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Christians must not

CHAP. XIV.

condemn euch other.

A. M. cir.4062. .. D. cir.58.

cir. ccix. 2. A.U.C.cir.811.

3 Let not him that eateth despise | Yea, he shall be holden up: for God A.M.C.E.1962.

An. Olymp. Ap. Olymp; him that eateth not; and let mot him is able to make him stand. A.U.C.cir.811. which eateth not judge him that eat 5 One man esteemeth one day eth: for God hath received him.

above another: another esteemeth every day 4 Who art thou that judgest another man's alike. Let every man be fully persuaded in servant? to his own master he standeth or falleth. his own mind.

• Col. 2. 16. Jam. 4. 12.

• Gal. 4. 10. Col. 2. 16.-. Or, fully assured.

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which both parties, in their different way of thinking, might knowledge of its doctrines, believe the Mosaic law relative have an honest meaning, and serious regard to God, difference to clean and unclean meats, to be still in force; and there. of sentiments might not hinder Christian fellowship and fore, when they are in a Gentile country, for fear of being love: but that they would mutually forbear each other, make defiled, avoid flesh entirely, and live on vegetables. And a candid allowance, and especially not carry their gospel Jew, when in a heathen country, acts thus, because he canliberty so far as to prejudice a weak brother, a Jewish Chris- not tell whether the flesh which is sold in the market, may tian, against the gospel itself; and tempt him to renounce be of a clean or unclean beast ; whether it may not hare Christianity. His rules and exhortations are still of great use, been offered to an idol; or whether the blood may have been and happy would the Christian world be, if they were more taken properly from it. generally practised. See Dr. Taylor, who farther remarks, Verse 3. Let not him that eateth] The Gentile, who eats that it is probable, St. Paul learnt all these particulars flesh, despise him, the Jew, who eateth not flesh, but herbs. from Aquila and Priscilla, who were lately come from Rome, I And let not him, the Jew, that eateth not indiscriminately, Acts xviii. 2, 3. ard with whom the apostle was familiar for all judge, condemn him, the Gentile, that eateth indiscrimiconsiderable time. This is very likely, as there is no evidence nately, flesh or vegetables. that he had any other intercourse with the church at Rome. For God hath received him.] Both being sincere and

right, and acting in the fear of God, are received as heirs Verse 1. Him that is weak in the faith] By this the of eternal life, without any difference on account of these apostle most evidently means the converted Jero, who must religious scruples or prejudices. indeed be weak in the faith, if he considered this distinc Verse 4. Who art thou that judgest another man's sertion of meats and days essential to his salvation. See on runt?] Who has ever given thee the right to condemn the ver. 21.

servant of another man, in things pertaining to his own masReceive ye] Associate with him ; receive him into your ter ? To his own master he stundeth or fulleth. lle, not religious fellowship ; but whe: there, let all religious alter- thou, is to juilge him; thy intermeddling in this business, is cations be aroided.

both rash and uncharitable. Not lo doubtful disputations.] Μη εις διακρίσεις διαλογισμων: Yea, he shall be holden up] lle is sincere and upright, These words have been variously translated and understood : | and Goil, who is able to make him stand, will uphold him ; Dr. Whitby thinks the sense of them to be this, Not dis- | and so teach him, that he shall not essentially err. And it is criminating them by their inward thoughts. Do not reject the will of God that such upright, though scrupulous perany from your Christian communion, because of their par sons, should be continued members of his church. ticular sentiments on things which are in themselves indif Verse 5. One man esteemeth one day above another] ferent. Do not curiously enquire into their religious scru- | Perlaps the word yussay, day, is here taken for time, fesples, nor condemn them on that account. Entertain a brother tival, and such like ; in which seuse it is frequently used. of this kind rather with what may profit his soul, than with Reference is made here to the Jewish institutions, and especurious disquisitions on speculative points of doctrine. A cially their festivals ; such as the pass-over, pentecost, feast good lessou for modern Christians in general.

