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God bears long with the disobedient,

CHAP. IX.

before he punishes them.

A. M. cir. 4062.
A. D. cir. 58.

An. Olymp: cir. CCIX. 2.

A. M. cir.4062. unto honour, and another unto dis- of wrath fitted" to destruction :
An. Olymp: honour?

23 And that he might make known
cir.Ccix. 2.
A.U.C.cir.811.

22 What if God, willing to sliew the riches of his glory on the ves- A.U.C.cir. 811. his wrath, and to make his power known, 'sels of mercy, which he had afore prepared endured with much long suffering the vessels unto glory,

1 1 Thes. 5. 9.

-b Or, made up.-- 1 Pet. 2. 8. Jude 4.

& Ch. 2. 4. Eph. 1. 7. Col. 1. 27.ch. 8. 28, 29, 30.

apostle continues his answer to the Jew—IIath not God justice of God inflicted; after he had endured their obstinate shewn, by the parable of the potter, Jerem. xviii. 1, &c. rebellion, with much long-suffering: which is a most ab. that he may justly dispose of nations, and of the Jews in solute proof, that the hardening of their hearts, and their particular ; according as he, in his infinite wisdom, may judge ultimate punishment, were the consequences of tbeir obsti. most right and fitting; even as the potter has a right, out of nate refusal of his grace, and abuse of his goodness; as the the same lump of clay, to make one vessel to a more honour- history in Exodus sufficiently shews. As the Jews of the able, and another to a less honourable use; as his own apostle's time had sinned, after the similitude of the Egypjudgment and skill may direet: for no potter will take pains tians, hardening their hearts and abusing his goodness, after to make a vessel merely that he may shew that he has power every display of his long-suffering kindness, being now fitted to dash it to pieces. For the word came to Jeremiah from for destruction, they were ripe for punishment; and that the Lord, suying, Arise, go down to the potter's house, and power, which God was making known for their salvation, there I will cause thee to hear my words. Then I went doren having been so long and so much abused and provoked, was to the potter's house, and behold he wrought a work upon the now about to shew itself in their destruction as a nation, wheels. And the vessel that he maile of cluy, was murred in But, even in this case, there is not a word of their final damthe hands of the potter : so he made it again another vessel, nation ; much less that either they, or any others, were, by a as seemed good to the potter to make it. It was not fit for sovereign decree, reprobated from all eternity; and that their the more honourable place in the mansion; and, therefore, very sins, the proximate cause of their punishment, were the he made it for a less honourable place : but as necessary for necessary effect of that decree, which had, from all eternity, the master's use there, as it could have been in a more doomed them to endless torments. As such a doctrine could honourable situation. Then the word of the Lord came to never come from God, so it never can be found in the words me, saying, O house of Israel, cunnot I do with you as this of his apostle. potter? Behold, as the clay is in the potter's hand, so are ye Verse 23. And that he might make known] God enin my hand, 0 house of Israel. At what instant I shall dured with much long-suffering the vessels of wrath; 1. To speak concerning a nation, and concerning a kingdom, to pluck shew his wruth, and to make his power known: And also, 2. up, and to pull down, and to destroy it; if that nation against That he might make known the riches of his glory on the whom I hare pronounced, turn from their evil, I will repent vessels of mercy. of the evil that I thought to do unto them. And, at what Which he had afore prepared unto glory] The Jews were instant I shall speak concerning a nation--to build and to fitted for destruction long before ; but the fittest time to plant it, if it do evil in my sight, that it obey not my voice, destroy them was after he had prepared the believing Genthen will I repent of the good wherewith I said I would tiles unto glory. For, the Rod of the Messiah's strength bene fit them.

