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4. M.cic.4062. branches, be graffed into their own, "blindness in part is happened to A... 04062 An. Olymp. olive tree?

Israel, "until the fulness of the Gen- Au. Olymp. 25 For, I would not, brethren, that tiles be come in. should be ignorant of this mystery, lest ye 26 (And so all Israel shall be saved : as it is should be wise in your own conceits ; that written, • There shall come out of Sion the

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a Ch. 12. 16. ver. 7. 2 Cor. 3. 14.--- Or, hardness.

Luke 21. 24. Rev. 7.9.

Isai. 59. 20. See Ps. 14. 7.

ארצות הגוים שימלאו ,were understood by Solondon ben Velec

מהם

possible to effect such a change in the state and disposition of where, embrace the faith.

The words πληραμα the Gentiles, who were abeot sv TL 2054W, Ephes. ii. 12. 9rwy, may be borrowed from the 2'490 min melo howithout God, ATHEISTs in the world : how much more pos- goyim, a multitude of nations, which the Septuagint transsible is it, speaking after the manner of men, to bring about late by Thybos eiwe. By the Throwd, or fulness, a great a similar change in the Jews, who acknowledge the one, multitude may be intended; which should be so dilated on only, and true God; and receive the law and the prophets as every hand as to fill various regions. Iu this sense the words a revelation from him. This seems to be the drift of the

Solomon Melec, apostle's argument.

The nutions of the Gentiles shall be filled with them: Verse 25. I woulul not that

ye should be ignorant of this the apostle, therefore, seems to give this sense of the mystery] Mystery Musypion, signilies any thing that is mystery, that the Jews will continue in a state of blindness hidden, or covered, or not fully made manifest. The Greek till such time as a multitude of nations, or Gentiles, shall be word seems to have been borrowed from the Llebrew nop converted to the Christian faith; and the Jews, hearing of mister, from the root vo sutur, to hide, conceal, &c. though this, shall be excited, by a spirit of emulation, to examine some derive it from uvecízi, to be initiated into sacred rites, and acknowledge the validity of the proofs of Christianity; from uvely, to shut up. In the New Testament it siguifies, and embrace the faith of our Lord Jesus Christ. generally, any thing, or doctrine that has not, in former times, We should not restrict the meaning of these words too been fully known to men: or, something that has not been much, by imagining-1. That the fulness must necessarily heard of; or which is so deep, profound, and difficult of com- mean all the nations of the universe; and all the individuals prehension, that it cannot be apprehended without special di- of those nations : probably, no more than a general spread rection and instruction : here, it signifies the doctrine of the of Christianity over many nations which are now under the fulure restoration of the Jews, not fully known in itself, and influence of Pagun or Mohammedan superstition, may be not at all known as to the time in which it will take place. what is intended. 2. We must not suppose that the coming In chap. xvi. 25. it means the Christian religion, not known in here mentioned, necessarily means what most religious till the advent of Christ. The apostle wished the Romans persons understand by conversion, a thorough change of the not to be ignorant of this mystery, viz. that such a thing whole heart and the whole life; the acknowledgment of the was intended : and, in order to give them as much instruction Divine mission of our Lord, and a cordial embracing of the as possible on this subject, he gives them some characteristic, Christian religion, will sufliciently fulfil the apostle's words. or sign of the times when it was to take place.

If we wait for the conversion of the Jews, till such a time Lest

ye should be wise in your own conceits] It seems as every Gentile and Mohammedan soul shall be, in this csfrom this, and from other expressions in this Epistle, that the pecial sense, converted to God, then--we shall wait for ever, converted Gentiles had not behared toward the Jews with Verse 26. And so all Israel shall be suced] Shall be that decorum and propriety which the relation they bore to brought into the way of salvation, by acknowledging the them required. In this chapter the apostle strougly guards Messiah; for the word certainly does not mean eternal them against giving way to such a disposition.

