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He purposes to go to Spain,

CHAP. XV.

and visit Rome in his

way.

A.M. cir. 4062.
A. D. cir. 58.

. 58. An. Olymp. cir. CCİX. 2. A.U.C.cir.811.

24 Whensoever I take my journey and Achaia to make a certain contri- A.M.cir: 1057 An. Olymp; into Spain, I will come to you: for I bution for the poor saints which are A.U.C.cir.811

. trust to see you in my journey, “and at Jerusalem. to be brought on my way thitherward by you, if | 27 It hath pleased them verily; and their first I be somewhat filled with your company.

debtors they are. For, if the Gentiles have 25 But now I go unto Jerusalem to minister been made partakers of their spiritual things, unto the saints.

their duty is also to minister unto them in car26 For dit hath pleased them of Macedonia nal things.

• Acts 15. 3.

-b Gr. with you, ver. 32.- Acts 19. 21. & 20. 29. &

24. 17.

a 1 Cor. 16. 1, 2. 2 Cor. 8. 1. & 9.9, 12. - ch.11. 17.-I Cor. 9.11.

Gal. 6. 6.

Having nothing farther at present that I can do, for TOTOY | gratified with the splendour of the light.Homer uses the Eyelv signifies not merely to have a place of residence, or the word in the same senselike, but convenience, opportunity ; which is a frequent mean

ELLE ουδε περ υιος ενιπλησθηναι ακριτις ing of the phrase among the best Greek writers : having no Οφθαλμοισιν εασε.

Odyss. lib. xi. ver. 451. large place or city where Christianity has not yet been planted, in which I can introduce the gospel. The apostle was

66 But my wife never suffered my eyes to be delighted then at Corinth; and, having evangelized all those parts,

with my son.” he had no opportunity of breaking up any new ground. The apostle, though he had not the honour of having

Verse 24. Whensoever I take my journey into Spain] planted the church at Rome; yet expected much gratification Where it is very likely the gospel had not yet been planted; | from the visit which he intended to pay them. though legendary tales inform us, that St. James had planted Verse 25. Now I go unto Jerusalem] From this, and the the gospel there, long before this time; and had founded two following verses, we learn that the object of his journey many bishoprics! But this is as unfounded as it is ridicu-to Jerusalem was, to carry a contribution made among the lous and absurd : for nothing like what is now termed a Gentile Christians of Macedonia and Achaia, for the relief of bishopric, nor even a parish, was founded for many years the poor Jewish Christians at Jerusalem. About this affair after this. An itinerant preacher might, with more pro- he had taken great pains, as appears from 1 Cor. xvi. 1–4. priety, say travelling circuits were formed, rather than 2 Cor. viii. and ix. chapters. His design in this affair is very bishoprics. Whether the apostle ever fulfilled his design of evident, from 2 Cor. ix. 12, 13. where he says, The admigoing to Spain, is unknown; but there is no evidence what-inistration of this service, not only supplieth the want of the ever that he did ; and the presumption is, that he did not un saints, but is abundant also by many thanksgivings unto God; dertake this voyage. Antiquity affords no proof that he whilst, by the experiment of this ministration, they glorify fulfilled his intention.

God for your professed subjection unto the gospel of Christ; I will come to you] Enevropa Tipos upas; these words and for your liberal distribution unto them, and unto all men. are wanting in almost every MS. of note: and in the Syriac The apostle was in hopes that this liberal contribution, sent of Erpen, Coptic, Vulgate, Æthiopic, Armenian, and Itala. by the Gentile Christians, who had been converted by St. If the first clause of this verse be read in connection with Paul's ministry, would engage the affections of the Jewish the latter clause of the preceding, it will fully appear that Christians, who had been much prejudiced against the recepthis rejected clause is useless. Having a great desire, these tion of the Gentiles into the church, without being previously many years, to come unto you whensoever I take my obliged to submit to the yoke of the law. He wished to journey into Spain: for I trust to see you in my journey, 8c. establish a coalition between the converted Jews and Gen