The reference to this parable shews, most po was to be sent out of Zion, Psal. cx. 2. The Jewish nasitively, that the apostle is speaking of men not individually, tion was to supply the first preachers of the gospel; and but nationally; and it is strange that men should have from Jerusalem their sound was to go forth into all the given his words any other application, with this Scripture be-earth. Therefore, the Jewish state, notwithstanding its corrupfore their eyes.

tions, was to be preserved till the Messiah came; and even till Verse 22. What, if God willing to shew his wrath] The the gospel preached by the apostles, had taken deep root in apostle refers here to the case of Pharaoh and the Egyp- the Gentile world. Another thing which rendered the time, tians; and to wbich he applies Jeremiah's parable of the when the Jewish polity was overthrown, the most proper, potter: and, from them, to the then state of the Jews. ' was this, because then, the immediate occasion of it was the Pharaoh and the Egyptians were vessels of wrath, persons extensiveness of the divine grace. They would not have the deeply guilty before God; and, by their obstinate refusal of Gentiles admitted into the church of God; but contradicthis grace, and abuse of his goodness, they had fitted them- ed and blasphemed, and rejected the Lord that bought them : selves for that destruction which the wrath, the vindictive thus then, the extensiveness of the divine grace occasioned

The prophets foretold

ROMANS.

the calling of the Gentiles.

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cir. CCİX.2.

24 Even us, whom he hath called, 27 Esaias also crieth concerning Ig- A.M.cir: 1059 An. Olymp.net of the Jews only, but also of the rael, *Though the number of the

An. Olymp; A.U.C.cir.811. Gentiles ?

children of Israel be as the sand of A.U.C.cir.811. 25 As he saith also in Osee, 'I will call them the sea, 'a remnant shall be saved: my people, which were not my people ; and her 28 For he will finish the work, and cut it short beloved, which was not beloved.

in righteousness : 5 because a short work will the 26 °And it shall come to pass, that in the place Lord make upon the earth. where it was said unto them, Ye are not my 29 And as Esaias said before, "Except the Lord people; there shall they be called the children of Sabaoth had left us a seed, 'we had been as Soof the living God.

doma, and been made like unto Gomorrha.

"Or, the account.

4 Ch. 3. 29. Ilos. 2. 23. 1 Pet. 2. 10.-- Hos. 1. 10.- Isai. 10.

22, 23. ch. 11. 5.

-5 Isai. 28. 22. Isai. 1.9. Lam. S. 22. Isai. 13.

19. Jer. 50. 40.

cessors.

their infidelity, ver. 33. chap. X. 3. xii. 11, 12, 15, 28, 30. shall afterwards come to pass, by calling the Gentiles into Thus the Jews were diminished, by that abundance of grace it. They, the rejected Jews, which had been the people of which has enriched the Gentiles. And so the grace of God God, should become a Lo-ammi, not my people. On the was illustrated ; or, so God made knozen the riches of his contrary they, the Gentiles, who had been a Lo-ammi, not glory on the vessels of mercythe apostles and primitive be- | my people, should become the children of the living God. lievers among the Jews, and the Gentile world, which receiv- || Again chap: ii. 23. I will sow her (the Jewish church) unio ed the gospel by the preaching of the apostles and their suc me in the earth, (alluding probably to the dispersion of the

Jews over all the Roman empire, which proved a fruitful Verse 24. Even us, whom he hath called] All the Jews cause of preparing the Gentiles for the reception of the gos. and Gentiles who have been inviled by the preaching of the pel,) and, or moreover, I will have mercy upon her, the gospel to receive justification by faith in our Lord Jesus body of the believing Gentiles, that had not obtuined merry. Christ; and have come to the gospel feast on this invitation. See Taylor.

Verse 25. As he saith also in Osee] It is a cause of not a Verse 27. Esaias also crieth] The apostle pursues his little confusion, that a uniformity in the orthography of the argument, which had for its object the proof that God, for proper names of the Old and New Testaments has not been their infidelity, lad rejected the great body of the Jews; preserved. What stranger to our sacred books would sup- and that but a few of them would embrace the gospel, and pose that the Osee above, meant the prophet Iloseup from be saved from that besom of destruction which was now comwhom, chap. ii. ver. 23. this quotation is taken; I will have ing to sweep them and their state away. Dr. Taylor paramercy on her that had not obtained mercy; and I will say to phrases this and the following verses thus : And, that but a them which were not my people, Thou art my people. The small remnant of the Jews shall now be taken into the apostle shews that this calling of the Gentiles was no for- church, is agreeable to former dispensations : for the protuilous thing, but a firm purpose in the Divine mind, which pliet Isaiah expressly declares concerning the Israelites, chap. he had largely revealed to the prophets: and by opposing / X. 22, 23. Though the number of the children of Israel be the calling of the Gentiles, the Jews, in effect, renounced as the sund of the sea, (for the promise to Abraham has been their prophets, and fought against God.