glory: for, no man can conceive that a time will ever come Blindness in part is happened to Israel] Partial blind- in which every Jew, then living, shall be taken to the king. ness, or blindness to a part of them; for they were not all dom of glory. The term saved, as applied to the Israelites unbelievers : several thousauds of them had been converted in different parts of the Scripture, signifies no more than to the Christian faith; though the body of the nation, and their being gathered out of the nations of the world ; separespecially its rulers, civil and spiritual, continued opposed to ated to God, and possessed of the high privilege of being his Christ and his doctrine.

peculiar people. And we know that this is the meaning of Until the fulness of the Gentiles be come in.) And this the term, by finding it applied to the body of the Israelites, blindness will continue till the church of the Gentiles be fully when this alone was the sum of their state. See the Preface, completed; till the gospel be preached through all the pag. viii. &c. nations of the earthi, and multitudes of heathens every As it is wrillen] The apostle supports what he advances

The Gentiles shall become the means

ROMANS.

of salvation to the Jews.

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A.M.cir. 4062. Deliverer, and shall turn away un 29 For, the gifts and calling of God 4. M. cit. 1072. An. Olymp. godliness from Jacob.

are without repentance. 27 a For, this is my covenant unto 30 For, as ye d in times past A.U.C.cir.bizi

. them, when I shall take away their sins.)

have not believed God, yet have now ob28 As concerning the gospel, they are ene- tained mercy through their unbelief : mies for your sakes : but as touching the 31 Even so have these also now not be election, they are " beloved for the fathers' lieved, that through your mercy they also may sakes.

obtain mercy.

c Numb. 23.19.

· Isai. 27. 9. Jer. 31. 31, &c. Hebr. 8. 8. & 10. 16. Deut. 7. 8. &

9. 5. & 10. 15.

Eph. 2. 2. Col. 3.7.-- Or, obeyed.

- Or, obeyed.

on this head, by a quotation from Scripture, which, in the 21. Amos ix. 9. to the end: Obad. ver. 17, 21. Micauir. main, is taken from Isai. lix. 20. The Deliverer shall come 3—7. vii. 18, 19, 20. Zepit. iii. 19, 20. out of Zion, and turn away ungodliness from Jacob. Now Verse 28. As concerning the gospel] The unbelieving this cannot be understood of the manifestation of Christ Jews, with regard to the gospel, which they have rejected, among the Jews; or of the multitudes which were converted are at present enemies to God, and aliens from his kingdom, before, at, and for some time after, the day of Pentecost ; | under his Son Jesus Christ, on account of that extensive for these times were all past when the apostle wrote this grace which has overturned their peculiarity, by admitting Epistle, which was probably about the 57th or 58th year of the Gentiles into his church and family : but with regard to our Lord : and, as no remarkable conversion of that people the original purpose of election, whereby they were chosen has since taken place, therefore, the fulfilment of this pro- and separated from all the people of the earth, to be the pephecy is yet to take place. In what manner Christ is to come culiar people of God, they are beloved for the fathers' sake ; out of Zion; and in what way, or by what means he is to he has still favour in store for them, on account of their turn away transgression from Jacob, we cannot tell; and fore-futhers, the Patriarchs. to attempt to conjecture, when the time, occasion, means, &c. Verse 29. For, the gifts and calling of God, &c.] The are all in mystery, would be more than reprehensible. gifts which God has bestowed upon them; and the calling,

Verse 27. For, this is my covenant unto them, when I shall || the invitation with which he has favoured them, he will nerer take away their sins.] The Reader, on referring to Isai. revoke. In reference to this point, there is no change of chap. lix. 20, 21. will find that the words of the original are mind in him; and, therefore, the possibility and certainty of here greatly abridged. They are the following:

their restoration to their original privileges of being the peoAnd the Redeemer shall come to Zion, and unto them that ple of God, of enjoying every spiritual blessing with the turn from transgression in Jacob, saith the Lord. As for fulness of the Gentiles, may be both reasonably and safely

my

covenant with them, saith the Lord, My Spirit inferred. that is upon thee, and my words which I have put in thy Repentance, when applied to God, signifies simply change mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the of purpose relative to some declaration made subject to cer. mouth of thy seed, nor out of the mouth of thy seed's seed, tain conditions. See this fully explained and illustrated by saith the Lord, from henceforth and for ever.