Somewhat filled with your company.] The word eute ho, Ofw, tiles; being sensible of its great importance to the spread which we translate filled, would be better rendered gratified: of the gospel ; and his procuring this contribution, was one for guttaro Srrat, signifies to be satisfied, to be gratified, and laudable device to accomplish this good end. And this shews to enjoy. Ælian. Ilist. Anim. lib. v. c. 21. speaking of why he so earnestly requests the prayers of the Christians the peacock spreading out his beautiful plumage, says sã yap at Rome; that his service which he had for Jerusalem, & UT 2.70 Oyuan trs beas Toy TAPESwta: “He readily per- might be accepted of the saints. See Dr. Taylor. mits the spectator to gratify himself by viewing him.” And Verse 27. For, if the Gentiles have been made partakers, Maximus Tyrius, Dissert. 41. pag. 413. “ That he may &c.] It was through, and by means of the Jews, that the behold the heavens, xai eu trago On Tape Ti Fou (wtos, and be 'Gentiles were brought to the knowledge of God, and

He commends himself to the

ROMANS.

prayers of the church.

A.M.cir. 4062.
A. D. cir. 58.

An. Olymp:

2

28 When, therefore, I have per-|| 31 • That I may be delivered from A.M.cir-1082

. An, Olymp; formed this, and have sealed to them them that do not believe in Judea ; A.U.C.cir.811. a this fruit, I will come by you into and that my service which I havé A.U.l cir.811. Spain.

for Jerusalem, may be accepted of the 29 “And I am sure that, when I come unto saints ; you, I shall come in the fulness of the blessing 32 " That I

32 "That I may come unto you with joy of the gospel of Christ.

by the will of God, and may with you be 30 Now I beseech you, brethren, for the Lord "refreshed. Jesus Christ's sake, and for the love of the 33 Now 'the God of peace be with you all. Spirit, “that ye strive together with me in your Amen. prayers to God for me ;

a Phil. 4. 17.-- ch. 1.11.-- Phil. 2. 1.-d 2 Cor. 1. 11. Col. 4. 12. 2 Thes. 3. 2.- Or, are disobedient. 2 Cor. 8.4.-Ich. l. 10. Acts 18. 21. 1 Cor. 4. 19. James 4. 15.

k 1 Cor. 16. 18. 2 Cor. 7. 13. 2 Tim. 1. 16. Philem. 7. 20.I ch. 16. 20. 1 Cor. 14. 33. 2 Cor. 13. 11. Phil. 4. 9. 1 Thes. 5. 23. 2 Thes. 3. 16. Heb. 13. 20.

the gospel of Christ. These were the spiritual things Jewish religion; but as one who was labouring to subvert and which they had received: and the pecuniary contribution entirely destroy it. was the carnal things which the Gentiles were now re. And that my service] AlanonX; but several eminent MSS. turning

read 6.0 50.00 51%, the gift which I bear. This probably was a Verse 28. Ilhen, therefore, I have performed this] Service:' gloss, which in many MSS. subverted the word in the text, And have sealed, faithfully delivered up to them, this fruit of for Oxonia service, in its connection here, could refer to the success of my ministrý, and of your conversion to God; I nothing else, but the contribution which he was carrying to I will come by you into Spain: this was in his desire ; he the poor saints at Jerusalem. had fully purposed it, if God should see meet to permit him; Verse 32. That I may come unto you with joy] That his but it does not appear that he ever went. See ver. 24. apprehensions of ill usage were not groundless, and the danger

