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The apostle sends salutations

ROMANS.

to different persons at Rome.

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15 Salute Philologus, and Julia, ll" which cause divisions and offences A. M. cir.4062. An. Olymp: Nereus, and his sister, and Olym- contrary to the doctrine which ye

have pas, and all the saints which are learned ; and avoid them. with them.

18 For they that are such serve not our Lord 16 · Salute one another with a holy kiss. The Jesus Christ, but their own belly ; and by churches of Christ salute you.

good words and fair speeches deceive the hearts 17 Now I beseech you, brethren, mark them of the simple.

a 1 Cor. 16. 20. 2 Cor. 13. 12. 1 Thes. 5. 26. 1 Pet. 5. 14.- Acts 15. 1, 5, 24. I Tim. 6.3.-__ 1 Cor. 5. 9, 11. 2 Thes. 8. 6, 14. 2 Tim.

3.5. Titus 3. 10. 2 John 10. Phil. S. 19. 1 Tim. 6.5.-- Col. 2.4. 2 Tim. 3. 6. Titus 1. 10. 2 Pet. 2. 3.

at this time, there were many persons who bore the same cause it is customary and common. Shaking of hands is names mentioned in this chapter.

now substituted for it, in almost all Christian congregations. Verse 15. Salute Philologus, &c.] Of these several per The churches of Christ salute you.] The word T.O.COM ALL, sons, though much has been conjectured, nothing certain is is added here by some of the most reputable MSS. and prinknown. Even the names of some are so ambiguous, that we cipal Versions; and Griesbach has received it into his text. know not whether they were men or women. They were St. Paul must mean here, that all the churches in Greece and persons well known to St. Paul; and undoubtedly were such || Asia, through which he had passed, in which the faith of the as had gone from different places where the apostle had Christians at Rome was known, spoke of them affectionately preached, to sojourn or settle at Rome. One thing we may and honourably : and probably knowing the apostle's design remark, that there is no mention of St. Peter, who, according of visiting Rome, desired to be kindly remembered to the to the Roman and papistical catalogue of bishops, must have church in that city. been at Rome at this time : if he were not now at Rome, Verse 17. Murk them which cause divisions] Several the foundation stone of Rome's ascendancy, of Peter's supre- || MSS. read aofahws CXOTSITE, look sharply after them : let macy, and of the uninterrupted succession, is taken away ; | them have no kiss of charity nor peace; because they strive and the whole fabric falls to the ground. But, if Peter were to make divisions, and thus set the flock of Christ at variance at Rome at this time, Paul would have sent his salutations to among themselves: and from these divisions, offences, 6433 him in the first place : and if Peter were there, he mustara, scandals are produced ; and this is contrary to that have been there according to the papistical doctrine, as bishop doctrine of peace, unity, and brotherly love which you have and vicar of Jesus Christ; but if he were there, is it likely learned. Look sharply after such, that they do you no evil: that he should have been passed by, while Andronicus and and avoid them: give them no countenance, and have no se. Junia are mentioned as of note amongst the apostles, ver. 7. | ligious fellowship with them. and that St. Paul should call on the people to remedy the

Verse 18. They serve not our Lord Jesus] They prodisorders that had crept in among themselves; should not fess to be apostles, but they are not apostles of CHRIST; these directions have been given to Peter, the head of the they neither do his will, nor preach his doctrine; they serté church? And if there were a church in the papistical sense their own belly. They have intruded themselves into the of the word, founded there, of which Peter was the heud, is | church of Christ, that they might get a secular support; it is it likely that that church should be in the house of Priscilla | for reorldly gain alone, that they take up the profession of the and Aquila, ver. 5. But it is loss of time to refute such | ministry: they have no Divine credentials; they convert not ridiculous and groundless pretensions. It is very likely that the heathen nor the ungodly; they have no Divine unction; Peter, so far from being universal bishop at Rome, never saw but by good words and fuir speeches, (for they have no miruthe city in his life.