amply fulfilled,) only a remnunt shall be suced: the coni. Verse 26. And it shall come to pass, &c.] These quota- | sumption decreed shall overflow in righteousness. For the tions are taken out of Hosea, chap. i. 10. where (immedi Lord Goul of Hosts shall make a conszenption, even determinately after God had rejected the ten tribes, or kingdom of | ed in the midst of all the land. Israel, chap. i. 9. then saith God, call his name Lo-ammi; for Verse 28. For he will finish the work, and cut it short, ye are not my people, and I will not be your God:) he adds, | &c.] These appear to be forensic terms, and refer to the conyet the number of the children of Israel shall be as the sundclusion of a judicial proceeding;-the Lord has tried and of the sea which cannot be measured nor numbered: and is found them guilly; and will immediately execute upon them shall come to pass, that in the place in which it was suid unto the punishment due to their transgressions. them, ye are not my people ; there, it shall be said unto them. Verse 29. And as Esaias sad before] What God de. ye are the sons of the living God. As if he had said, The sijos to do with the Jews at present, because of their obstidecrease of numbers in the church, by God's utterly taking nacy and rebellion, is similar to what he has done before, away the ten tribes, (ver. 6.) shall be well supplied by what to which the same prophet resers, chap. i. I. Except the Lord

The Gentilcs have altuined

CHAP. IX.

to salvation by faith.

A.M.cir. 4062.
A. D. cir. 58.
An. Olymp.
cir. CCİX: 2.

A. M. cir.1062.
A. D. cir.58.

An. Olymp. cir. CCIX. 2.

30 What shall we say then ? • That 32 Wherefore? Because they sought

the Gentiles, which followed not after it not by faith, but as it were by the A.U.C.cir.811

. righteousness, have attained to riglite-works of the law. For they stumbled A.U.C.cir.811. ousness, even the righteousness which is of at that stumbling stone; faith.

33 As it is written, 'Behold, I lay in Sion a 31 But Israel, which followed after the law stumbling stone and rock of offence : and 6 whoof righteousness, "hath not attained to the law soever believeth on him shall not be "ashamof righteousness.

ed.

* Ch. 4. 11. & 10. 20.

_"ch. 1. 17.—ch. 10. 2. & 11.7. Gal.5. 4. || Ps. 118. 22. Isai. 8. 14. & 28. 16. Matt. 21. 42. 1 Pet. 2. 6, 7, & e Luke 2. 34. 1 Cor. 1. 23.

6 ch. 10. 11. - Or, confounded.

of Ilosts had left us a very small remnant, we should have received by faith on their part. And so by embracing the been as Sodom, and we should have been like unto Gomorrah : scheme of life, published by the gospel, they are adopted i.e. had not God, who commands and over-rules all the pow- | into the family and church of God. Thus the Gentiles are ers in heaven and earth, in mercy preserved a very small called or invited. remnant, to keep up the name and being of the nation, it Verse 31. But Israel, which followed after] But the Jews had been quite cut off and extinct, as Sodom and Gomorrah who have hitherto been the people of God, though they have were. Thus we learn, that it is no new thing with God to been industrious in observing a rule by which they supposed abandon the greatest part of the Jewish nation when corrupt; they could secure the blessings of God's peculiar kingolom ; and to confine his favour and blessing to a righteous believing "yet have not come up to the true and only rule, by which few.

those blessings can be secured. Instead of remnant, toonu surid, both the Septuagint and Verse 32. Therefore.?] And where lies their mistake? the apostle have STEP.Q a seed, intimating that there were Being ignorant of God's righteousness of his method of lest just enow of the righteous, to be a seed for a future har- saving sinners by faith in Christ ; they went about to establish rest of true believers. So, the godly were not destroyed from their own righteousness, their own method of obtaining everthe land; some remained, and the harvest was in the days lasting salvation. They attend not to the Abrahamic coveof the apostles.