Ver. 29. In the fulness of the blessing (of the gospel) of to which his life was exposed, real, we have already seen Christ.] The words tou suayy=2000 Tou, of the gospel, are in the account given of this visit, Acts xxi. xxii. xxiii. and xxiv. wanting in almost every MS. of importance. Griesbuch has And that he had such intimations from the Holy Spirit himleft them out of the text. There is no doubt they should be self, appears from Acts xx. 23. xxi. 11. and xx. 38. Should omilted. The fulness of the blessing of Christ is really more his journey to Jerusalem be prosperous, and his service acthan the fulness of the blessing of the gospel of Christ. He cepted, so that the converted Jews and Gentiles should come hoped to come to them not only with the blessing of the to a better understanding, he hoped to see them at Rome gospel, but endued with the gifts and graces of the Lord with great joy. And if he got his wishes gratified through Jesus himself; which he was now a constant instrument in their prayers, it would be the full proof that this whole busithe hand of God, to dispense among those who were con ness had been conducted according to the will of God. verted to the Christian faith.

Verse 33. The God of peace be with you! The whole Verse 30. For the love of the Spirit] By that love of object of the Epistle is to establish peace between the belierGod which the Holy Spirit sheds abroad in your hearts. ing Jews and Gentiles; and to shew them their mutual obThat ye strive together] Euvayuncacle, that ye agonize ligations, and the infinite mercy of God to both : and now

He felt that much depended on the success of his he concludes, with praying that the God of peace, he from present mission to the Christians at Jerusalem ; and their ac whom it comes, and by whom it is preserved, may be for ever ceptance of the charitable contribution which he was bring with them. The word Amen, at the end, does not appear to ing with him in order to conciliate them to the reception of have been written by the apostle: it is wanting in some of the Gentiles into the church of God, without obliging them the most ancient MISS. to submit to circumcision.

Verse 31. That I may be delivered from them that do not 1. In the preceding chapters the apostle enjoins a very beliere] He knew that his countrymen, who had not re hard but a very important and necessary duty, that of beare ceived the gospel, lay in wait for his life; and, no doubt, ing with each other; and endeavouring to think, and let they thought they should do God service by destroying him ; think, in those religious matters which are confessedly not not only as an apostate in their apprehension, from the li essential to the salvation of the soul. Most of the disputes

with me.

* And commends to their attention

CHAP. XVI.

the deaconess Phæbe.

among Christians have been concerning non-essential points. qi concerning any of its doctrines, let it be to find out truth ; Riles and ceremonies, even in the simple religion of Christ, not to support a pre-conceived and pre-established opinion. have contributed their part in promoting those animosities by Avoid all polemical heat and rancour; these prove the abwhich Chritians have been divided. Forms in worship, and sence of the religion of Christ. Whaterer does not lead you sacerdotal garments, have not been without their influence in to love God and man more, is most assuredly from beneath. this general disturbance. Each side has been ready to take The God of peace is the author of Christianity: and the out of the 11th and 15th chapters of this Epistle, such er. Prince of peace, the priest and sacrifice of it: therefore love pressions as seemed suitable to their own case; but few have one another; and leave off contention before it be meddled been found who have taken up the whole. You believe that with. On this subject the advice of pious Mr. Herbert is a person who holds such and such opinions is wrong; pity good :him, and set him right; lovingly, if posible. Ile believes Be calm in arguing; for fierceness makes you to be wrong, because you do not hold those points : he Error a fault, and truth discourtesy. must bear with you. Both of you stand precisely on the Why should I feel another man's mistakes same ground, and are mutually indebted to mutual for More than his sickness or his poverty.? bearance.

In love I should; but anger is not love ; 9. Beware of contentions in religion; if you dispute

Nor wisdom neither :-therefore g-e-n-t-l-y m-0-0-e.

CHAPTER XVI.

The Apostle commends to the Christians at Rome, Phæbe, a deaconess of the church at Cenchrea, 1, 2. Sends

greetings to Aquila and Priscilla, of whom he gives a high character; and greets also the church at their house, 3–5. Mentions several others by name, both men and women, who were members of the church of Christ al Rome, 6-16. Jarns them to beware of those who cause dissensions and divisions, of whom he gives an awful character, 17, 18. E.rtols the obedience of the Roman Christians, and promises them a complete victory over Satan, 19, 20. Several persons send their salutations, 21–23. To whose good wishes he subjoins the apostolic blessing ; commends them to God; gives an abstract of the doctrines of the gospel; and concludes with ascribing glory to the only wise God, through Christ Jesus, 24-27.