of tabernacles, new moons, jubilee, &c. The converted Jewe Verse 2. One believeth that he may eat all things] He still thought these of moral obligation; the Gentile Chrisbilieves that whatsoever is wholesome and nourishing, whestiari

, not having been bred up in this way, had no such ther hcrbs or flesh; whether enjoined or forbidden by the prejudices. And as those who were the instruments of Alosaic law, may be safely and conscientiously used by every bringing him to the knowledge of God, gave him no such Christian.

injunctions, consequently he paid to these, no religious Another, who is weak, eateth herbs.] Certain Jews, lately regard. converted to the Christian faith, and having as yet little Another] The converted Gentile esteemeth every day;

We must live to him

ROMANS.

who lived and died for us.

a

A.M.cir.4062.
A. D. cir. 58.

A. D. cir.58. An. Olymp. cir. CCIX: 9. A.U.C.cir.811.

6 He that regardeth the day, and whether we die, we die unto the 4: M.cir:1059. Archimda regardeth it unto the Lord; and he Lord : whether we live therefore, or A.U.C.cir.811

. that regardeth not the day, to the die, we are the Lord's. Lord he dotlı not regard it. He that eateth, 9 For to this end Christ both died, and rose, eateth to the Lord, for «he giveth God thanks; and revived, that he might be 'Lord both of the and he that eateth not, to the Lord he eateth dead and living. not, and giveth God thanks.

10 But why dost thou judge thy brother? or 7 For "none of us liveth to himself, and no why dost thou set at nought thy brother? for man dieth to himself.

5 we shall all stand before the judgment seat of 8 For whether we live, we live unto the Lord; Christ.

2 Gal. 4. 10. ► Or, observeth. c 1 Cor. 10. 31. 1 Tim. 4. 3.

d 1 Cor. 6. 19, 20. Gal. 2. 20. 1 Thes. 5. 10. 1 Pet. 4. 2.

e 2 Cor. 5. 15. Acts 10. 36.-_$Matt. 25. 31, 32. Acts 10.42. & 17.

31. 2 Cor. 5. 10. Jude 11, 15.

considers that all time is the Lord's; and that each day act according to their light; God accepts both : and they should be devoted to the glory of God; and that those fes- should bear with each other. tivals are not binding on him.

Verse 7. None of us liveth to himself] The Greek We add here alike, and make the text say what I am sure writers use the phrase ¿QUTW (, to signify acting according was never intended, viz. that there is no distinction of days, 1 to one's own judgment, following one's own opinion. Chris. not even of the Sabbath : and that every Christian is at tians must act in all things according to the mind and will of liberty to consider even this day to be holy, or not holy, as God, and not follow their own wills. The apostle seems to he happens to be persuaded in his own mind.

intimate that, in all the above cases, each must endeavour to That the Sabbath is of lasting obligation, may be reason- | please God; for he is accountable to him alone for his conably concluded from its institution : see the note on Gen. ii. duct in these indifferent things. God is our master, we must 3. and from its typical reference. All allow that the sab- live to him; as we live under his notice, and by his bounty: bath is a type of that rest in glory which remains for the and when we cease to live among men, we are still in his people of God. Now, all types are intended to continue in i hand. Therefore, what we do, or what we leare undone, full force till the anti-type, or thing signified, take place; I should be in reference to that eternity which is ever at consequently, the sabbath will continue in force till the con hand. summation of all things. The word alike should not be Verse 9 Christ both died, and rose] That we are not added; nor is it acknowledged by any MS. or ancient our own, but are the Lord's both in life and death, is eriVersion.

dent from this, that Christ lived and died, and rose again, Let every man be fully persuaded] With respect to the that he might be the Lord of the dead and the living ; for his propriety, or non-propriety of keeping the above festivals, power extends equally over both worlds: separate as well as let every man act from the plenary conviction of his own embodied spirils, are under his authority; and he it is who is mind; there is a sufficient latitu allowed : all may be fully to raise even the dead to life : and thus all, throughout satisfied.

