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Chronological Notes

I. CORINTHIANS.

relative to this Epistle.

G Ci

or number of days on which Easter Sunday happens after the 21st of March, 28—Mean time of the Paschal Full Moon, at Corinth, (its longitude being twenty-three degrees to the east of London,) according to Ferguson's Tables, April 19, or the XIIIth of the Calends of May, at fifteen minutes and fifty-eight seconds past eleven at night. (The reason of the discrepance of the fifteenth of Nisan with the day of the mean Paschal Full Moon arises from the inaccuracy of the Metonic cycle, which reckoned 235 moan lunations to be precisely equal to nineteen solar yrars, these lunations being actu. ally performed in one hour and a half less time. Te correspondenc of the Pass-over with the mean Full Moon, according to the Julian account, was in A. D. 325.)- True time of the Paschal Full Moon at Corinth, according to Ferguson's Tables, the XIIth of the Calends of May, (April 20,) at Afty-seven minutes and forty-one seconds past five in the morning--East 'r Sunday, April 18, or the XI Vth of the Calends of May--Epact, or moon's age on the twenty-second of March, or the Xth of the Calands of April, 18-Year of the reign of Nero Cæsar, the Roman emperor, avd fifth Cæsar, 3— Year of Claudius Felix, the Jewish Governor, 4-Year of the reign of Vologesus, king of the Parthians, of the family of the Arsacidæ, 7-Year of Caius Nunidius Qundratus, governor of Syria, 6--Year of Ismael, high-priest of the Jews, 2-Year of the reign of Corbred I., king of the Scots, brother to the celebrated Caractacus, who was carried prisoner to Rome, but afterwards released by tho emperor, 2- According to Struyk's catalogue of eclipses, which he collected from the Chinese chronology, the sun was eclipsed at Canton in China, on the 25th of December of this year, or on the VIIIth of the Calends of January, A. D. 57. The middle of the eclipse was at twenty-eight minutes past twelve at noon; the quantity eclipsed at this time being nine digits and twenty minutes. The day of this eclipse was on the 19th of Tybi, in the 80 4th year of the Nabonassarean æra, and on the 24th of Cisleu of the minor Rabbinical, or Jewish æra of the world 3816, or 4115 of their greater æra-Roman Consuls, Q. Volusius Saturninus, and P. Cornelius Scipio.

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CHAPTER I.

The salutation of Paul and Sosthenes, 1, 2. The apostolical benediction, 3. Thanksgiving for the prosperity of

the church at Corinth, 4. In what thut prosperity consisted, 5–9. The apostle reproves their dissensions, and rindicules himself from being any cause of them, 10—17. States the simple means which God uses to concert sinners, and confound the wisdom of the wise, 8c. 18-21. Why the Jews and Greeks did not believe, 22. The matter of the apostle's preaching, and the reasons why that preaching was effectual to the salvation of men, 23–29. All should glory in God, because all blessirig's are dispensed by Him through Christ Jesus, 30, 31.

AUL, called to be an apostle of 2 Unto the church of God which is Written a little

Jesus Christ "through the will of at Corinth, 'to them that are sanc-
God, and · Sosthenes our brother, tified in Christ Jesus, *called to

Written a little

before the l'ass-over

of A. D. 56.

before the Pass-over

of
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* Rom. 1. 1.---2 Cor. 1. 1. Ephes. 1. 1. Col. 1. 1.- Acts 18. 17.

Jude 1. _ John 17. 19. Acts 15.9.Rom. 1. 7. 2 Tim. 1.9.