COMMEND unto you Phæbe 2 That ye receive her in the Lord, A.M. cir. 4062. An. Olymp: our sister, which is a servant of as becometh saints; and that

An. Olymp.

assist cir. CCIX. 2.

ye A.U.C.cir.811. the church which is at · Cenchrea: her in whatsoever business she hath A.U.C.cir.811.

A. M. cir. 4062.
A. D. cir. 58.

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cir. CCľX. 2.

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NOTES ON CHAP. XVI.

those who were in prison ; and, in short, perform those reliVerse 1. 1 commend unto you Phæbe] As the apostle gious offices for the female part of the church, which could had not been at Rome, previously to his writing this Epistle; not with propriety be performed by men. They were chosen he could not have had a personal acquaintance with those in general out of the most experienced of the church, and were members of the church there, to whom he sends these friendly ordinarily widows, who had borne children. Some ancient Consalutations. It is likely that many of them were his own stitutions required them to be forty, others fifty, and others converts ; who, in different parts of Asia Minor and Greece, sixty years of age. It is evident that they were ordained to had heard him preach the gospel, and afterwards became their office, by the imposition of the hands of the bishop; settlers at Rome.

and the form of prayer used on the occasion is extant in the Phæbe is here termed a servant, àraxonov, a deaconess of apostolical Constitutions. In the tenth or eleventh century, the church at Cenchrea. There were deaconesses in the pri- the order became extinct in the Latin church; but continued mitive church, whose business it was to attend the female in the Greek church till the end of the twelfth century. converts at baptism ; to instruct the catechumens, or per- See Broughton's Dictionary, article deaconess. sons who were candidates for baptism ; to visit the sick, and Cenchrea was a sea-port on the east side of the Isthmus,which

The apostle sends greetings

ROMANS.

to several persons at Rome.

cir. Ccix.2. A.U.C.cir.811.

A.M.ci:1962. need of you: for she hath been a house. Salute my well beloved Epe- A.M.1,4162

. An.cClympi succourer of many, and of

and of myself netus, who is the firstfruits of Achaia An. Olymp; A.U.C.cir.8ll. also.

unto Christ. 3 Greet Priscilla and Aquila my helpers in 6 Greet Mary, who bestowed much labour Christ Jesus :

4 Who have for my life laid down their own 7 Salute Andronicus and Junia, my kinsmen, necks : unto whom not only I give thanks, but and my fellow-prisoners, who are of note also all the churches of the Gentiles.

among the apostles, who also were in Christ 5 Likewise greet "the church that is in their before me.

on us.

a Acts 18.2, 18, 26. 2 Tim. 4. 19.- 1 Cor. 16. 19. Col. 4. 15. Philem. 2.

c 1 Cor. 16. 15.

d Gal. 1. 22.

joined the Morea to Greece; as the Lecheum was the sea-port district? Ans.—Epenetus might have been one of the family on the west side of the same Isthmus. These were the only of Stephanas ; for, it is not said that Stephanas was the firsttwo havens and towns of any note next to Corinth, that be- | fruits, but his house or family, and there can be no improlonged to this territory. As the Lecheum opened the road priety in supposing that one of that house or family was to the Ionian sea, so Cenchreu opened the road to the called Epenetus : and that this person being the only one of Ægeun ; and both were so advantageously situated for com the family now at Rome, might be mentioned as the firstmerce, that they were very rich. It was on the Isthmus, be- fruits of Achaia ; that is, one of that family which first retween those two ports, which was about six miles wide, that ceived the gospel in that country. This would rationally acthe Isthmean games were celebrated ; to which St. Paul makes count for the apparent difficulty, were we sure that Ayalas, such frequent allusions,