culous nor saving powers,) deceive the hearts of the simple. Verse 16. Salute one another with a holy kiss] In || perverting Christian conv

ncerts, that they may get their those early times the kiss, as a token of peace, friendship, || property; and thus secure a maintenance for themselves, and brotherly love, was frequent among all people; and the || The church of God has ever been troubled with such preChristians used it in their public assemblies, as well as intended pastors; men who feed themselves, not the flock ; their occasional meetings. This was at last laid aside, not men who are too proud to beg, and too lazy to work: who because it was abused, but because the church becoming very have neither grace por gifts to plant the standard of the cross numerous, the thing was impossible. In some countries the on the devil's territories; and by the power of Christ, make kiss of friendship is still common; and in such countries it inroads upon his kingdom, and spoil him of his subjects. is scarcely ever abused; nor is it an incentive to evil, be- || On the contrary, by sowing the seeds of dissensions, by

He commends the faith and obedience

CHAP. XVI.

of the church at Rome.

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19 Fora your obedience is come 21 Timotheus my workfellow, and A. M. cir.1962. an. Com abroad unto all men. I am glad there- 'Lucius, and k Jason, and 'sosipater, cf. cely.". A.U.C.cir.dll

. fore on your behalf: but yet I would my kinsmen, salute you. have you wise unto that which is good, and 22 I Tertius, who wrote this epistle, salute you simple concerning evil.

in the Lord. 20 And the God of peace

e shall fbruise 23 m Gaius mine host, and of the whole Satan under your feet shortly. The grace church, saluteth you. "Erastus the chamber

Lord Jesus Christ be with you. lain of the city saluteth you, and Quartus a Amen.

brother.

of our

a Ch. 1. 8. Matt. 10. 16. 1 Cor. 14. 20. Or, harmless. ach. 15. 33. le Gen. 3. 15. f Or, tread. -$ ver. 24. 1 Cor. 16.23. 2 Cor. 13. 1. Phil. 4. 23. 1 Thes. 5. 28. 2 Thes. 3. 18. Rev. 22. 21.

h Acts 16.1. Col. 1.1. Phil. 2. 19. 1 Thes. 3. 2. 1 Tim. 1.2. Heb. 13. 23.- Acis 13. 1. * Acts 17. 5.-- Acts 20. 4.-m 1 Cor. I. 14. u Acts 19. 22. 9 Tim. 4. 20.

means of doubtful disputations, and the propagation of scan Verse 21. Timotheus, my work-fellow] This is on all dals; by glaring and insinuating speeches, 229,507.07125, for hands allowed to be the same Timothy to whom St. Paul they affect elegance and good breeding, they rend Christian directs the two Epistles which are still extant. See some ac. ccrgreations, form a party for themselves, and thus live on count of him in the Notes on Acts xvi. 1, &c. the spoils of the church of God.

Lucius] This was probably Luke, the evangelist, and Should it be asked whom do you intend by this descrip-' writer of the book called The Acts of the Apostles. For a tion? I answer, no soul, nor party, but such as the descrip- short account of him, see the Preface to that book. tion suits. Irasceris ?-De te fubula narratur.

Juson] It is likely that this is the same person mentioned Verse 19. For your obedience is come abroad] The Acts xvii. 7. who, at Thessalonica, received the apostles apostle gives this as a reason why they should continue to into his house, and befriended them at the risk both of his hear and heed those who had led them into the path of truth; property and life. and avoid those false teachers whose doctrines tended to the Sosipater] He was a Berean, the son of one Pyrrhus, a subversion of their souls.

Jew by birth; and accompanied St. Paul from Greece into Yet, I would have you wise] I would wish you carefully Asia ; and probably into Judea. See Acts xx. 4. to discern the good from the evil, and to shew your wistlom, Verse 22. I Tertius, who wrote this epistle] Some emiby carefully avoiding the one, and cleaving to the other. nent commentators suppose Tertius to be the same with Silas,

Verse 20. The God of peace] Who neither sends nor the companion of St. Paul. If this were so, it is strange that favours such disturbers of the tranquillity of his church, the name which is generally given him elsewhere in Scrip

Shall bruise Satan] Shall give you the dominion over the ture, should not be used in this place. I have already nogreat adversary of your souls; and over all his agents, who, ticed, (Preface, pag. iv.) that some learned men have supthrough his influence, endeavour to destroy your peace, and posed that St. Paul wrote this Epistle in Syriac; and that subvert your minds.

