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Explanation of the Calendar.

Calendas, the fourth day before the Calends, &c. Observe~2. That after the Ides which are on the 13th day of January, February, April, June, August, September, November, and December; and on the 15th of March, May, July and October, which have six Nones a-piece, the Calends following are to be reckoned to the next month.

The first column in each month, contains the regular days of that month; the next column, the Calends, Nones and Ides ; and the slightest inspection will shew how the days of these denominations answer to the common days of the month in their regular order.

The Nundinul Letters I have not inserted, as they only refer to the custom of administering law, or trying causes, holding public assemblies, electing magistrates, &c. among the ancient Romans. I have thought it best to fill

up

that place with other matters belonging to this calendar, in which general readers might find more interest.

The last column, the Reader will perceive, is the modern Roman Calendar, copiously filled with the days of real and reputed saints: these, however, are not the whole whose festivals are observed, and whose protection is implored in that church; as, upon an average, there are not fewer than five of these real or imaginary beings to every day of the year!

The Saints' days and Festivals of the Romish Church are taken from Mr. Alban Butler's Lives of the Saints, (one of the best publications of this kind,) conferred with the Connaissance des Temps, edited by La Lande.

The ancient Roman Calendar has been taken chiefly from Ainsworth; the two copies, one English the other Latin, in his second volume, being collated together, and mutually corrected.

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1. Cal. Januariis | Sacred to Janus, Juno, Jupiter, and Esculapius.
2 IV Nonas An unfortunate day, termed by the Romans dies atra.
3/III Nonas

Cancer sets. Birth-day of Cicero.
4 Pridie Nonas Prayer for the safety of the prince.
5 Nonis Jan. Lyra rises.
6 VIII Idus
7 VII Idus
8 VI Idus Sacrifice to Jupiter.
9 V Idus Agonalia, or festivals in honour of Agonius. The Dolphin rises.
10 IV Idus Media hyems, or Mid-winter.

[to Juturna. 11MI Idus Carmentalia, or festivals in honour of Carmenta. Temple dedicated 12 Pridie Idus Compitalia, or festivals in honour of the Lares, or household gods. 13 Idibus Jan. Sacred to Jupiter Stator. Augustus named Octavius. 14 XIX Cal. Feb. 15 | XVII Cal. Sacred to Carmenta, Porrima and Postverta. 16 XVII Cal. Temple of Concord raised by Camillus. 17 XVI Cal. Sun in Aquarius. 18 XV Cal. 19 XIV Cal. 20 XIII Cal. 21 XII Cal. 22 | XI Cal. 23 | X Cal. Lyra sets. 24 / IX Cal. Sementinæ Feriæ, or the feast of seed-time. 25 VIII. Cal. 26 VIT Cal. 27 | VI Cal. Temple dedicated to Castor and Pollux. 28 V Cal. 29 IV Cal. Equiria, or horse-races in honour of Mars in the Campus Martius. 30 III Cal. Sacred to Peace. Fidicula sets. 31 | Pridie Cal. Sacred to the Dii Penates, or household gods.

St. Fulgentius, Odilo or Olon

Macarius, Adelard
P. Balsam, Genevieve
Titus, Rigobert, Rumon
Simeon Stylites, Syncletica
Melanius, Nilammon
Lucian, Cedd, Aldric,
Apollinaris, Severinus, Pega
Julian, Marciana, Felan
William, Agatho, Marcian
Theodosius, Hyginus
Arcadius, Bennet, Aelred
Veronica, Kentigern
Hilary, Felix, Sabas
Paul the first hermit
Honoratus, Pope Marcellus
Antony patr. of the monks
Peter's chair at Rome
Canute, Henry, Wulstan
Fabian, Sebastian, Fechin
Agnes, Epiphanius, Publius
Vincent, Anastasius
Raymund, Ildefonsus
Timothy, Babylas, Cadoc
Projectus, Apollo, Poppo
Polycarp, Paula, Conon
J. Chrysostom, Marius
Charlemagne, Cyril
Francis, Gildas of Sales
Bathildes, Martina
Cyrus, Maidoc, Galdus

FEBRUARY.-Under the protection of Neptune.