Achuid, was the true reading : but this is more than doubtful, Verse 2. Succourer of muny] One who probably entertained for A5145 Asia, is the reading of ABCDEFG, some others; the apostles and preachers who came to minister at Cenchrea; the Coptic, Æthiopic, Armenian, Vulgate, and Itala ; and and who was remarkable for entertaining strangers. See on some of the chief of the Fathers. On this evidence, Gries. chap. xii. s.

buch has admitted it into the text. Yet, the other reading Verse 3. Greet Priscilla and AquilaThis pious couple is sufficiently natural, for the reasons already assigned. had been obliged to leave Rome, on the edict of Claudius, Verse 6. Greet Mury, who bestowed much lubour on us.] see Acts xviii. 2. and take refuge in Greece. It is likely Who this Mary was, or what the labour was, which she bethat they returned to Rome at the death of Claudius, or stowed

upon the apostles, we know not. Her works, though whenever the decree was annulled. It seems they had greatly hidden from man, are with God; and her name is recorded contributed to assist the apostle in his important labours. with honour in this book of life. Instead of Priscilla, the principal MSS. and Versions, have Verse 7. Andronicus and Junia, my kinsmen] As the Prisca, which most critics suppose to be the genuine reading. word ou/yevels' signifies relatives, whether male or female,

Verse 4. Who have for my life laid clown their own necks] and as Junia may probably be the name of a woman, the What transaction this refers to we know not; but it appears wife of Andronicus, it would be better to say relatives than that these persons had, on some occasion, hazarded their own kinsmen. But probably St. Paul means no more than that lives to save that of the apostle; and that the fact was they were Jews; for in chap. ix. 3. he calls all the Jews his known to all the churches of God in that quarter; who felt kinsmen according to the flesh. themselves under the highest obligations to these pious per My fellow-prisoners l As Paul was in prisons often, it is sons, for the important service which they had thus rendered. likely that these persons shared this honour with him on some

Verse 5. The church that is in their house] In these occasion, which is not distinctly marked. primitive times, no such places existed as those which we now Of note among the apostles] Whether this intimates that term churches ; the word always signifying the congregation, they were noted apostles, or only highly reputed by the or assembly of believers, and not the place they assembled apostles, is not absolutely clear: but the latter appears to me in. S'e the term defined at the end of the Notes on the most probable. They were not only well known to Matt. xvi.

St. Paul, but also to the rest of the apostles. Epenctus--the firstfruits of Achaia In 1 Cor. xvi. 15. In Christ before me.] That is, they were converted to the house, or family of Stephanas, is said to be the firstfruits of Christianity before Paul was; probably at the day of penteAchan: how then can it be said here, that Epenetus was the cost, or by the ministry of Christ himself, or by that of firstfruits, or first person who had received the gospel in that the seventy disciples.

The apostle sends salutations

CHAP. XVI.

to several persons at Rome,

A.M.cir. 4062.

. 8 Greet Amplias, my beloved in the 12 Salute Tryphena and Tryphosa, A. M. cir: 1062 A. D. cir.58.

A. D. cir.58. An. Olymp; Lord.

who labour in the Lord. Salute the

An. Olymp: cir ccix'2.

cir. CCIX. 2. A.U.C.cir.311.

9 Salute Urbane, our helper in beloved Persis, which laboured much A.U.C.cir.811. Christ, and Stachys my beloved.

in the Lord. 10 Salute Apelles approved in Christ. Salute 13 Salute Rufus chosen in the Lord, and his them which are of Aristobulus' a houschold. mother and mine.

11 Salute Herodion my kinsman. Greet them 14 Salute Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermas, Pathat be of the household of Narcissus, which trobas, Hermes, and the brethren which are with are in the Lord.

them.

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would say.

