man may pe or lead his brother to heaven. rish for whom Christ died—This admits of no quibble. If 2. It is the duty of every Christian to watch against aposa man, for whom Christ died, apostatising from Christianity, tasy in his own case, and to prevent it as much as possible for he is called a brother though weak, return again to and die in that of others. That a person for whom Christ died may in idolatry, cannot go to heaven ; then a man for whom finally perish, is strongly argued, says Dr. Whitby, from Christ died, may perish everlastingly. And if it were possi- i this place, and Rom. xiv. 15. for here the apostle dissuades ble for a believer, whether strong or weak, to retrace his the Corinthians from scandalizing their weak brethren, by steps back to idolatry and die in it, surely it is possible for an argument taken from the irreparable mischiefs they may a man who had escaped the pollutions that are in the world do them, the eternal ruin they may bring upon them by this to return to it, live and die in its spirit, and perish everlast- scandal ; whereas, if it be, as some assert, that all things, ingly also. Let him that readeth understand.

even the sins of the elect, shall work together for their good,

us.”

Concluding observations on

CHAP. IX.

the preceding chapter.

and that they shull never perish; if the apostle knew, and extensive knowledge is not given to all, yet it is given for taught this doctrine to them, why does he endeavour to af- || all; and is the public property of the church. He who does fright them from this scandal, by telling them that it might not use it for general edification, robs the public of its right. have that effect, which he had before told them was impossi- || For the misuse and misapplication of this talent, we shall ble? Jf you interpret his words thus, so shall he perish, || give account to God, as well as of other gifts and graces. for whom in charity, ye ought to judge Christ died. It is 4. Persons of an over-tender and scrupulous conscience, certain, from this doctrine, that they must be assured that may be very troublesome in a Christian society; but as this this judgment of charity must be fulse ; or that their brother | excessive scrupulosity comes from want of more light, more could not perish. In the first place, they could not be experience, or more judgment, we should bear with them. obliged to act by it: and in the second, they could not ra- Though such should often run into ridiculous extremes, yet tionally be moved by it to abstain from giving scandal on we must take care that we do not attempt to cure them either that impossible supposition.

with ridicule or wrath. Extremes generally beget exIf you interpret the apostle thus, So shalt thou do that | tremes ; and such persons require the most judicious treat. which, in its nature, tends to make thy brother perish; and ment, else they will soon be stumbled and turned out of the might have that effect, had not God determined to preserve way. We should be very careful lest in using what is called all from perishing, for whom Christ died. Since this deter Christian liberty, we occasion their fall; and for our own mination renders it sure to me, who know it, that they can sake we must take heed that we do not denominate sinful innot actually perish, it must assure me that there can be no dulgences Christian liberties. cause of abstinency from this scandal, lest they should pe 5. Though we are bound to take heed that we put not a rish by it.

stumbling block in the way of a weak brother; yet if such Moreover, by thus offending, saith the apostle, ye sin a brother be stumbled at any part of our conduct which is against Christ; viz. by signing against him whom he has not blameable in itself, but of which he may have taken a purchased by his blood ; and destroying them for whose sal- | wrong view; we are not answerable for the consequences. vation he has suffered. If this intent of Christ's death be We called to walk by the testimony of God; not accorddenied, how can we shew in what Christ has demonstrated || ing to the measure of any man's conscience, how sincere so. his great love to them that perish? Is it possible that they ever he may be. can sin against redeeming love? and how, by thus offend

6. Many persons cover a spirit of envy and uncharitableing them who neither do nor can belong to him as members

ness, with the name of godly zeal, and tender concern for of his mystical body, are we injurious to Christ? See the salvation of others; they find fault with all; their spirit Whitby on this place.

is a spirit of universal censoriousness ; none can please them; 3. It is natural for man to wish and affect to be wise ; and and every one suffers by them. These destroy more souls by when this desire is cultivated in reference to lawful objects, tything mint, and cummin, than others do by neglecting the it will be an indescribable good : but when, like Eve, we weightier matters of the law. Such persons have what is see in a prohibition, something to be desired to make one termed, and very properly too, sour godliness. Both are ex. wise, we are then, like her, on the verge of our fall. Though I tremes, and he who would avoid perdition must avoid them,

are

CHAPTER IX.

St. Paul vindicates his apostleship, and shews that he has equal rights and privileges with Peter and the brethren

of our Lord; and that he is not bound, while doing the work of an apostle, to labour with his hands for his own support, 1-6. He who labours should live by the fruit of his own industry, 7. For the law will not allow eten the or to be muzzled which treads out the corn, 8–10. Those who minister in spiritual things, have a right to a secular support for their work, 11–14. IIe shows the disinterested manner in which he has preached the gospel, 15—18. How he accommodated himself to the prejudices of men, in order to bring about their salvation, 19–23. The way to heaven compared to a race, 24. The qualifications of those who may expect success in the games celebrated at Corinth, and what that success implies, 25. The apostle applies these things spiritually to himself; and states the necessity of keeping his body in subjection, lest after having proclaimed saltation to others, he should become a castaway, 26, 27.