1 | Cal. Februariis Lucaria, festivals at Rome celebrated in a large grove. The sacrifi- , St. Ignatius, Sigebert, Kinnia 2 IV Nonas

cium bidens to Jupiter.] Laurence abp. of Canterbury 3 III Nonas Lyra and the middle of the Lion set.

Blase, Wereburge 4 Pridie Nonas Dolphin sets.

[rises. Gilbert, Isidore, Madan 5 | Nonis Feb. Augustus surnamed Pater Patriæ, or Father of his country. Aquarius Martyrs of Japan, Vitus 6 VIII Idus

St. Dorothy, Vedast, Amandus 7 | VII Idus

Romuald, Theodorus 8 VI Idus

Stephen, Cuthman, Paul 9V Idus Commencement of Spring.

Theliau, Ansbert, Erhard 10 IV Idus

Scholastica, William 11 II Idus Arctophylax, or Arcturus, rises. Genialic games.

Saturninus, Severinus 12 Pridie Idus

Benedict, Meletius, Eulalia 13) kilibus Feb. Sacred to Faunus and Jupiter. Slaughter of the Fabii.

Catharine, Modomnoc 14 XVI Cal. Mar. The Crow, Crater, and Serpent rise.

Valentine, Maro, Conran 15 XV Cal. Lupercalia, or festivals in honour of Pan.

Faustinus, Sigfrid, Jovita 16 XIV Cal. Sun in Pisces.

Onesimus, Juliana, Tanco 17X Cal. Quirinalia, or festivals in honour of Romulus.

Flavian, Silvin, Loman 18/ XII Cai.

Fornacalia, or festivals in honour of Fornax. Feralia, or festivals in Simeon, Leo, Paregorius 19 X Cal. Muta, or goddess of silence.

honour of the dead.] Barbatus or Barbas 20 X Cal.

Charistia, or festivals at Rome for the distribution of mutual presents. Tyrann io, Eucherin 21 IX Cal. Terminalia, or festivals in honour of Terminus.

Severianus, Pepin, Verda 22 VIII Cal.

Niargaret, Baradats 23 VII Cal.

[the Bissextile. Serenus, Dositheus Boisil 24 VI Cal. Regifugium, or banishment of the kings from Rome. The place of Matthias the apostle 25 V Cal.

Tarasius, Cæsarius Trius 26 IV Cal.

Alexander, Victor, Porphy27 | III Cal. Equiria, or horse-races in the Campus Martius.

Leander, Alnoth, Galmier 28] Pridie Cal. The Tarquins overcome.

Proterius, Romanus

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1 Cul. Martiis Matronalia, or festivals in honour of Mars. Ancilia in honour of St. David, Monan, Albinus 2 V[ Nonas Birth of Jupiter. Sacred to Lucina.

the same god.] Charles the Good, Joavan 3 V Nonas The second Fish sets.

Cunegundes, Lamaliffe 4 IV Nonas

Casimir pr. of Poland, Adrian 5 III Nonas Arctophylax, or Arcturus sets. Vindemiator rises. Cancer rises. Kiaran, Breaca, Roger 6 Pridie Nonas F'easts of Vesta. Julius Cæsar created high-priest.

Chrodegang, Fridolin 7 Nonis Mar. Pegasus rises. Temple of Vejupiter.

Perpetua, Felicitas 8 VIII Idus The Crown rises.

Duthak, Rosa, Senan 9 VIT Idus Orion rises. The northern Fish rises,

Pacian, Gregory of Nyssa 10 VI Idus

40 martyrs of Sebaste 11 V Idus

St. Eulogius, Ængus 12 IV Idus

Pope Gregory the Great 13 III Idus The opening of the Sea.

St. Nicephorus, Gerald 14 Pridie Idus The second Equiria, or horse-races upon the banks of the Tyber. Queen Mathildis, Lubin 15 Hibus Mar. Sacred to Anna Perenna. The Parricide. Scorpio rises.

Pope Zachary, Mary 16 XVII Cal. Ap. Middle of the Scorpion sets.

[Agonius. Milvius rises. St. Julian, Finian the leper 17 XVI Cal. Liberalia, or festivals in honour ot Bacchus. Agonalia in honour of Patrick, Joseph of Arimathea 18 XV Cal. Sun in Aries.