Tertius translated it into Greek: but this can never agree Several critics suppose that the word Satan is a sort of col- with the declaration here; I Tertius, who wrote ypavas Try lective term here, by which all opposers and adversaries are" ET1507.ry, this Epistle; not translated or interpreted it. It meant; and especially those false teachers to whom he refers appears that St. Paul dictated it to him; and he wrote it above.

down from the apostle's mouth : and here introduces himThe grace of our Lord] That you may be truly wise ; ;, self as joining with St. Paul in affectionate wishes for their simple, obedient, and steady in the truth ; may the favour, welfare. or gracious influence, of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you! Salute you in the Lord.] I wish you well, in the name of without which you cannot be preserved from evil, nor do the Lord: or I feel for you that affectionate respect which any thing that is good.

the grace of the Lord Jesus inspires. It is not clear whether Here the apostle appears to have intended to conclude his, the two following verses be the words of Tertius, or Epistle: but afterwards he added a postscript, if not twoo, as we St. Paul. shall see below. Several ancient MSS. omit the whole of this Verse 23. Gaius, mine host] Gaius, in Greek, is the same clause, probably thinking that it had been borrowed from as Caius in Latin, which was a very common name among ver. 24. but on the ground that the apostle might have added the Romans. St. Luke, Acts xix. 29. mentions one Gaius a postscript or two, not having immediate opportunity to send of Macedonia, who was exposed to much violence at Ephesus the Epistle, there is no need for this supposition.

1, in the tumult excited by Demetrius the silver-smith, against

The conclusion and

ROMANS.

apostolical benediction.

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24 « The grace of our Lord Jesus to the revelation of the mystery, A.D.C.5%.

An. Olymp An. Olymp; Christ be with you all. Amen. e which was kept secret since the

25 Now “to him that is of power world began, to stablish you according to my gospel, and 26 But now is made manifest, and by the the preaching of Jesus Christ, according scriptures of the prophets, according to the

cir. CCIX. 2. A.U.C.cir.811.

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• Ver. 20. 1 Thes. 5. 21. Eph. 3. 20. 1 Thes. 3. 12. 2 Thes. 2. 17. & 3. 3. Jude 24. - ch. 2. 16. d Eph. 1. 9. & 3. 3, 4, 5. Col. 1. 27.

• 1 Cor. 2. 7. Eph. 3. 5, 9. Gal. 1. 26.—Eph. 1.9. 2 Tim. 1. 10.

Tit. 1. 2, 3. 1 Pet. 1. 20.

St. Paul and his companions; and it is very possible that this end of chap. xiv. inserting it at the end of the 27th verse in was the same person. He is here called not only the host that place. The Reader who chuses, may consult Wetstein, Çaros, the entertainer of St. Paul, or Tertius, (if he wrote and Griesbach on these discordances. this and the following verse,) but also of the whole church : Verse 25. Now to Him] In the note at the end of chap. that is, he received and lodged the apostles who came from xiv. I have shewn that this and the following verses are, by different places, as well as the messengers of the churches. | the most reputable MSS. and Versions, placed at the end of All made his house their home; and he must have been a that chapter; which is supposed, by most critics, to be their person of considerable property to be able to bear this ex proper place. Some of the arguments adduced in favour of pence ; and of much piety and love to the cause of Christ, | this transposition, may be found in the note above mentioned. else he had not employed that property in this way.

I shall therefore refer to Griesbach, and proceed to make a Erastus, the chamberlain of the city ] Treasurer of the few short remarks on the verses as they occur here. city of Corinth, from which St. Paul wrote this Epistle. Of power to stablish you] To that God without whom This is supposed to be the same person as is mentioned Acts nothing is wise, nothing strong; who is as willing to teach, xix. 22. He was one of St. Paul's companions, and, as ap- as he is wise; as ready to help, as he is strong. pears from 2 Tim. iv. 20. was left about this time by the According to my gospel] That gospel which explains and apostle at Corinth. He is called the chamberlain, oixovopos, publishes God's purpose of taking the Gentiles to be his which signifies the same as treasurer; he to whom the re-l people under the Messiah, without subjecting them to the ceipt and expenditure of the public money was entrusted. || law of Moses. This is what he here calls the preaching of He received the tolls, customs, &c. belonging to the city, Jesus Christ, for without this he did not think, as Mr. Locke and out of them paid the public expences. Such persons observes, that Christ was preached to the Gentiles as he were in very high credit, and if Erastus was at this time trea- | ought to be; and therefore in several places of his Fpistle to surer, it would appear that Christianity was then in consi- the Galatians, he calls it the truth, and the truth of the gose derable repute in Corinth. But if the Erastus of the Acts pel, and uses the like expressions to the Ephesians and Cowere the same with the Erastus mentioned here, it is not lossians. This is that mystery which he is so much conlikely that he now held the office, for this could not at all | cerned that the Ephesians should understand and adhere to comport with his travelling with St. Paul. Hence several, firmly; and which was revealed to him according to that both ancients and moderns who believe the identity of the gospel whereof he was made a minister.