himself, Jer. xviii. 7, 8, 9. For the manner in which St. Paul makes his quotations Verse 30. For, as ye in times past] The apostle pursues from Scripture, see the observations at the end of the pre- ' his argument in favour of the restoration of the Jews. As ceding chapter. The whole of these two verses should be ye Gentiles, in times past, for many ages back; read in a parenthesis, as I have marked them in the text; for Ilave not believed] Were in a state of alienation from it is evident that the 25th verse should be immediately con God; yct, not so as to be totally and for ever excluded: nected with the 28th.

Ilave now obtained mercy] For ye are now taken into It may not be amiss to subjoin here a collection of those the kingdom of the Messiah; through their unbelief, by that texts in the Old Testament, that seem to point out a restor- method which, in destroying the Jewish peculiarity, and fulation of the Jewish commonwealth, to a higher degree of filling the Abrahamic covenant, has occasioned the unbelief excellence than it has yet attained.- Isan. ii. 2-5. xix. 24, and obstinate opposition of the Jews. 25. xxv. 6, &c. xxx. 18, 19, 26. lx. throughout: lxv. 17. Verse 31. Eren so have these also] In like manner the to the end: JEREM. xxxi. 10, 11, 12. xlvi. 27, 28. Ezek. Jews are, through their infidelity, shut out of the kingdom xx. 34, 10, &c. xxviii. 25, 26. xxiv. 20, &c. xxxvi. 8- of God:16. xxxvii. 21-28. xxxix. 25, &c. Joel iii. 1, 2, 17, 20, That through your mercy] But this exclusion will not

me, this is

God hath concluded all

CHAP. XI.

in unbelief, both Jews and Gentiles.

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32 For "God hath concluded them able are his judgments, and his ways A. V. cr. 68. An. olymp; all in unbelief, that he might have past finding out! mercy upon all.

34 For who hath known the A.U.C.cir.811. 33 O the depth of the riches both of the wis- mind of the Lord? or 'who hath been his dom and knowledge of God! how unsearch-counsellor ?

An. Olymp. cir. CCIX. 2.

• Ch. 3.9. Gal. 3. 22.

-Or, shut them all up together. Ps. 36. 6. d Job 11. 7. Ps. 92. 5.

• Job 15. 8. Isai. 40. 13. Jer. 23. 19. Wisd. 9. 13. I Cor. 2. 16.-

i Job 36. 22.

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be everlasting, but this will serve to open a new scene, when, presses the guilty, helpless, wretched state of both Jews and through farther displays of mercy to you Gentiles, they also Gentiles. may obtain mercy; shall be received into the kingdom of God Verse 33. O the depth of the riches both of the wisdom again; and this shall take place whenever they shall consent and knowledge of God!] This is a very proper conclusion to acknowledge the Lord Jesus, and see it their privilege to of the whole preceding discourse. Wisdom may here refer be fellow-heirs with the Gentiles, of the grace of life. to the designs of God; knozoledge, to the means which he

As sure, therefore, as the Jews were once in the kingdom, employs to accomplish these designs. The designs are the and the Gentiles were not; as sure as the Gentiles are now offspring of infinite wisdom, and therefore they are all right: in the kingdom, and the Jews are not; so surely will the the means are the most proper, as being the choice of an inJews be brought back into that kingdom.