nunt, which stands on the extensive principles of grace and Verse 30. JV hat shall we say then?] What is the final fiiith ; but they turn all their regards to the law of Moses. conclusion to be drawn from all these prophecies, facts and They imagine that their obedience to that law, gives them a reasonings? This, that the Gentiles zehich followed not after right to the blessings of the Messiah's kingdom. But find. righteousness, &c. This, with the succeeding verses, together ing that the gospel sets our special interest in God, and the with what belongs to the same subject, in the beginning of privileges of his church, on a different footing, they are of. the following chapter, I have explained at large in the notes rended, and refuse to come into it. on chap. i. 17. to which I must refer the Reader; and shall Verse 33. As it is written, Behold I lay in Sion] Christ content myself in this place, with Dr. Taylor's general para- the Messiah is become a stone of stumbling to them: and phrose We may suppose the apostle to express himself to thus what is written in the prophecy of Isaiah, is verified in the following effect. Thus I have vindicated the rejection their case, Isai. viii. 14. xxviii. 16. Behold I lay in Zion, of the Jews, and the calling of the Gentiles, with regard to i. e. I shall bring in my Messiah, but he shall be a widely dif. the divine veracity and justice.

Now let us turn our ferent person from him whom the Jews expect; for whereas thoughts to the true reason and state of the affair consider- they expect the Messiah to be a mighty secular prince, and to ed in itself. And in the first place; What just notion set up a secular kingdom, he shall appear a man of sorrows ought we to have of the calling of the Gentiles, and the re- and acquainted with griefs; and redeem mankind, not by his jection of the Jews? I answer, the true notion of the call. sword or secular power, but by his humiliation, pussion and ing or inviting of the Gentiles, is this: whereas they had no death. Therefore they will be offended at him, and reject apprehension of being reinstated in the privileges of God's him; and think it would be reproachful to trust in such a peculiar kingdom, and consequently used no endeavours to person for salvation. obtain that blessing; yet nothwithstanding, they have attain And ichosoever beliezeth on him] But so far shall any be from ed to justification, to the remission of sins, and the privileges confusion or disappointment who believes in Christ ; that on of God's people:—not on account of their prior worthiness the contrary, every genuine believer shall find salvation : the 2nd obedience, but purely by the grace and mercy of God. 'remission of sins here, and eternal glory hereafter. See the

Observations on vicarious

ROMANS.

sacrifices among the heathens.

notes on chap. i. 16 and 17. and Dr. Taylor's paraphrase ' self in the forum, and explained it thus;— What is more and notes.

valuable to Rome than her courage and her arms?' So say

ing, he urged forward his impetuous steed, and buried him1. On the subject of vicarious punishment, or rather the self in the abyss. His grateful countrymen admired his forcase of one becoming an anathema or sacrifice for the public titude, and attributed the increasing splendour of their state good, in illustration of chap. ix. 3. I shall make no apology to the sacrifice he made. Animated by this example, Defor the following extracts, taken from an author whose learn- cius, in the war between Rome and Latium, having solemning is vast, and whose piety is unblemished.

ly offered himself as an expiatory sacrifice, rushed single into “When mankind lost sight of a beneficent Creator, the God, the thickest ranks of the astonished Latins, that by his death of purity, and consecrated altars to the sun, the moon, the! he night appease the anger of the gods, transfer their indigstars, to dæmons, and to hero gods, under the names of nation to the enemy, and secure the victory to Rome. ConMoloch, Ashtaroth and Baalim ; these objects of their wor-spectus ab utroque acie aliquanto, augustior humano visu, ship led them to the most horrid acts of cruelty, and to every sicut Cælo missus piaculum omnis deorum iræ, qui pestem ab species of obscenity; even their sons and their daughters suis aversam in hostes ferret. they burnt in the fire to their gods, more especially in seasons Here we see distinctly marked the notion of vicarious sufof distress.