And it is probable persons, suppose that Erastus was not now treasurer, but that this grand mystery of bringing the Gentiles into the that having formerly been so, he still retained the title. kingdom of God, without passing through the rites of the MoChrysostom thought that he still retained the employment. saic law,was revealed more particularly to St. Paul, than to any

Quartus, a brother] Whether the brother of Erastus or other of the apostles; and that he preached it more pointedly, of Tertius we know not; probably nothing more is meant and certainly with more success. See Taylor and Locke. than that he was a Christian, one of the heavenly family, a Which wus kept secret] This purpose of calling the Genbrother in the Lord.

tiles, and giving them equal privileges to the Jews, withVerse 24. The grace of our Lord] This is the conclusion out obliging them to submit to circumcision, &c. of Tertius, and is similar to what St. Paul used above. Ilence Verse 26. But now is made manifest] Now, under the it is possible that Tertius wrote the whole of the 22nd, 23rd, || New Testament dispensation, and by my preaching. and 24th verses, without receiving any particular instructions By the Scriptures of the prophets] Hiuts relative to this from St. Paul, except the bare permission to add his own salu- important work being scattered up and down through all tations with those of his particular friends.

their works, but no clear revelation that the Gentiles who There is a great deal of disagreement among the MSS. and should be admitted into the church, should be admitted with. Versions relative to this verse; some rejecting it entirely, | out passing under the yoke of the Mosaic law. This was the and some of those which place the following verses at the point which was kept secret: as to the calling of the Gen

The conclusion and

CHAP. XVI.

apostolical benediction.

A. M.cir, 1962. commandment of the everlasting God, Jesus Christ for ever. c Amen.

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cir. CCIX.2. A.U.C.cir.$11. obedience of faith :

rinthus, and sent by Phæbe servant A.U.C.cir.81i. 27 To "God only wise, be glory through

of the church at Cenchrea.

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· Acts. 6. 7. ch. 1. 5. & 15. 18.—ch. 9. 5. Eph. 3. 20, 21. 1 Tim. 1. 17. & 6. 16. Jude 25.-* 1 Cor. 14. 16. Gal. 1. 4, 5. Rev. 3. 14.

tiles, this was declared in general terms by the prophets, finishing the reading or copying of this Epistle, as they and the apostle quotes and makes a most important use of would thereby express their conviction of the truth of its their predictions ; but the other was a point on which the contents, and their desire that the promises contained in it prophets gave no information, and it seems to have been pe- | might be fulfilled to them and to the church at large; and in culiarly revealed to St. Paul, who received the commandment this sense the word is not only harmless, but useful. May of the everlasting God to make it known as tarTa ta ebum, the fulness of the Gentiles be brought in, and may all Israel to all the Gentiles; all the people of the earth that were

be saved! This is treated of at large in this Epistle; and to not of Jewish extraction. And it was to be made known this prayer let every pious reader

say

Amen! See the obfor the obedience of faith, that they might believe its doctrines servations on this word at the end of the gospel of John. and obey its precepts ; its universal voice requiring repentance

Before I conclude this work, I shall beg leave to add se. towards God, faith in our Lord Jesus Christ, and circum- veral important observations, chiefly extracted from Dr. cision of the heart, in the place of all Jewish rites and ce Taylor. remonies. Verse 27. To God only wise] This comes in with great