finite knowledge that cannot err: we may safely credit the Verse 32. For God hath concluded them all in unbelief] goodness of the design, founded in infinite wisdom : we may Suvexheite yapo Deos, God hath shut or locked them all up rely on the due accomplishment of the end, because the under unbelief. This refers to the guilty state of both Jews means are chosen and applied by infinite knowledge and and Gentiles. They had all broken God's law; the Jews, skill. the written law; the Gentiles, the law written in their Verse 34. For who hath known the mind of the Lord?] hearts ; see chap. i. 19, 20. and ii. 14, 15. They are repre- Who can pretend to penetrate the counsels of God; or sented here as having been accused of their transgressions ; fathom the reasons of his conduct ? His designs and his tried at God's bar; found guilty on being tried; condemned counsels are like himself, infinite ; and, consequently, into the death they had merited ; remanded to prison, till the scrutable. It is strange that, with such a Scripture as this sovereign will, relative to their execution, should be an- before their eyes, men should sit down, and coolly and posinounced ; shut, or locked up, under the jailor Unbelief: and tively write about counsels and decrees of God, formed from there, both continued in the same state, awaiting the execu- all eternity, of which they speak with as much confidence tion of their sentence; but God, in his own compassion, and decision as if they had formed a part of the council of moved by no merit in either party, caused a general pardon the Most High ; and had been with him in the beginning of by the gospel, to be proclaimed to all. The Jews have re- his ways ! A certain writer, after having entered into all fused to receive this pardon, on the terms which God has these counsels, and drawn out his black lined scheme of abproposed it; and therefore continue locked up under unbelief. solute and eternal reprobation, with all its causes and effects; The Gentiles have welcomed the offers of grace, and are de- and then his light-lined scheme of absolute and eternal livered out of their prison. But, as the offers of mercy con ELECTION, with all its causes and effects; all deduced in the tinue to be made to all, indiscriminately, the time will come, most regular and graduated order, link by link, concludes when the Jews, seeing the vast accession of the Gentile with ver. 33, O the depth of the riches, both of the wisdom world to the kingdom of the Messiah, and the glorious pri- and knowledge of God! How UnSEARCHABLE

are his vileges which they in consequence enjoy, shall also lay hold judgments, and his ways PAST FINDING out! But this on the hope set before them, and thus become with the Gen- writer forgot that he had searched out God's judgments in tiles, one flock under one Shepherd and Bishop of all their the one case, and found out his ways in the other ; and that souls. The same figure is used Gal. iii. 22, 23. But the he had given, as a proof of the success of his researches, a Scripture hath concluded ouverÃELCEV, locked up all under complete exhibition of the whole scheme! This conduct is sin, that the promise, by faith of Christ Jesus, might be given worthy of more than mere reprehension: and yet he who to them that believe. But before faith came, we were kept, | differs from such opinions, gives, in the apprehension of EDpoupouusega, we were guarded as in a strong hold, under some, this proof of his being included in some of the links the law; shut up, ouynexãelou svou locked up together unto of the black list! We may rest with the conviction, that the faith which should afterwards be revealed. It is a fine God is as merciful and good in all his ways, as He is wise and well chosen metaphor in both places ; and forcibly ex- ||and just. But, as we cannot comprehend him, neither can

God's counsels and

ROMANS.

purposes are unsearchable.

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35 Or, 4 who hath first given to 36 For of him, and through him, A.0.0.963 Anemo; him, and it shall be recompensed and to him, are all things: ° to whom An.Olymp: A.U.C.cir.Sll. unto him again?

be glory for ever. Amen.

cir. ccix: 2. A.U.C.cir.811.

* Job 35. 7. & 41. 11.-1 Cor. 8. 6. Col. 1. 16. Gal. 1. 5. 1 Tim.

1. 17. 2 Tim. 4. 18. Heb. 19. 21. 1 Pet. 5. 11. 2 Pet. 3. 18. Jude 25.

• Rev. 1.6.- Gr. him,

we his operations : it is our place, who are the objects of his are they ever opposite to those ideas which God has implanted infinite mercy and kindness, to adore in silence, and to obey in man, of goodness, justice, mercy, and truth. But it is with alacrity and delight.

worthy of remark, that we can more easily account for the Verse 35. Or, who hath first given to him] Who can di-pensations of his justice, than we can for the dispensations pretend to have

any
demands upon

God? To whom is he of his mercy. We can every where see 10,000 reasons why indebted? Ilave either Jews or Gentiles any right to his he should display his justice; but scarcely can we find one blessings ? May not he bestow his favours as he pleases, and reason why he should display his mercy. And yet, these to whom he pleases? Does he do any injustice to the Jews displays of mercy, for which we can scarcely find a reason, in choosing the Gentiles? And was it because he was under are infinitely greater and more numerous than his displays obligation to the Gentiles, that he has chosen them in the of justice ; for which the reasons are, in a vast variety of place of the Jews? Let him who has any claim on God, cases, as obvious as they are multiplied. The sacrifice of prefer it; and he shall be compensated.