Verse 8. Amplias, my beloved in the Lord.] One who it to the uttermost of their power. Many have spent much my particular friend; and also a genuine Christian. useless labour in endeavouring to prove that these women

Verse 9. Urbane, our helper] Who this Urbanus was, || did not preach. That there were some prophetesses, as well we know not : what is here stated, is, that he had been a fel. as prophets, in the Christian church, we learn; and that a low-labourer with the apostles.

woman might pray or prophesy, provided she had her head Stachys my beloved.] One of my particular friends. covered, we know; and that whoever prophesied, spoke unto

Verse 10. Apelles approved in Christ] A man who, on others to edification, exhortation, and comfort, St. Paul de. different occasions, had given the highest proofs of the sin- clares, 1 Cor. xiv. 3. And that no preacher can do more, cerity and depth of his religion. Some suppose that Apelles every person must acknowledge; because, to edify, exhort, was the same with Apollos. Whoever he was, he had given and comfort, are the prime ends of the gospel ministry. If every demonstration of being a genuine Christian.

women thus prophesied, then women preached. There is, how. Of Aristobulus' household.] It is doubted whether this ever, much more than this implied in the christian ministry; of person was converted; as the apostle does not salute him, but | which men only, and men called of God, are capable. his household; or, as the margin reads, his friends. He Verse 13. Rufus chosen in the Lord] Toy exhextov; one might have been a Roman of considerable distinction : who, of great excellence in Christianity; a choice man, as we though not converted himself, had Christians among his ser

So the word ex.EXTOS, often signifies. Psal. tants or his slaves. But, whatever he was, it is likely that Ixxviii. 31. They smote, Tous EXAEXTOUS, the chosen men that he was dead at this time, and therefore those of his house were of Israel.–So Exnexta fermuard, are choice sepulchres, hold only are referred to by the apostle.

Gen. xxiii. 6.-Erdexta TWY 'wpwr, choice gifts, Deut. xii. 11. Verse it. Herodion my kinsman] Probably another And avapes ex'EXTO), choice men, Judges xx. 6.

By the converted Jew. See on ver. 7.

same use of the word, the companions of Paul and Barnabas Of the household of Narcissus] Probably dead also, as are termed chosen men, εκλεξαμενους ανδρας: persons in we have supposed Aristobulus to have been at this time. whom the church of God could confide. See Whitby.

Which are in the Lord.] This might intimate that some His mother and mine.] It is not likely that the mother of this family were not Christians; those only of that family of Rufus was the mother of Paul ; but while she was the that were converted to the Lord, being saluted. There was natural mother of the former, she acted as a mother to the a person of the name of Narcissus, who was a freed man of latter. We say of a person of this character, that she is a the emperor Claudius, mentioned by Suetonius, in his life of motherly woman. Among the ancients, he or she, who that prince, cap. 37. And by Tacitus, An. lib. xii. cap. 57. | acted a kind, instructing, and indulgent part to another, was But there does not seem any reason to suppose that this was stiled the father or mother of such an one. So Terencethe person designed by St. Paul.

Naturâ tu illi pater es, consiliis ego. Verse 12. Tryphena and Tryphosa] Two holy women,

Adelphi. Act. i. scen. 2. ver. 47. who it seems were assistants to the apostle in his work; pro

Thou art his father by nature; I, by instruction. bably by exhorting, visiting the sick, &c. Persis was another woman, who, it seems, excelled the preceding; for, of her it Verse 14. Salute Asyncritus, &c.] Who these were we s said, she laboured much in the Lord. We learn from know not. Hermas was probably the same to whom a work his, that Christian women, as well as men, laboured in the called the Shepherd, is attributed; a work with this title is inistry of the word. In those times of simplicity, all per- still extant, and may be found among the writings of the apos, ons, whether men or women, who had received the know-tolical fathers. But it is vain to look for identity of persons dge of the truth, believed it to be their duty to propagate || in similarity of names; for, among the Greeks and Romans,

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