1. Paul, the apostle, writes to all the Christians at Rome, propriety. lle alone, who is the fountain of wisdom and without distinction, as being called of Jesus Christ; be. knowleilge, had all this mystery in himself, and he alone loved of God, called saints, as justified by fuith and having who knew the times, places, persons, and circumstances could peace with God, as standing in the grace of the gospel, chap. reveal the whole; and he has revealed all in such a way as not v. 1, 2. as alive from the dead, chap. vi. 13, &c. He gives only to manifest his unsearchable wisdom, but also his in them various exhortations, Walk in newness of life. Let not sin finite goodness. Therefore, to him be glory for his wisdom reign in your mortal body. Yield yourselves unto God, chap. in devising this most admirable plan; and his goodness in xii. 1, &c. I beseech you, therefore, brethren, by the mer. sending Christ Jesus to execute it; to Him, through Christcies of God, that ye present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, Jesus be glory for ever! Because this plan is to last for acceptable unto God,which is your reasonable service,chap. xiv. ever ; and is to have no issue but in eternal glory.

10,12. We shall all stand before the judgment-seat of Christ. Written to the Romans from Corinthus, &c.] That this Every one of us shall give account of himself to God, chap. xiii. Epistle was written from Corinth is almost universally be 11, 12, 13, 14. It is high time to awake out of sleep ; let us lieved. That Phæbe was a deaconess of the church at Cen therefore cast off the works of darkness; let us not walk in richrea, we have seen in the first verse of this chapter; and oting and drunkenness, in chumbering and wantonness, in strife that the Epistle might have been sent by her to Rome is and envying; Make no provision for the flesh to fulfil the lusts possible; but that she should have been the writer of the thereof, viii. 13. For, if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die; Epistle as this subscription states, sypaer dia bolors, is false, MENETE AT:6677,5XEiy, ye shall hereafter die, meaning in for the 22nd verse shews that Tertius was the writer, though the world to come. But if ye, through the Spirit, do morby inserting the words and sent, we represent her rather as tify the deeds of the body, ye shall lice. the carrier than the writer. This subscription, however, 2. The rites and ceremonies of the law of Moses were incorstands on very questionable grounds. It is wanting in al- porated into the civil state of the Jews, and so might be conmost all the ancient MSS. and even of those which are more sidered as national and political usages. Now, as the gospel modern, few have it entirely, as in our common editions. did not interfere with, or subvert any national polity upon It has already been noted that the subscriptions to the sacred earth; but left all men, in all the several countries of the books are of little or no authority; all having been added globe, to live, in all things, not sinful, according to the ciin latter times, and frequently by injudicious hands. The vil constitution under which it found them; so it left the most ancient have simply To the Romans, or, the Epistle to Jews also at liberty to observe all the rites and injunctions the Romans is finished. The word Amen was seldom added of the law of Moses, considered as a part of the civil and poby the inspired writers, and here it is wanting in almost all litical usages of the nation. And in this respect, they rethe ancient MSS. As this was a word in frequent use in re mained in force so long as the Jews were a nation, having ligious services, pious people would naturally employ it in the temple, the token of God's presence and residence,

General observations on

ROMANS.

the calling of the Gentiles.

among them. But when the temple was destroyed, and they were, or were not, upright in their opposition to the goswere expelled the land of Canaan, their polity was dissolved, pel, God only knows ; but their professed principles seem to and the Mosaic rites were quite laid aside. And as the time be nearly the same. In short; they were for seizing on the in which this happened was near, when the Epistle to the inheritance, (Mat. xxi. 38.) and for ingrossing all salvation, Hebrews was written, therefore the apostle saith, The first and the favour of God, to themselves. The Jews, they judg. covenant, or Mosaical dispensation, was then decaying and ed, were the only people of God; and the Jewish nation wuring old, and ready to vanish away, lleb. viii. 13. the only true church, out of which there was no salvation.