NOTES ON CIIAP. J.

the Corinthian church, it was necessary that he should Verse 1. Paul, called to be an apostle] Bishop Pearce be explicit in stating his authority. He was called, incontends that a comma should be placed after xiy,ros called, vited to the gospel feast; had partaken of it, and by the which should not be joined to AT10520s apostle : the first grâce he received, was qualified to proclaim salvation to signifies being called to, the other sent from. Ne reads it, others : Jesus Christ therefore made him an apostle, that is, therefore, Paul the called; the apostle of Jesus Christ. The gave him a Divine commission to preach the gospel to the word xinhos called, may be here used, as in some other Gentiles. places, for constituted. For this, and the meaning of the Through the will of God] By a particular appointment word apostle, see the Note on Rom. i. 1.

from God alone ; for, being an extraordinary messenger, As the apostle had many irregularities to reprekend in derived po part of bis authority from man.

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4, M6020be saints, with all that in every in all utterance, and in all know: ANO. Abwe imple place *call upon the name of Jesus ledge ; rons (as. S. Christ, our Lord, both their's and 6 Even as 5 the testimony of Christ rois C# 3. our's :

was confirmed in you : 3 Grace be unto you, and peace, from 7 So that ye come behind in no gift ; waitGod our Father, and from the Lord Jesus ing for the coming of our

our Lord Jesus Christ.

Christ : 4 ° I thank my God always on your behalf, for 8*Who shall also confirm you unto the end, the grace of God which is given you by Jesus 'that ye may be blameless in the day of our Lord Christ;

Jesus Christ. 5 That in every thing ye are enriched by him, 9 "God is faithful, by whom ye were called unto

• Acts 9. 14,21. & 22. 16. 2 Tim. 2. 99.- ch.8.6. Rom. 3. 22. & 10. 12.- Rom. 1. 7. 2 Cor. 1. 2. Ephes. 1. 2. 1 Pet. 1. 2.- Rom. 1.8.- ch. 12. 8. 2 Cor. 8. 7. 6 ch. 2. 1. 2 Tim. 1.8. Rev. 1. 2.

1 Phil. 3. 20. Titus 2. 13. 2 Pet. 3. 12. i Gr. revelation. Col. 3. 4.

1 Thes. 3. 13.- Col. 1. 22. 1 Thes. 5. 23. m Isai. 49. 7. ch. 10. 13. 1 Thes. 5. 24. 2 Thes. 3. 3. Heb. 10. 23.

Sosthenes our brother] Probably the same person men- them; and they had all knowledge; so that they perfectly tioned Acts xviii. 17. where see the note.

comprehended the doetrines which they had heard. Verse 2. The church of God which is at Corinth] This Verse 6. As the testimony of Christ, &c.] The testimony church was planted by the apostle himself, about A. D. 52, of Christ is the gospel which the apostle had preached, and as we learn from Acts xviii. 1, &c. where see the Notes. which had been confirmed by various gifts of the Holy Spirit,

Sanctified in Christ Jesus] 'Hyı&quevous, separated from and miracles wrought by the apostle. the corruptions of their place and age.

Verse 7. So that ye come behind in no gifl] Every gift Called to be saints] K7,7,7015 á yols, constituted saints; and grace of God's Spirit was possessed by the members of or invited to become such ; this was the design of the gospel : that church, some having their gifts after this manner, others for Jesus Christ came to save men from their sins.

after that. With all that in etery place, &c.] All who profess Chris. Waiting for the coming of our Lord] It is diflicult to tianity, both in Corinth, Ephesus, and other parts of Greece say whether the apostle means the final judgment, or our or Asia 3linor : and by this we see, that the apostle intended 'Lord's coming to destroy Jerusalem, and make an end of the that this Epistle should be a general property of the universal Jewish polity. See 1 Thess. iii. 13. As he does not explain church of Christ ; though there are several matters in it, himself particularly, he must refer to a subject with which that are suited to the state of the Corinthians only.