[five days King Edward, Anselm, Cyril 19 | XIV Cal. Quinquatria, or festival in honour of Minerva. It continued for St. Joseph, Alcmund 20 | XIII Cal.

Cuthbert, Wulfran 21 XII Cal. The first day of the Century. Pegasus sets.

The three Serapions, Endeus 22 XI Cal.

St. Basil, Lea, Catherine 23 X Cal. Tubilustrium, or solemn procession with trumpets.

Victorian, Edelwald 24 IX Cal.

[gods.

Irenæus bp.of Sirmium, Simon 25 VIII Cal. Vernal equinox. Hilaria, or festivals in honour of the mother of the Annunciation B. V. M. 26 VII Cal.

St. Ludger, Braulio [Robert 27 | VI Cal. Cæsar made himself master of Alexandria.

John the hermit, Rupert or 28V Cal. Megalesia, or games in honour of Cybele.

Pope Sixtus III., K. Gontran 29 IV Cal.

St. Jonas, Armogastes, Mark 30 III Cal. Sacred to Janus, Concord, Ilealth, and Peace.

Zozimus, Rieul or Regulus 31 | Pridie Cal. Sacred to the Moon, or Diana, on the Aventine mount.

Benjamin, Guy, Achates

1 Cal. April. 2 IV Nonas 3 III Nonas 4 | Pridie Nonas 5 | Nonis Apr. 6 VIII Idus 7 VII Idus 8 VI Idus 9V Idus 10 IV Idus 11 III Idus 12 Pridie Idus 13 Idibus Apr. 14 XVIII C.Mai. 15 XVII Cal. 16 XVI Cal. 17 | XV Cal. 18 XIV Cal. 19 XIII Cal. 20 XII Cal. 21 | XI Cal. 22 X Cal. 23 IX Cal. 21 VIII Cal. 25 | VII Cal. 26 VI Cal. 27 | V Cal. 28 IV Cal. 99 III Cal. 301 Pridie Cal.

APRIL.–Under the protection of Venus.
Sacred to Venus, and Virile Fortune. Scorpion sets.

St. Hugh, Melito, Gibert
The Pleiades set.

Apian, Ebba, Bronacha

Agape, Ulpian, Nicetas Megalesia, or games in honour of Cybele for eight days.

Isidore, Plato

| Becan

Vincent Ferrer, Tigernach, Sacred to Public Fortune. Birth-day of Diana.

Martyrs of Hadiaó, William Birth-day of Apollo, Socrates, and Plato.

St. liegesippus, Finan, Aibert Games for the victory of Casar. Libra and Orion set.

Dionysius, Walter, Albert Cerealia, or festivals in honour of Ceres. Ludi Circenses, or games Waltrude, Dotto, Gaucher in the circus dedicated to Consus.] Badenius, Mechtildes

Pope Leo the Great, Antipas The great mother brought to Rome.

St. Zeno, Sabas, Victor, Julius Sacred to Jupiter Victor, and Liberty.

Ilermenegild, Caradoc

Tiburtius, Carpus, Benezet Fordicidia, or festivals wherein cows with calf were sacrificed. Munde, Basilissa, Ruadhan Augustus saluted emperor. Hyades set.

Martyrs of Saragossa, Druon

Pope Anicetus, Simeon Equiria, or horse-races in the circus, and the burning of the foxes. St. Galdin, Laferian ( Bald Sun in Taurus.

Pope Leo IX., Elphege the (honour of Agonius. Birth-day of Rome. St. Agnes, Serf, James Palilia, or festivals in honour of Pales. Agonalia, or festivals in Anselm, Harluin, Bueno

Seter, Azades Leonides The first Vinalia, or festivals of Jupiter and Venus.

George the Martyr, Ibar Destruction of Ilium.

[Aries sets. The Dog rises. Fidelis, Mellitus, Bona Robigalia, or festivals in honour of Robigo or Rubigo. Mid-spring. Mark the Evangelist, Ivia The Goat rises.

Cletus, Richarius, Radberi Feriæ Latinæ, or Latin festivals in honour of Jupiter Latialis. Anthimus, Zita, Ana:tasius Floralia, or games in honour of Flora for six days.