eternity, shall live under his dominion. Verse 6. Ile that regardeth the day] A beautiful apo The clause zou ave5", and rose, is wanting in several relogy for mistaken sincerity, and injudicious reformation. Do putable MSS. and certainly is not necessary to the test. not condemn the man for what is indifferent in itself: if heGriesbach omits the words, and reads anetare xau c¢7,087, keep these festivals, his purpose is to honour God, by the i dicd and lived ; of which professor IVhite says, lectio inreligious observance of them. On the other hand, he wlio dubiè genuina : “this reading is indisputably genuine.” finds that he cannot observe them in honour of God, not be Verse 10. But ichy dost thou Christian Jero, observing lieving that God has enjoined them; he does not observe them the rites of the Mosaic law; judge, condemn thy brother, at all. In like manner, he that eateth any creature of God, || Christian Gentile, who does not think himself bound by which is wholesome and proper for food, gives thanks to

this law ? God, as the author of all good. And he who cannot eat of Or why dost thou] Christian Gentile, set at nought thy all indiscriminately, but is regulated by the precepts in the Christian Jewish brother, as if he were unworthy of thy reMosaic law, relative to clean and unclean meals, also gard, because he does not yet beliere that the gospel has set gives God thanks. Both are sincere; both upright; both him free from the rites and ceremonies of the law?'

We must be charitably disposed

CHAP. XIV.

towards each other.

A.M.cir. 4062.
A. D. cir. 58.

11 For it is written, 'As I live, saith 14 I know, and am persuaded by A. Mocir.1962.

. cancelame; the Lord, every knee shall bow to me, the Lord Jesus, "that there is nothing Ancelina: A.U.C.cir.811. and every tongue shall confess to God. unclean of itself: but 'to him that es- A.U.C.cir.8ii.

12 So then "every one of us shall give account teemeth any thing to be bunclean, to him it is of himself to God.

unclean. 13 Let us not, therefore, judge one another 15 But if thy brother be grieved with thy any more : but judge this rather, that ‘no man meat, now walkest thou not "charitably. 'Desput a stumbling-block, or an occasion to fall in troy not him with thy meat, for whom Christ his brother's way.

died.

* Isai. 45. 23. Phil. 2. 10.- Matt. 12. 36. Gal. 6. 5. 1 Pet. 4. 5. -c 1 Cor. 8.9, 13. & 10. 32.-- Acts 10. 15. ver. 2. 20. I Cor. 10. 25.

1 Tim. 4. 4. Tit. 1. 15.-- Gr. common.---1 Cor. 8. 7, 10. Gr. common.-- Gr. according to charity.-- 1 Cor. 8. 11.

It is a true saying of Mr. Heylin, on this verse : the su tract guilt; for he who acts in opposition to his conscience in perstitious are prone to judge; and those who are not super one case, may do it in another; and thus even the plain destitious, are prone to despise.

clarations of the word of God may be set aside on things of We shall all stand before the judgment seat of Christ.]the utmost importance as well as the erroneous though wellWhy should we then judge and condemn each other? We intentioned dictates of his conscience, on matters which he are accountable to God for our conduct, and shall be judged makes of the last consequence; though others, who are bet. at his bar; and let us consider that whatever measure we ter taught, know them to be indifferent. mete, the same shall be measured unto us again.

It is dangerous to trifle with conscience, even when erroneVerse 12. Every one of us shall give account of himself]ous; it should be borne with and instructed; it must be ton We shall not, at the bar of God, be obliged to account for over, not taken by storm. Its feelings should be respected, the conduct of each other,-each shall give account of him because they ever refer to God, and have their foundation in self: and let him take heed that he be prepared to give up his fear. He who sins against his conscience in things which his accounts with joy.

every one else knows to be indifferent, will soon do it in Verse 13. Let us not, therefore, judge one another any those things in which his salvation is most intimately conmore] Let us abandon such rash conduct; it is dangerous ; | cerned. It is a great blessing to have a well-informed conit is uncharitable : judgment belongs to the Lord, and he science; it is a blessing to have a tender conscience, and will condemn those only, who should not be acquitted. even a sore conscience is infinitely better than none.