they were well acquainted. As the Jews, in general, con. Both theirs and ours] That is, Jesus Christ is the com- tinued to contradict and blaspheme; it is no wonder, if the mon Lord and Saviour of all. He is the exclusive property | apostle should be directed to point out to the believing Genof no one church, or people, or nation. Calling on, or in tiles, that the judgments of God were speedily to fall upon voking the name of the Lord Jesus, was the proper distin- | this rebellious people, and scatter them over the face of the guishing mark of a Christian. In those times of apostolic earth; which shortly afterwards took place. light and purity, no man attempted to invoke God, but in Verse 8. Who shall-confirm you] As the testimony of the name of Jesus Christ: this is what genuine Christians Christ was confirmed among you; so, in conscientiously bestill mean, when they ask any thing from God for Christ's lieving and obeying, God will confirm you through that tes.

timony.-See ver. 6. Verse 3. Grace be unto you] For a full explanation of In the day of our Lord Jesus.] In the day that he comes all these terms, see the Notes on Rom. i. 7.

to judge the world, according to some; but, in the day in Verse 4. For the gracewhich is given you] Not only which he comes to destroy the Jewish polity, according to their calling to be saints, and to be sanctified in Christ Jesus; others. While God destroys them who are disobedient, he but for the various spiritual gifts which they had received, as can save you who believe. is specified in the succeeding verses.

Verse 9. , God is faithful] The fuithfulness of God is a Verse 5. Ye are enriched-(ye abound)-in all utterance] || favourite expression among the ancient Jews; and, by it, EY TAYT 2099, in all ductrine, for so the word should cer- they properly understaud the integrity of God, in preserving tainly be translated and understood.

All the truths of God, whatever is entrusted to him. And they suppose that in this relative to their salvation, had been explicitly declared to 1 sense, the fidelity of man may illustrate the fidelity of God;

SAKE.

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A.M..4060. a the fellowship of his Son Jesus Christ 11 For it hath been declared unto

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me of you, my brethren, by them A. U.C. 809. 10 Now I beseech you, brethren, by || which are of the house of Chloe, that ronis Cas. 3. the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that ye all there are contentions among you. speak the same thing, and that there be no o di

di- 12 Now this I say, a that every one of you visions among you ; but that ye be perfectly saith, I am of Paul; and I of • Apollos ; and joined together in the same mind, and in the same | I of 'Cephas; and I of Christ. judgment.

13 Is Christ divided ? was Paul crucified for

a John 15. 4. & 17.21. 1 John 1.3. & 4.13.

13. II. Phil. 2. 2. & 3. 16. 1 Pet. 3. 8.

6 Rom. 12. 16. & 15.5. 2 Cor.
- Gr. schisms, ch. 11. 18.

4 Ch. 3. 4.- Le Acts 18. 24. & 19. 1. ch. 16. 12.- John 1. 42.

62 Cor. 11. 4. Eph. 4.5.

in his graniary.

in reference to which they tell the two following stories. That

ye all speak the sume thing] If they did not agree “ Rabbi Phineas, the son of Jair, dwelt in a certain city, || exactly in opinion on every subject; they might, notwithwhither some men came who had two measures of barley, || standing, agree in the words which they used to express which they desired him to preserve for them. They after- | their religious faith. The members of the church of God wards forgot their barley, and went away. Rabbi Phineas, || should labour to be of the same mind, and to speak the same each year, sowed the barley, reaped, threshed, and laid it up thing, in order to prevent divisions ; which always hinder the

When seven years had elapsed, the men re work of God. On every essential doctrine of the gospel, turned, and desired to have the barley with which they had all genuine Christians agree: why then need religious comentrusted him. Rabbi Phineas recollected them, and said, munion be interrupted? This general agreement is all that come and take your treasure," i. e. the barley they had the apostle can have in view; for, it cannot be expected that

with all that it had produced for seven years. Thus, | any number of men should, in every respect, perfectly coinfrom the faithfulness of man, ye may kuow the faithfulness | cide in their views of all the minor points, on which an exact of God.”