St. Paui vindicates his

I. CORINTHIANS.

apostolical authority.

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M" I not an apostle ? am I not japostleship are ye in the Lord.

the Lord. A. M. 4060. free ? have I not seen Jesus 3 Mine answer to them that do A. U.C. 809.

Auno.Imp. Neronis Cas. 3. Christ our Lord ? oare not ye my examine me is this, work in the Lord ?

4 * Have we not power to eat and to drink ? 2 If I be not an apostle unto others, yet 5 Have we not power to lead about a sister, a doubtless I am to you: for the seal of mine 'wife, as well as other apostles, and as

s the

a Acts 9. 15. & 13. 2. & 26. 17. 2 Cor. 12. 12. Gal. 2. 7, 8. 1 Tim. 2. 7. 2 Tim. 1. 11. -Acts 9. 3, 17. & 18. 9. & 22. 14, 18. & 23. 11. ch. 15.8.

c Ch. 3. 6. & 4. 15.2 Cor. 3, 2. & 12. 12.-ver, 14. 1 Thess. 2.6. 9 Thess. 3. 9. P Or, woman. -6 Matt. 13.55. Mark 6. 3. Luke 6.15, Gal. 1. 19.

NOTES ON CHAP. IX.

rious give ample proof of this; and the moderns contend in Verse 1. Am I not an apostle ?] It is sufficiently evident vain to rival the perfection of those ancient masters. that there were persons at Corinth who questioned the apos In the Lord.) The apostle shews that it was by the grace tleship of St. Paul; and he was obliged to walk very circum- and influence of God alone, that he was an apostle; and spectly, that they might not find any occasion against him. that they were converted to Christianity. It appears also that he had given them all his apostolical la Verse 3. Mine answer to them] Heun aT02071c Tois Eus bours gratis, and even this, which was the highest proof of avaroiyoubi.

This is my defence against those who examine his disinterested benevolence, was produced by his opposers, me. The words are forensic; and the apostle considers him , as an arguinent against him. “ Prophets, and all divinely self as brought before a legal tribunal; and questioned so, commissioned men, have a right to their secular support ; as to be obliged to answer as upon oath. His defence there. you take nothing ;-is this not from a conviction that you fore was this, that they were converted to God by his means : have no apostolical right 2” On this point the apostle im- this verse belongs to the two preceding verses. mediately enters on his own defence.

Verse 4. Have we not power to eat and to drink?] Have Am I not an apostle ? am I not free?] These questions are we not authority or right, Ecovolav, to expect sustinence, all designed as assertions of the affirmative: I am an apostle, while we are labouring for your salvation ? Meat and and I am free, possessed of all the rights and privileges of drink, the necessaries, not the superfluities, of life were an apostle.

what those primitive messengers of Christ required; it was Ilave I not seen Jesus Christ] From whom, in his personal just that they who laboured in the gospel, should lice by appearance to me, I have received my apostolic commission. the gospel; they did not wish to make a fortune, or accuThis was judged essentially necessary to constitute an apos- |mulate wealth; a living was all they desired. It was protle. See Acts xxii. 14, 15. xxvi. 16.

bably in reference to the same moderate and reasonable deAre ye not my work] Your conversion from heathenism, sire that the provision made for the clergy in this country, is the proof that I have preached with the divine unction and was called a living; and their work for which they got this authority.

living, was called the cure of souls. Whether we derive the Several good MSS. and Versions transpose the two first ques word cure from curu, care, as signifying that the care of all tions in this verse, thus ; Am I not free? am I not an apos- the souls in a particular parish or place, devolves on the mi, tle. But I cannot see that either perspicuity or sense gains nister, who is to instruct them in the things of salvation, and any thing by this arrangement. On the contrary, it appears lead them to heaven: or whether we consider the term as to me that his being an apostle gave him the freedom or rights implying that the souls in that district are in a state of spi. to which he refers, and therefore the common arrangement I ritual disease, and the minister is a spiritual physician to judge to be the best.

whom the cure of these souls is intrusted, still we must con. Verse 2. If I be not an apostle unto others] If there be sider that such a labourer is worthy of his hire; and he that other churches which have been founded by other apostles; preaches the gospel should live by the gospel. yet it is not so with you.

Verse 5. Llave we not power to lead about <b sister, a The seal of mine apostleship are ye] Your conversion to wife] The word bouglay is to be understood here as above Christianity, is God's seal to my apostleship. Hlad not in ver. 4. as implying authority or right; and authority not God sent me, I could not have profited your souls.

merely derived from their offices, but from him who gave The o@payıs, or seal, was a figure cut in a stone, and them that office: from the constitution of nature, and from that set in a ring, by which letters of credence and autho- universal propriety or the fitness of things. rity were stamped. The ancients, particularly the Greeks, When the apostle speaks of leading about a sister, a wife, excelled in this kind of engraving. The cabinets of the cu- he means first that he and all other apostles, and consequent

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