3. But though the gospel was not, in itself, intended to un No man could be in a state of acceptance with God, without church the Jews; yet the Jews every where warmly opposed observing the law of Moses. The works of the law, moral the preaching of it, though not for the same reasons. Some and ceremonial, must be performed, in order to his being a Jews opposed it totally, and rejected the whole gospel as member of God's church and family, and having a right to unnecessary, judging the Mosaical constitution, and their future and eternal happiness. They expected the Messiah inconformity to the law there delivered, completely suffici. | deed and his kingdom: but not as if either had a reference ent for justification or salvation, without any further provi- | to another world. The law, and a punctual observation of sion made by the grace of God. These accounted Christ it, was the ground of their expectations in a future world. our Lord an impostor, and the gospel a forgery ; and there. And as for the Messiah, they supposed his coming and kingfore persecuted the apostles with the utmost assiduity and dom related only to the temporal prosperity and grandeur of outrage, as deceivers who had no divine mission. Such were the Jewish nation, and the perpetual establishment of their law, the Jews who put Stephen to death, Acts vi. vii. chapters. | by rescuing them out of the hands of the Gentile powers, Such were they at Antioch, in Pisidid, who were filled with who had greatly embarrassed and distressed their Constituendy, and spake against the things that were spoken by Paul, || tion. Thus they endeavoured to establish their own rightecontradicting and blaspheming, Acts xii. 45, 50.

Such were

ousness, (Rom. x. 3.) salvation or interest in God; an inthe Jews at Iconium, Acts xiv. 2, 19.—at Thessalonica, xvii. | terest which they imagined for themselves, and which ex5.--at Corinth, xviii. 5, 6. and in other places. And such a cluded men of all other nations, who, they thought, were, Jew was Paul himself before his conversion. Ile consented in fact, utterly excluded from the Divine favour, and eternal to the death of Stephen, made havoc of the church, Acts viii. life, as quite lost and hopeless. Against us Gentiles, they 3.and breathed out threatenings and slaughter against the dis-had the strongest prejudices, accounting us as perfectly ciples of the Lord, ix. l. xxii. 4. xxvi. 9, 10, 11.

vile, as nothing, as abandoned of God, only because we 4. What Paul's principles, and those of the unbelieving Jews were not included in their peculiarity; while they imagined were, we may learn, if we observe, that the first persecution, themselves to be vastly superior to us, and the only people raised against the stles at Jerusalem was, partly, on ac beloved of God, purely on account of their external privi. count of their preaching through Jesus the resurrection from leges, and relation to God as the seed of Abraham; being the dead, Acts iv. 1, 2. This gave great offence to the Sad circumcised, enjoying the law, the promises and ordinances ducees; and, partly, because they openly affirmed that Jesus, | of worship, &c. whom the rulers of the Jezes slew and hanged on a tree, was 5. And this was another ground of their opposition to the the Messiah, whom God had exalted to be a prince and a gospel, when it was preached to the Gentiles. Indeed the Saviour. This disgusted all the council and senate of the apostles themselves and the first Christians among the Jetes Jews, Acts v. 21, 28, 29, 30, 31. But with regard to had, for some time, no notion of the gospel's being preached these two particulars, the indignation of the Jews seems, to the Gentiles; till God, in a vision, convinced Peter it was for some time, abated; till the doctrine the apostles his will that it should, Acts. X. But the unbelieving Jews taught was better understood; and Stephen, in his dis regarded the preaching of the gospel to the Gentiles, or the pute with some learned Jeros, had suggested that the gospeldeclaring that they were, upon their faith in Christ, pardoned was intended to abrogate the Mosaical constitution, Acts and admitted into the church of God, and to the hopes of vi. 9—15. This irritated the Jews afresh ; especially the eternal life almost in the same manner as we should regard Pharisees, the strictest, and most numerous-sect among them. I the preaching of the gospel to brute creatures.

They could And Saul, one of that sect, (Acts xvi. 5. xxiii. 6.) being then not bear the thought that the Gentiles, any barbarous nations, a young man, just come out of Gamaliel's school, having should, only by faith, have an equal interest in God, and finished his studies in the law, and being fully persuaded the blessings of his covenant with themselves. They did not that the Jewish dispensation was instituted by God, indeed deny the possibility of their being taken into the never to be altered, but to abide for ever, he really believed church, and of obtaining salvation. But it must be only by that Jesus and his followers were deceivers, and that it was their becoming Jews ; they must first submit to the law, and his duty to oppose them, and to stand up courageously for yield obedience to its precepts and obligations, before they God and his truth. Thus he honestly followed the dictates could be the qualified objects of God's mercy. There was of his own conscience. How far other unbelieving Jews Il no grace, no part in the kingdom of God, either here or

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