Vitalis, Cronan, Pollio

Fiachna, Robert, Hugh, Sacred to Vesta Palatina. The first Larentinalia.

Catherine, Sophia, Ajutte

MAY-Under the protection of Apollo.

Dy of the

Would

Days of the

ancient Roman Month.

FESTIVALS, &c. of the ancient Romans.

Saints' Days, &c. of the Romish

or
Latin Church.

li Cul. Mai.
2 VI Nonas
3 V Vonas

nas
5. I Vonas
6 Pridie Vonas
71 Nonis Mai.
8 Vn Hus
9, VTI Idus
10, VT Idus
11 V Idus
12 IV Idus
13 III Idus
14 Pridie Idus
15! Idibus Mai.
161 XVII C. Jun.
17 XVI Cal.
15 XV Cal.
19 XIV Cal.
201 XT Cal.

1 XII Cal. 22 XI Cal. 23 X Cal. 24 IX Cal. 25 VIII Cal. 261 VIT Cal. 27 VI Cal. 28 V Cal. 29 IV Cal. 30 III Cal. 31 Pridie Cal.

To the good goddess. Altar raised to the Lares. Games of Flora St. Philip and James, Apostles
Hyades rise. The Compitalia. for three days. Capella rises.] Athanasius,
The Centaur and Hyades rise.

Invention of the Iloly Cross

St. Monica, Godard
Lyra rises.

Pope Pius V., Angelus, Hilary
Middle of the Scorpion sets.

St. John before the Latin gate Virgiliæ rise.

Pope Benedict II., Stanislas The Goat rises.

St. Wiro, Odrian, Gybrian. Lemuria, or night festivals, to appease the manes of the dead.

Ilermas, Brynoth

Antoninus, Achard, Isidore
Orion sets. Unfortunate days to marry on.

Mammertus, Maieul
Sacred to Mars, the avenger at the Circus.

Germanus, Rictrudes,Pancras
Pleiades rise. Commencement of summer.

John the Silent, Servatius Taurus rises. Sacred to Mercury.

[cred to Jupiter. Boniface, Pontius, Carthagh Birth-day of Mercury. Festival of the merchants. Lyra rises. Sa. Dymppa, Genebern

Hebedjesus, Abdas, Brendan
Possidius, Maw, Maden

Eric, Potamon, Venantius
Sun in Gemini.

Dunstan, Pudentia na

Bernardin, Ethelbert, Agonalia, or festivals in honour of Agonius. Sacred to Vejovis, or Godric, Sospis or llospitius

Vejupiter. The Dog rises.] Yvo, Bobo, Conall, Castus Tubilustrum, or solemn processsion with trumpets. The feriæ of Julia, Desiderius

Vulcan.] Donatian, Rogatian, Vincent Temple of Fortune. Aquila rises.

Pope Gregory VII., Urban Arctophylax, or Arcturus, sets. The second Regifugium.

St. Augustine, apos. of England
Hyades rise.

Bede, Pope John, Julius
Germanus, Caro

Maximinus, Cyril, Conon
Pope Felix, Maguil, Walstan
St. Petronilla, Cantius

JUNE,-Under the protection of Mercury. 1. Cal. Jun. Fabaria, or festivals in honour of Carna. Aquila rises. Sacred to St. Justin Martyr, Wistan 2 IV Nonas Hyades rise. Sacred to Mars. Juno, Moneta, and Tempestas.] Erasmus, Pothinus 3 III Nonas Sacred to Bellona.

Cecilius, Clotildis, Lifard 4 Pridie Nonas Temple of Hercules in the Circus.

Quirinus, Nenooc, Petroc 5 Vonis Jun. Sacred to Jupiter Sponsor. Temple of Faith.

Ilidius, Dorotheus 6 VIII Idus Temple of Vesta.

(turus sets. Philip the deacon, Gudwall 7 VII Idus Piscatorian days in the Campus Martius. Temple of the Mind. Arc Colman, Meriadec, Robert 8/ VI Idus Altar of Jupiter Pistor.