Christ is certainly an infinite reason why God should exBut how can the Creator be indebted to the creature? tend, as he does, his mercy to all men; but Jesus Christ is Ilow can the CAUSE be dependent on the effect? How the gift of God's love: who can account for the love that can the Author of Providence, and the Father of every gave him to redeem a fallen world! The Jews have fallen good and perfect gift, be under obligation to them for whom under the displeasure of Divine justice ; why they should be he provides, and who are wholly dependent on his bounty ? objects of this displeasure is at once seen, in their ingrati

Verse 36. For of him, &c.] This is so far from being tude, disobedience, unbelief and rebellion. But a most esthe case, for s & AUTOV, or him, as the original designer and pecial Providence has watched over them, and preserved them author; and si autou, by him, as the prime and efficient in all their dispersions for 1700 years. Who can account cause; and ens QUTOV, to him, as the ultimate end for the for this? Again, these very persons have a most positive manifestation of his eternal glory and goodness, are all promise of a future deliverance, both great and glorious. things in universal Nature, through the whole compass of Why should this be? The Gentile world was long left time and eternity.

without a Divine revelation, while the Jews enjoyed one: The emperor Marcus Antoninus, (els &OUTOV, lib. iv.) has Who can account for this? The Jews are now cast out of a saying very much like this of St. Paul, which it is very pro- | favour, in a certain sense, and the reasons of it are sufbable he borrowed from this Epistle to the Romans. Speak- ficiently obvious; and the Gentiles, without any apparent ing of Nature, whom he addresses as God, he says '12 Qualse reason, are taken into favour. In all these things his 8X COU TAUTA, Е v 001 TEAVTA, EIS DE TANTH; 0, Nature ! judgments are unsearchable ; and his ways past finding out. of thee are all things; in thee are all things; to thee are all II. Once more let it be remarked, that, although God is things. Several of the Gentile philosophers had expressions | every where promising, and bestowing the greatest and most of the same import, as may be seen in Wetstein's quotations. | ennobling privileges, together with an eternal and ineffable

To whom be glory] And let him have the praise of all | glory, for which we can give no reason but his own endless his works, from the hearts and mouths of all his intelligent goodness, through the death of his Son; yet, in no case does creatures, for ever; throughout all the generations of men. he remove those privileges, nor exclude from this glory but Amen, so be it; let this be established for ever!

where the reasons are most obvious to the meanest capacity.

III. This Epistle has been thought, by some, to afford 1. The apostle considers the designs of God inscrutable; I proofs that God, by an eternal decree, had predestinated to and his mode of governing the world incomprehensible. His eternal perdition millions of millions of human souls, bedesigns, schemes, and ends, are all infinite; and, conse fore they had any existence, except in his own purpose, and quently, unfathomable. It is impossible to account for the for no other reason but his sovereign pleasure! But such a dispensations either of his justice or mercy. He does things decree can be no more found in this book, than such a dispounder both these characters which far surpass the compre sition in the mind of Him who is the perfection, as he is the hension of men. But, though his dispensations are a great model, of wisdom, goodness, justice, mercy and truth. May deep, yet they are never self-contradictory: though they God save the Reader from profaning his name, by supposifar surpass our reason, yet they never contradict reason; nor / tions, at once so monstrous and absurd !

We should give ourselves to

CHAP. XII.

God, as a living sacrifice.

CHAPTER XII. Such displays of God's mercy as Jews and Gentiles have received, should induce them to consecrate themselves to

Him; and not be conformed to the world, 1, 2. Christians are exhorled to think meanly of themselves, 3. And each to behave himself properly in the office which he has received from God, 4-8. Various important moral duties recommended, 9—18. We must not avenge ourselves, but overcome evil with good, 19–21.