Such was the conduct of the king of Moab; ' fering, and the opinion, that the punishment of guilt may be for when he was besieged in his capital, and expected he' transferred from the guilty to the innocent. The gods call should fall into the hands of his enemies, he took his eldest for sacrifice: the victim bleeds : atonement is made: and the son, who should have reigned in his stead, and offered him wrath of the infernal powers falls in its full force upon the for a burnt offering on the wall.

enemy. Thus while Themistocles at Suamine was offering With these facts, thus related from the scriptures, all ac- sacrifice, three captives, the sons of Sandance, and nephews counts, ancient and modern, exactly correspond. Homer, i to Xerxes, all distinguished for their beauty, elegantly dresswho, it must be recollected, wrote more than nine hundred ed and decked, as became their birth, with ornaments of years before the Christian era, although he describes chiefly gold, being brought on board his galley, the augur Euphranthe common sacrifice of quadrupeds, yet gives one account tides observing at the very instant a bright flame ascending of human victims. But, in succeeding generations, when it from the altar, whilst one was sneezing on the right, which was conceived that one great and most malignant spirit was he regarded as a propitious omen, he seized the hand of The. the proper object of their fear, or that subordinate provincial mistocles, and commanded that they should all be sacrificed to gods, equally malignant, nesciaque humanis precibus mansu Bacchus, (

wrs Algow--cruel and relentless Bacchus! escere corılı, disposed of all things in our world; men bound Ilomer has the same expression,) predicting, on this conditheir own species to the altar, and in circumstances of na- tion, safety and conquest to the Greeks. Immediately the tional distress presented such as they valued most, either their multitude with united voices called on the god, and led the children or themselves. Herodotus informs us, that when captive princes to the altar, and compelled Themistocles to the army of Xerxes came to the Strymon, the Magi offered sacrifice them. a sacrifice of white horses to that river. On his arrival at So when Æneas was to perform the last kind office for his the Scamander, the king ascended the citadel of Priam; and friend Pallas, he sacrificed, (beside numerous oxen, sheep, having surveyed it, he ordered a thousand oxen to be sacri- ' and swine,) eight captives to the infernal gods. In this he ficed to the Trojan Minerva. But on other occasions he followed the example of Achilles, who had caused twelve chose human victims ; for we are informed that, when, hav- Trojans, of high birth, to bleed by the sacerdotal knife, ing passed the Strymon, ke reached the nine ways, he buried over the ashes of his friend Patroclus. alive nine young men, and as many virgins, natives of the A hundred feet in length, a hundred wide, country. In this he followed the example of his wife, for The glowing structure spreads on every side; she commanded fourteen Persian children, of illustrious High on the top, the manly corse they lay, birth, to be offered in that manner to the deity who reigns

And well-fed sheep, and sable oxen slay ; beneath the earth. Thus in the infancy of Rome, we

Achilles covered with their fat the dead, Curtius, for the salvation of his country, devoting himself And the piled victims round the body spread : to the infernal gods, when, as it appears, an earthquake had

Then jars of honey, and of fragrant oil, occasioned a deep and extensive chasm in the forum; and the Suspends around, low bending o'er the pile. augurs had declared, that the portentous opening would ne Four sprightly coursers, with a deadly groan ver close, 'till what contributed most to the strength and Pour forth their lives, and on the pyre are throwo. power of the Romans should be cast into it; but that by of nine large dogs, domestic at his board, such a sacrifice they would obtain immortality for their re Fell two, selected to attend their lord : public. When all men were at a loss how to understand The last of all, and horrible to tell, this oracle, M. Curtius, armed as for battle, presented him Sad sacrifice! twelve Trojan captires fell;

see

Observations on vicarious

CHAP. IX.

sacrifices among the heathens.

On these the rage of fire victorious preys,

The Gauls, equally cruel in their worship, sacrificed men, Involves and joins them in one common blaze.

originally, to Eso and Teutate ; but latterly to Mercury, Smeared with the bloody rites, he stands on high, Apollo, Mars, Jupiter, and Minerva. Cæsar informs us, And calls the spirit with a cheersul cry,

that whenever they thought themselves in danger, whether All hail, Patroclus ! let thy vengeful ghost

from sickness, or after any considerable defeat in war, being Hear, and exult on Pluto's dreary coast.