That no man put a stumbling-block] Let both the convert Verse 15. If thy brother be grieved] If he think that ed Jew and Gentile consider, that they should labour to pro- thou dost wrong, and he is, in consequence, stumbled at thy mote each other's spiritual interests; and not be a means of conduct; hindering each other in their Christian course; or of caus Novo zalkest thou not charitably] Kaca ayOTYV, according them to abandon the Gospel, on which, and not on ques. ing to lore; for, love zorketh no ill to its neighbour; but tions of rites and ceremonies, the salvation of their souls de- by thy eating some particular kind of meat, on which neither pends.

thy life nor well-being depend; thou workest ill to him by Verse 14. I knoro, and am persuaded by the Lord Jesus] griering and distressing his mind, and therefore thou breakest After reasoning so long and so much with these contending the law of God in reference to him, while pretending that parties, on the subject of their mutual misunderstandings; thy Christian liberty raises thee above his scruples. without attempting to give any opinion, but merely to shew Destroy not him with thy meat for whom Christ died.] them the folly and uncharitableness of their conduct; he This puts the uncharitable conduct of the person in question, now expresses himself fully, and tells them that nothing is in the strongest light; because it supposes that the weak unclean of itself, and that he has the inspiration and autho- brother may be so stumbled, as to fall and perish finally; rity of Jesus Christ to say so; for to such an inspiration he even the man for whom Christ died. To injure a man in his must refer in such words as, I know and am persuaded by the circumstances is bad ; to injure him in his person is worse ; Lord Jesus. And yet after having given them this decisive to injure him in his reputation is still worse; and to injure judgment, through respect to the tender mistaken conscience his soul is worst of all. No wickedness, no malice can go of weak believers, he immediately adds, But to him that esteem- farther than to injure and destroy the soul; thy uncharitable eth any thing to be unclean, to him it is unclean ; because if conduct may proceed thus far; therefore thou art highly he act contrary to his conscience, he must necessarily con criminal before God.

The kingdom of God is

ROMANS.

of a spiritual nature.

A. M.cir.4062.
A. D, cir. 58.

A.U.C.cir.811.

A.U.C. cir.811.

16 “Let not then your good be evil | 19 · Let us therefore follow after the 4. M. cit. 1962. An. Olymp; spoken of:

things which make for peace, and things Anc Olymp; 17 For, the kingdom of God is wherewith one may edify another. not meat and drink ; but righteousness, and 20 ‘For meat, destroy not the work of God. peace, and joy in the Holy Ghost.

5 All things indeed are pure ; "but it is evil for 18 For, he that in these things serveth Christ that man who eateth with offence. ® is acceptable to God, and approved of men. 21 It is good neither to cat 'flesh, nor to drink

a Ch. 12. 17.-- 1 Cor. 8. 8. 2 Cor. 8. 21.-Ps. 31. 14. ch. 12. 18.

ech. 15. 2. 1 Cor. 14. 12. 1 Thes. 5. 11.

i Ver. 15.-~6 Matt. 15. 11. Acts 10. 15. ver. 14. Tit. I. 15.- 1 Cor.

8. 9, 10, 11, 12. I Cor. 8. 13.

From this verse we learn that a man for whom Christ diell and joy in the lloly Ghost, serveth Christ, acts according to may perish, or have his soul destroyed; and destroyed with his doctrine, is acceptable to God, for he has not only the such a destruction as implies perdition; the original is very form of godliness in thus serving Christ, but he has the powemphatic, uy-SZEIYOY OTOXUE, UTEP O X.51599 atslave. er, the very spirit and essence of it, in having righteousness Christ died in his stead; do not destroy his soul. The sa and peace and joy in the Iloly Ghost; and therefore the crificial death is as strongly expressed as it can be, and there whole frame of his mind, as well as his acts, must be acceptis no word in the New Testament that more forcibly implies able to God.- And myrored of men; for although religion eternal ruin, than the verb ato22.04, from which is derived may be persecuted, yet the righteous man, who is continuthat most significant name of the Devil, 6 ATour, the ally labouring for the public good, will be generally esDESTROYER, the great universal murderer of souls.