• BESEECH you, therefore,||" a living sacrifice, holy, acceptAn. Olymp. brethren, by the mercies of able unto God, which is your reason

An. Olymp:

A.U.C.cir.811. A.U.C.cir.811. God, that ye 'present your bodies able service.

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A.M. cir. 4062.
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cir. ccix. 2.

cir. CCIX. 2.

• 2 Cor. 10.1.- i Pet. 2. 5.

• Ps. 50. 13, 14. ch. 6. 13, 16, 19. 1 Cor. 6. 13, 20.--. Hebr. 10. 20.

NOTES ON CHAP. XII.

and the apostolic method of preaching, to inculcate various The apostle having now finished the doctrinal part of this Christian duties; and to exhort to that temper of mind, Epistle, proceeds to the practical: and here it may be neces- and conduct of life, which are suitable to the professiou sary to take a view of his arguments in the preceding of the gospel, and the enjoyment of its privileges. chapters.

Dr. Taylor. The election, calling, and justification of the believing Gentiles, and their being admitted into the kingdom and co Verse 1. I beseech you, therefore, brethren] This address venant of God, and having an interest in all the privileges is probably intended both for the Jews and the Gentiles ; and honours of his children. (1.) That they have a clear though some suppose that the Jews are addressed in the first and substantial title to all these he has proved in chap. i. ii. verse; the Gentiles, in the second. and iii. (2.) That this right is set on the same footing with By the mercies of God] Δια των οικτιρμων του Θεου" by Abraham's title to the blessings of the covenant, he proves the tender mercies, or compassions of God, such as a tender chap.iv. (3.) That it gives us a title to privileges and bless father shews to his refractory children; to whom, on their ings as great as any the Jews could glory in, by virtue of humiliation, he is easily persuaded to forgive their offences. that covenant, chap. v. 1-12. (4.) He goes still higher, | The word Oixtiquos comes from 01XTOs, compassion ; and that and shews that our being interested in the gift and grace of from eixw, to yield; because he that has compassionate feel. God in Christ Jesus, is perfectly agreeable to the grace which ings, is easily prevailed on to do a kindness, or remit an he has bestowed upon all mankind, in delivering them from injury. that death of the body brought on them by Adam's transgres To present your bodies] A metaphor taken from bringing sion, chap. v. 12—21. (5.) He fully explains, both with || sacrifices to the altar of God. The person offering picked out regard to the Gentiles and Jews, the nature of the Gospel the choicest of his flock, brought it to the altar, and presented Constitution, in relation to its obligations to holiness; and it there as an atonement for his sin. They are exhorted to the advantages it gives for encouragement, obedience, and give themselves up in the spirit of sacrifice; to be as wholly 3upport, under the severest trials and persecutions, ch.the Lord's property as the whole burn-offering was vii. viii. (6.) As the pretences of the Jews, that “God part being devoted to any other use. was bound, by express promise, to continue them as his only A living sacrifice] In opposition to those dead sacrifices people for that this was directly inconsistent with which they were in the habit of offering, while in their Jewish the election and calling of the Gentiles, on the condition of state : and that they should have the lusts of the flesh more faith alone:” he demonstrates, that the rejection of the Jews is tified, that they might live to God. consistent with the truth of God's word, and with his Holy] Without spot or blemish; referring still to the sarighteousness : he shews the true cause and reason of their crifice sequired by the law. rejection ; and concludes with an admirable discourse upon Acceptable unto God] Evapesov, the sacrifice being perfect the extent and duration of it; which he closes with adora- in its kind; and the intention of the offerer being such, that tion of the Divine wisdom, in his various dispensations, both can be acceptable and well pleasing to God, who searches chap. ix. X. xi. Thus, having cleared this important subject the heart. All these phrases are sacrificial, and shew that with surprising judgment, and the nicest art and skill in writ- | there must be a complete surrender of the person ; the body, ing; he now proceeds, after his usual manner, in his Epistles ll the whole man, mind and flesh, to be given to God: and that

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