Clou, William abp. of York 9 V Idus Matralia, or festival in honour of Matuta, or Ino. Dolphin rises. Richard, Pelagia, Vincent 10 IV Idus Sacred to Powerful Forture. Temple of Concord.

Margaret queen of Scotland 11 II Idus Sacred to Mother Matuta.

[honour of Minerva. Barnabas the apostle 12 | Pridie Idus Invincible Jupiter. Quinquatria minuscula, or the minor festivals in Eskill, Onuphrius, Ternan 13 Idibus Jun.

Antony of Padua, Damhnade 11 XVIII C. Jul. II yades rise.

Ba«il the Great, Nennus 15 XVII Cal. Orion rises. The carrying of the dung out of the temple of Vesta. Vitus, Landelin, Vauge 16 XVI Cal. Æqui and Volsci put to flight by Posthumus.

Quiricus, Ferreolus, Aurelian 17 XV Cal.

Nicander, Marcian, Avitus 18 XIV (al. Festival of Minerva on the Aventine mount. Sun in Cancer.

Marina, Amand, Marcus 19 XIII Cal. Summanalia, or festivals in honour of Pluto. Ophiuchus rises.

Gervasius, Die bp. of Nevers 20 XII Cal.

Gobain, Idaberga, Bain 21 XI Cal.

Aloysius, Eusebius, Meen 22 X Cal. Flaminius conquered by the Carthaginians.

Alban, protomart. of Britain 23 IX Cal. Sacred to powerful Fortune.

Etheldreda, Mary of Oignies 24 VII Cal. Crowned ships carried banquets along the Tiber.

Nativity of John Baptist 25 VII Cal. Summer Solstice.

St. Prosper, Moloc, Adelbert 20 VI Cal. Sacred to Jupiter Stator, and Lar.

Vigilius, Babolen, Anthelm 27 V Cal. Temple of Quirinus.

Ladislas I. king of llungary 28 IV Cal.

Pope Leo II., Basilides 29 III Cal. Sacred to Hercules and the Muses.

St. Peter prince of the apostles 30 Prid. Cal.

Paul the apostle

QUINTILIS, or JULY.-Under the protection of Jupiter.

Days of the

Mouth.

Days of the

ancient Roman Month.

FESTIVALS, &c. of the ancient Romans.

Saints' Days, &c. of the Romish

or
Latin Church.

il Cal. Jul. Removing from one house to another.
2 VI Nonas
3 V Nonas
4 IV Nonas The Crown sets. The Hyades rise.

senemies.
5 III Nonas Populifugium, or day in which the people of Rome fled from their
6 Pridie Nonas Conflagration of the Capitol, in the time of Sylla.
7 Nonis Jul. Caprotinæ, or festivals in honour of Juno. Festival of the Maids.
8 VIII Idus Vitulatio, or wanton rejoicings.
9 VII Idus Cepheus rises.
10 VI Idus The Etesian winds begin to blow.
11 V Idus Ludi Apollinares, or games in honour of Apollo, about this time.
12 IV Idus Birth-day of Julius Cæsar. Festival of Female Fortune.
13 III Idus
14 Pridie Idus Sacred to Female Fortune.
15 | Idibus Jul. Festival of Castor and Pollux.
16 XVII Cal.Aug. The foremost Dog rises.
17 XVI Cal. Alliensis dies atra, or anniversary of the unlucky battle of Allia.
18 XV Cal.
19 XIV Cal. Lucaria, games lasting four days.
20 XIII Cal. Plays for Cæsar's victory. Sun in Leo.
21 XII Cal.
22 X[ Cal.
23 X Cal.

The games of Neptune. 24 IX Cal.

[lasting six days. 25 VIII Cal. Furinalia, or festivals in honour of Furiva.

The Circensian games 26 VII Cal. In this month dogs were sacrificed to the dog-star, according to 27 | VI Cal. Aquila rises.

Festus.] 28 V Cal. 29 IV Cal.

Neptunalia, or festivals in honour of Neptune, were celebrated some 30 III Cal. Aquila sets.

time in this month, according to Varro.] 31 Pridie Cal.