teemed. This was a rery common form of speech among the Verse 16. Let not then, your good be evil spoken of] Do Jews; that he who was a conscientious obscrver of the lio, not make such a use of your Christian liberty as to subject was pleasing to God, and approved of men. See screral exthe gospel itself to reproach. Whatsoever you do, do it in amples in Schoettgen. such manner, spirit, and time as to make it productive of the Verse 19. Let us therefore follow] Far from contending greatest possible good. There are many who liave such an about meats, drinks, and festival times, in which it is not unhappy method of doing their good acts, as not only to do likely that the Jews and Gentiles will soon agree; let us en. little or no good by them, but a great deal of evil. It re deavour, to the utmost of our power, to promote peace and quires much prudence and watchfulness to find out the pro- unanimity, that we may be instrumental in edifying each per time of performing even a good action.

other; in promoting religious knowledge and piety, instead Verse 17. For, the kingdom of God] That holy religion of being stumbling-blocks in each other's way. which God has sent from heaven, and which he intends to Verse 20. For meat, destroy not the work of God) Do make the instrument of establishing a counter part of the not hinder the progress of the gospel, either in your own kingdom of glory among men: see on Matt. iii. 2.

souls, or in those of others, by contending about lawful or Is not meat and drink] It consists not in these outward unlawful meats. And do not destroy the soul of tły Chris. and indifferent things. It neither particularly enjoins, nor tian brother, ver. 15. by offending liim so as to induce biin to particularly forbids such.

apostalize. But righteousness] Pardon of sin, and holiness of heart All things indeed are purc] This is a repetition of the sonand life.

timent delivered, ver. 14. in different words. Nothing that And peace] In the soul, from a sense of God's mercy, is proper for aliment, is unlawful to be eaten : but it is ecil for peace regulating, ruling, and harmonizing the heart. that man who eateth with offence; the man who either eats

And joy in the lloly Ghost.] Solid spiritual happiness; a contrary to his own conscience, or so as to grieve and studie joy which springs from a clear sense of God's mercy; the ble another, does an eril act; and however lawful the thing love of God being shed abroad in the heart by the Holy | may be in itself, his conduct does not please God. Ghost. In a word, it is a happiness brought into the soul Verse 21. It is good neither to eat flesh, &c.] The spirit by the Holy Spirit, and maintained there by the same influ- and self-denying principles of the gospel teach us, that we

This is a genuine counterpart of heaven; righteous should not only avoid every thing in cating or drinking which mess without sid, PEACE without inward disturbance, JOY may be an occasion of offence or apostasy to our brethreu, without

any kind of mental agony, or distressing fear. See but even to lay down our lives for them, sliould it be neces. the note on Mait. jü. 9.

sary. Verse 18. For, he that in these things] The man, whether Whereby thy brother stumbleth) 11.50649T7E1, from , Jew or Gentik, who in these things, righteousness, peace, against, and x0Ftw, to strike, to hit the foot against a stone ia

ence.

We must be careful nol lo do

CHAP. XIV.

what our conscience disallows.

A. D. cir. 58. An. Olyinp: cir. CCİX, 2.

A. 1. C.Ss. wine, nor any thing whereby thy || himself in that thing which he al- A. M.cir. 1962.
An.cClympis brother stumbleth, or is offended, or loweth.
A.U.C. cir.81l. is made weak.

23 And he that "doubteth is damned A.U.C.cir.811. 22 Hast thou faith? have it to thyself before if he eat, because he eateth not of faith : for God. Happy is

* Happy is he that condemneth not whatsoever is not of faith is sin.

*1 John 3.21.

Or, discerne!h and pulteth a diference between meats.--. Tit. 1. 15.