conformity in sentiment is impossible, to minds so variously “ Rabbi Simeon, the son of Shetach, bought an ass from constituted as those of the human race. Angels may thus some Edomites, at whose neck his disciples saw a diamond agree, who see nothing through an imperfect or false medium; hanging: they said unto him, Rabbi, the blessing of the but, to man, this is impossible. Therefore, men should bear Lord maketh rich, Prov. x. 22. But he answered— The ass with each other; and not be so ready to imagine that none I have bought, but the diamond I have not bought : there have the truth of God but they and their party. fore he returned the diamond to the Edomites. Thus, from Verse 11. By them which are of the house of Chloe] the fidelity of man, ye may know the fidelity of God." || This was doubtless some very religious matron at Corinth, This was an instance of rare honesty, not to be paralleled whose family were converted to the Lord; some of whom among the Jews of the present day; and probably among were probably sent to the apostle to inform him of the disfew Gentiles. Whatever is committed to the keeping of God, sensions which then prevailed in the church at that place. he will most carefully preserve; for, he is faithful.

Stephanas, Fortunatus, and Achaïcus, mentioned chap. Ivi. Unto the fellowship, &c.] E1S XO1W727, into the commu 17. were probably the sons of this Chloe. nion or participation of Christ, in the graces of his Spirit, Contentions] Epides, altercations, produced by the cyıs. and the glories of his future kingdom. God will continue l para divisions, mentioned above. When once they had dito uphold and save you, if you entrust your bodies and vided, they must necessarily have contended, in order to souls to him. But, can it be said that God will keep what support their respective parties. is either not entrusted to him; or, after being entrusted, is Verse 12. Every one of you saith] It seems, from this taken away?

expression, that the whole church at Corinth was in a state Now, I beseech you, bretlıren] The apostle of dissension: they were all divided into the following sects, having finished his introduction, comes to his second point, || 1. Paulians, or followers of St. Paul: 2. Apollonians, or exhorting them to abstain from dissensions, that they might followers of Apollos : 3. Kephians, or followers of Kephas: be of the same heart and mind, striving together for the | 4. Christians, or followers of Christ. See the Introduce hope of the gospel.

tion, sect. v. By the name of our Lord Jesus] By his authority, and The converts at Corinth were partly Jews, and partly in his place; and on account of your infinite obligations | Greeks. The Gentile part, as Dr. Lightfoot conjectures, to his mercy, in calling you into such a state of salvation. might boast the names of Paul and Apollos: the Jewish,

The apostle had baptized

CHAP. I.

few persons at Corinth.

you ? or were ye baptized in the 15 Lest any should say that I had A. M. 4060. name of Paul ?

baptized in mine own name. 14 I thank God that I baptized 16 And I baptized also the house- ronis Cæs. 9. none of you, but “Crispus and Gaius; hold of Stephanas :

Stephanas : besides, I know not

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those of Kephas and Christ. But these again might be sub Verse 14. I thank God that I baptized none of you] None divided : some probably considered themselves disciples of of those who now live in Corinth, except Crispus, the ruler Perul, he being the immediate instrument of their conver- of the synagogue, Acts xviii. 8. And Gaius, the same persion ; while others might prefer Apollos for his extraordinary son probably with whom Paul lodged, Rom. xvi. 23. where eloquence.

see the Notes. Dr. Lightfoot observes, “If this be Gaius, or If by Kephas the apostle Peter be meant, some of the Caius, to whom the third Epistle of John was written, which circumcision who believed, might prefer him to all the rest ; | is very probable, when the first verse of that Epistle is comand they might consider him more immediately sent to them; pared with Rom. xvi. 23. then, it will appear probable, that and therefore have him in higher esteem than they had Paul, || John wrote his first Epistle to the Corinthians. I wrote, who was the minister or apostle of the uncircumcision : and says he, unto the church-What church ? Certainly it must on this very account, the converted Gentiles would prize him have been some par ticular church which the apostle has in more highly than they did Peter.