St. Calais, Thierri, Leonorus
Visitation of blessed V. M.
St. Guthagon, Bertran, Phocas

Ulric, Odo, Finbar, Bertha
Modwena, Edana, Peter

Palladius apostle of the Scots
Pope Benedict XI., Hedda
St. Elizabeth Q. of Portugal

Ephrem doctor of the church
The seven brothers, Rufina
Pope Pius I., Drostan
St. Nabor, Felix, J. Gualbert

Anacletus, Turizf, Eugenius
Bonaventure dr.of the church
Henry II. emperor, Swithin

Eustathius, Elier the hermit
Pope Leo IV., Marcellina
St. Symphorosa, Bruno, Arnoul

Symmachus, Macrina
Joseph Barsabas, Ceslas
Praxedes, Zoticus, Victor
Mary Magdalene, Dabius
Apollinaris, Liborius
Lupus, Kinga, Declan
James the Greater, Thea
Aone mother of B. V. M.

Pantaleon, Congall, Luican
Pope Innocent I., Pepe Victor
St. Martha, Olaus, Pepe Felix

Abdon, Sennen, Julitta
Ignatius of Loyola, Helen

1 | Cal. Aug. 2 IV Nonas 3 III Nonas 4 Pridie Nonas 5 Nonis Aug. 6 VIII Idus 7 VII Idus 8 VI Idus 9 V Idus 10 IV Idus 11 III Idus 12 Pridie Idus 13 Idibus Aug. 14 XIX Cal. Sep. 15 | XVIII Cal. 16 XVII Cal. 17 | XVI Cal. 18 XV Cal. 19 XIV Cal. 20 XIII Cal. 21 | XII Cal. 22 | XI Cal. 23 | X Cal. 24 | IX Cal. 25 VITI Cal. 26 VII Cal. 27 VI Cal. 28 V Cal. 29 IV Cal. 30 NI Cal. 31 | Pridlie Cal.

SEXTILIS, or AUGUST.--Under the protection of Ceres.
Temple of Mars consecrated. Sacred to Hope.

The Seven Maccabees
Feriæ upon account of Cæsar's subduing Spain.

St. Etheldritha, Pope Stephen

Invention of St. Stephen's relics
The middle of Leo rises.

St. Dominic, Luanus
Sacred to Health on the Quirinal mount.

Oswald, Memmius, Afra
Sacred to Hope.

Transfiguration of our Lord
Middle of Aquarius sets.

St. Cajetan, Donatus
Sacred to Soli Indigeti on the Quirinal mount.

Cyriacus, Hormisdas, Largus

Romanus, Nathy or David Altars of Ops and Ceres in the Jugarian street.

Deusdedit, Blaan, Laurence Sacred to the great guardian of Hercules in the Circus Flaminius. Susanna, Equitius, Gery Lignaposia.

The beginning of autumn.] Clare, Euplius, Muredach Sacred to Diana in the Sylva Aricina, and Vertumnus. The feast of Hippolytus, Wigbert, Cassian

slaves and servant-maids.] Eusebius the priest

Assumption of B.V. M.

St. Hyaciuth, Roch [monks Portumnalia, or festivals in honour of Portumnus.

Mamas, Liberatus and sis
Consualia, or festivals in honour of Consus. Rape of the Sabines. Helen, Agapetus, Clare
Death of Augustus.

Mochteus, Cumin, Lewis
Vinalia secunda, according to Pliny. Sun in Virgo. Lyra sets. Bernard, Oswin
Vinalia rustica, according to Varro. The Grand Mysteries.

Bonosus, Maximilian

Symphorian, Philibert Vulcanalia, or festivals in honour of Vulcan.

Theonas, Justinian the hermit The Feriæ of the Moon.

Bartholomew the apostle Sacred to Ops Consiva in the Capitol.

Lewis IX. king of France

Pope Ze;thyrinus, Genesius

[winds. St. Pæmen, lugh of Lincoln Altars dedicated to Victory in the Court. The end of the Etesian Augustine Dr. of the church Vulcanalia, or festivals in honour of Vulcan, according to Festus. Decollation of Johu Baptist Ornaments of Ceres exhibited.

St. Rose of Lima, Fiaker Birth-day of Germanicus. Andromeda rises.

Raymund Nounatus, Isabe!

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