persuaded that, unless life be given for life, the anger of the Pope's Homer, Il. xxiii. ver. 203. gods can never be appeased ; they constructed wicker images

of enormous bulk, which they filled with men, who were How much was it to be lamented, that even civilized na first suffocated with smoke, and then consumed by fire. For tions should forget the intention for which sacrifices were this purpose they preferred criminals ; but when a sufficient originally in-tituted! The bad effects, however, would not number of these could not be found, they supplied the dehave been either so extensive or so great, had they not ficiency from the community at large. wholly lost the knowledge of Jehovah; and taken, as the The Germans are said to have differed from the Gauls, in object of their fear, that evil and apostate spirit, whose having no Dauids, and in being little addicted to the service name, with the utmost propriety, is called Apollyon, or of the altar. Their only gods were the Sun, Vulcan, and the destroyer; and whose worship has been universally the moon ; yet, among the objects of their worship, was diffused at different periods among all the nations of the Tuisco their progenitor, and Woden the hero of the north. earth.

It is true, that neither Cæsar nor Tacitus say any thing of The practice of shedding human blood, before the altars their shedding blood in sacrifice; yet the probability is, that, of their gods, was not peculiar to the Trojans and the like the Saxons, and other northern nations, they not only Greeks ; the Romans followed their example. In the first offered blood, but took their choicest victims from the ages of their republic, they sacrificed children to the goddess human race. Mania ; in later periods, numerous gladiators bled at the In Sweden, the altars of Woden smoked incessantly with tombs of the Patricians, to appease the manes of the deceased. blood : this towed most abundantly at the solemn festivals And it is particularly noticed of Augustus, that, after the celebrated every ninth year at Upsal. Then the king, at. taking of Perusia, he sacrificed, on the ides of March, tended by the senate, and by all the great officers about his three hundred senators and knights to the divinity of Julius court, entered the temple, which glittered on all sides with Cæsar.

gold, and conducted to the altar nine slaves, or in time of The Carthaginians, as Diodorus Siculus informs us, bound war nine captives. These met the caresses of the multitude, themselves, by a solemo vow to Chronus, that they would as being about to avert from them the displeasure of the sacrifice to him children selected from the offspring of their gods, and then submitted to their fate: but in times of disuobles ; but in process of time they substituted for these the tress, more noble victims bled; and it stands upon record, children of their slaves, which practice they continued, till, that when Aune their king was ill, he offered up to Woden being defeated by Agathocles, tyrant of Sicily; and, attributing his nine sons, to obtain the prolongation of his life. their disgrace to the anger of the god, they otiered two hun The Dunes had precisely the same abominable customs. dred children, taken from the most distinguished families in Every ninth year, in the month of January, they sacrificed Carthage; beside which, three hundred citizens presented ninety-nine men, with as many horses, dogs, and cocks : themselves, that, by their voluntary death, they might ren- and Hacon, king of Norway, offered his own son to obtain der the deity propitious to their country. The mode of sa from Woden the victory over Harold ; with whom he was at crificing these children was horrid in the extreme; for they war. were cast into the arms of a brazen statue, and from thence In Russia, the Slavi worshipped a multitude of gods, and dropped into a furnace, as was practised amongst the first in- erected to them innumerable altais. Of these deities Peroun, habitants of Latium. It was probably in this manner the that is, the Thunderer, was the supreme; and before his Ammonites offered np their children to Moloch. The Pelasgi image many of their prisoners bled. Their god of physic, at one time sacrificed a tenth part of all their children, in who also presided over the sacred fires, shared with him ; obeclience to an oracle.

and the great rivers, considered as gods, had their portion The Egyptiuns, in Heliopolis, sacrificed three men every of human victims, whom they covered with their inexorable day to Juno. The Sparians and Arcadiuns scourged to waves. But Suetovid, the god of war, was the god in whom death young women; the latter to appeave the wrath of Bac- they most delighted : to him they presented annually, as a chus; the former, to gratify Dana. The Sabian idolaters in burnt offering, three hundred prisoners, each on bis horse; Persiu offered human victims to Mithras ; the Cretuns, to and, when the whole was con umed by fire, the priests and Jupiter; the Lacedemoniuns and Lusiiuniuns, to Mars; the people sat down to eat and drink, till they were drunk. It Lesbiuns, to Bacchus; the Phociuns, to Diana ; the Thessa-l is worthy of remark, that the residence of Saetovid was supliuns, to C iron.

posed to be in the sun.

2

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