view; and the church where Gaius himself resided. And if Instead of Christ, X.51500, some have conjectured that we this be true, we may look for Diotrephes, 3 John ver. 9. in should read Kpiotou of Crispus; who is mentioned ver. 14. | the Corinthian church; and the author of the schism of And some think that Xp15ou, of Christ, is an interpolation, which the apostle complains. See the Introduction, sect. viii. as it is not likely that Christ, in any sense of the word, Verse 15. Lest any should say, &c.] He was careful could be said to be the head of a sect, or party in his own not to baptize, lest it should be supposed that he wished to church ; as all those parties held that gospel, of which him-make a party for himself; because superficial observers might self was both the author and the subject. But it is very easy imagine, that he baptized them into his own name; to be his to conceive that, in a church so divided, a party might be followers, though he baptized them into the name of Christ found, who, dividing Christ from his ministers, might be led only. to say—“ We will have nothing to do with your parties ; Instead of CATTICA I have baptized, the Codex Alexanpor with your party spirit ; we are the disciples of Christ, drinus, the Codex Ephraim, and several others, with the and will have nothing to do with Paulians, Apollonians, or Coptic, Sahidic, latter Syriac in the margin, Armenian, Kephians, as contra-distinguished from Christ.” The read- Vulgate, some copies of the Itala, and several of the Fathers, ing Kpictou for Xp1500, is not acknowledged by any MS. or read #C2TTIFÖTTE, ye were baxtized. And if we read iræ, só Version.

that, instead of lest, the sentence will stand thus; so that no Verse 13. Is Christ divided?] Can he be split into dif one can say, that ye were baptized into my name. ferent sects and parties? Has he different and opposing pears to be the true reading; and for it Bp. Pearce offers systems ? Or, is the Messiah to appear under different several strong arguments. persons ?

Verse 16. The household of Stephanas] From chap. Was Paul crucified for you?] As the gospel proclaims xvi. 15. we learn that the family of Stephanas were the first salvation through the crucified only; has Paul poured out his converts in Achaia ; probably converted and baptized by the blood as an atonement for you? This is impossible, and apostle himself. Epenetus is supposed to be one of this therefore your being called by my name is absurd : for his family ; see the Note on Rom. chap. xvi. 5. disciples you should be alone, who has bought you by his I know not whether I baptized any other] I do not recollect blood.

that there is any person now residing in Corinth, or Achaia, Were ye baptized in the name of Paul.?] To be baptized besides the above mentioned, whom I have baptized. It is in, or into the name of one, implied that the baptized was to strange that the doubt here expressed by the apostle should be the disciple of him into whose name, religion, &c. he was be construed so as to affect his inspiration! What, does the baptized. As if he had said, Did I ever attempt to set up a inspiration of prophet or apostle, necessarily imply that he new religion, one founded on my own authority, and coming must understand the geography of the Universe, and have from myself? On the contrary, have I not preached Christ, an intuitive knowledge of all the inhabitants of the earth, crucified for the sin of the world; and called upon all man- and how often, and where, they may have changed their re. kind, both Jews and Gentiles, to believe on Him?

sidence! Nor, was that inspiration ever given, so to work

This ap

Paul is sent rather to preach

I. CORINTHIANS.

the gospel, than to baptize.

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17 For Christ sent me not to bap- | which are saved, it is the power of A.0.0.82 ronis Cas. 3. tize, but to preach the gospel : *not God. with wisdom of words, lest the cross of Christ 19 For it is written, 5I will destroy the wisshould be made of none effect.

dom of the wise; and will bring to nothing the 18 For the preaching of the cross is to them understanding of the prudent.

a Ch. 2. 1, 4, 13. 2 Pet. 1. 16. - Or, speech.

--- 2 Cor. 2. 15,d Acts 17. 18. ch. 2. 14.

. Ch. 15. 2.-Rom. I. 16. ver. 24, Job 5. 12, 13. Isai. 29. 14.