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walking, so as to halt, and be impeiled in one's journey. It enjoy peuce of conscience who acts according to the full perhere means spiritually, any thing by which a man is so per- suasion which God has given him of the lawfulness of his conplexed in his mind, as to be prevented from making due pro- duet : whereas, he must be miserable whio allows himself gress in the divine life. Any thing by which he is caused to in the practice of any thing, for which his conscience upbraids kalt, to be indecisive, and undetermined; and under such and accuses him. This is a most excellent maxim, and every an influence no man has ever yet grown in grace, and in the genuine Christian should be careful to try every part of his knowledge of Jesus Christ.

conduct by it. If a man have not peace in his own bosom, he Or is ofended] H cxar.zaiksza1, from oxavdanov, a stum cannot be happy ; and no man can have peace who sins against Bling-block; any thing by which a person is caused to full, his conscience. If a man's passions or appetite allow or instigate especially into a snare, trup, or gin. Originally the word him to a particular thing, let him take good heed that his consignified the piece of wood, or key in a trap, which being science approve what his passions allow; and that he live not trodden on, caused the animal to fall into a pit, or the trap the subject of continual self-condemnation and reproach. to close upon him. In the New Testament it generally re Even the man who had the too scrupulous conscience, had bet. fers to total apostasy from the Christian religion, and this ter, in such matters as are in question, obey its erroneous dic. appears to be its meaning in this place.

tates, than violate this moral feeling, and live only to condemn Or is made weak.) H arfersı, from a negative, and cleros, the actions he is constantly performing. strength, without mental vigour; without power sufficiently

Verse 23. And he that durbteth] This verse is a neces. to distinguish between right and wrong, good and evil, luw-sary part of the preceding, and should be read thus, But he ful and unlawful. To get under the dominion of an erro. thut dloubteth is condemned if he eat, because he eateth not of neous conscience, so as to judge that to be evil or unlawful fuith. The meaning is sufficiently plain. He that feeds on which is not so. The two last terms are omitted by two ex any kind of meats prohibited by the Mosaic law, with the cellent M55. (the Coiler Alexandrinus and the Coder Eph- || persuasion in his mind that he may be wrong in so doing, ruim,) by the Syriac of Espen, the Coptic and the Æthio. is condemned by his conscience for doing that which he has pic, and by some of the primitive fathers. It is very likely || reason to think God has forbidden. that they were added by some early hand by way of illustra For whatsoever is not of faith is sin.] Whatever he tion. Griesbach has left them in the text with a note of does, without a full persuasion of its lawfulness, (see ver. doubtfulness.

22.) is to him sin, for he does it under a conviction that he Verse 22. Hast thou fuith] The term faith seems to sig- may be wrong in so doing. Therefore, if he makes a distincnify, in this place, a full persuasion in a man's mind that he i tion in his own conscience between different kinds of meats, is right, that what he does is lazoful, and has the approba- and yet eats of all indifferently, he is a sinner before God; tion of God and his conscience. Dr. Taylor has a judicious note because he eats either through fulse shume, base compliance, on this passage. “There is no necessity,” says he, “ for or an unbridled appetite ; and any of these is, in itself, a reading the first clause interrogatively; and it seems to be sin against the sincerity, ingenuousness, and self-denying more agreeable to the structure of the Greek, to render it, Il principles of the gospel of Christ. thou hast faith; as if he had said, 'I own thou hast a right Some think that these words have a more extensive signi. persuasion. Further, there is an anadiplosis in eyes, and fication, and that they apply to all who have not true reli. EXE, the first simply signifies thou hast, the latter, hold fast. I gion and faith in our Lord Jesus Christ; every work of such Thou hast a right persuasion concerning thy Christian li- | persons being sinful in the sight of a holy God, because it berty; and I advise thee to hold that persuasion steadfastly, | does not proceed from a pure motive. On this ground our with respect to thyself, in the sight of God. Exus, have, church says, Artic. xiii. “Works done before the grace of has frequently this emphatical signification. See Matt. xxv. Christ, and the inspiration of his Spirit, are not pleasant to

God, forasmuch as they are not of faith in Jesus Christ; Happy is he that condemneth not, &c.] That man only can yea, for that they are not done as God bath willed and

29, &c."

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