Jer. 8. 9.

on a man's memory, that he could not forget any of the acts | tion and conversion of sinners. Human eloquence and learnwhich he had performed during life. Inspiration was given ing have often been successfully employed in defending the to the holy men of old, that they might be able to write and out-works of Christianity; but simplicity and truth have proclaim the mind of God, in the things which concern the preserved the citadel. salvation of men.

It is farther worthy of remark, that when God was about Verse 17. For Christ sent me not to baptize] Bp. Pearce to promulgate his laws, he chose Moses as the instrument, translates thus, For Christ sent me, not so much to baptize as who appears to have laboured under some natural impediment to preach the gospel : and he supports bis version thus in his speech, so that Aaron his brother was obliged to be his 66 The writers of the Old and New Testaments do, almost spokesman to Pharaoh : and that, when God had purposed every where, (agreeably to their Hebrew idiom,) express a publish the gospel to the Gentile world—to Athens, preference given to one thing beyond another, by an affirma- | Ephesus, Corinth, and Rome, he was pleased to use Saul of tion of that which is preferred, and a negation of that which || Tarsus, as the principal instrument; a man whose bodily is contrary to it: and so it must be understood here, for, if presence reus weak, and his speech contemptible, 2 Cor. x. 1, St. Paul was not sent at all to baptize, he baptized without a 10. And thus it was proved that God sent him to preach not commission : but if he was sent, not only to baptize, but to æith human eloquence, lest the cross of Christ should be made preach also; or to preach rather than baptize, he did in fact of none effect; but with the demonstration and power of his discharge his duty aright.” It appears sufficiently evident, own Spirit ; and thus the excellence of the power appeared to that baptizing was considered to be an inferior office ; and, l be of God, and not of man. though every minister of Christ might administer it, yet Verse 18. For the preaching of the cross] 'O 207956799 apostles had more important work. Preparing these adult | Ó TOU OTaupou, the doctrine of the cross; or the doctrine that beathens for baptism, by the continual preaching of the is of, or concerning the cross; that is, the doctrine that proword, was of much greater consequence than baptizing them claims salvation to a lost world, through the crucifixion of when thus prepared to receive and profit by it.

Christ. Not eith wisdom of words] Ουκ εν σωφια λογου

In Is to them that perish, foolishness] There are, properly several places in the New Testament, the term 2oyas is taken speaking, but two classes of men known where the gospel is not only to express a word, a speech, a saying, &c. but doc- preachd, atodayu svou the unbelievers and gain-sayers, who trine, or the matter of teaching. Here, and in 1 Thess. i. 5. are perishing ; and ow SouLE'', the obedient believers, who are and in several other places, it seems to signify reason, or

in a state of salvation. To those who will continue in the that mode of rhetorical argumentation so highly prized | first state, the preaching of salvation through the merit of a among the Greeks. The apostle was sent not to pursue this crucified Saviour, is folly. To those who believe, this docmode of conduct, but simply to announce the truth ; to pro-trine of Christ crucified is the power of God to their salvaclaim Christ crucified for the sin of the world; and to do tion: it is divinely efficacious to deliver them from all the this in the plainest and simplest manner possible, lest the power, guilt, and pollution of sin. numerous conversions which followed, might be attributed to Verse 19. For it is written] The place referred to is, the power of the apostle's eloquence, and not to the demon- Isai. xxix. 14. stration of the Spirit of God. It is worthy of remark, that I will destroy the wisdom of the wise] Twv počuv, of in all the revivals of religion with which we are acquainted, wise men; of the philosophers; who, in their investigations, God appears to have made very little use of human elo- seek nothing less than God; and whose highest discoveries

His own nerquence, even when possessed by pious men.

amount to nothing in comparison of the grand truths revous truths, announced by plain common sense, though in lative to God, the invisible world, and the true end of man, homely phrase, have been the general means of the convic- l, which the gospel has brought to light. Let me add that the

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