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Wretched state of the Jews

ROMANS.

in the days of St. Paul.

A.M.cir.4062. A. D. cir.58. cir. CCIX.2.

A.M.cir.4062. otherwise work is no more work. I not hear;) unto this day.
A. D. cir.58.
An. Olymp.

7 What then? a Israel hath not ob. 9 And David saith, 'Let their table be An. Olymp. cir. CCIX 2. A.U.C.cir.811. tained that which he seeketh for ; but made a snare, and a trap, and a stumb- A.C.C.cir.811. the election hath obtained it, and the rest were ling-block, and a recompence unto them: blinded

10 . Let their eyes be darkened, that they 8 (According as it is written, God hath given may not see, and bow down their back alway. them the spirit of slumber, eyes that they | 11 I say, then, Have they stumbled that they should not see,

and ears that they should should fall? God forbid: but rather, "through

b

a Ch.9.31. & 10. 3. ► Or, hardened. 2 Cor. 3. 14.- Isai. 29. 10. - Or, remorse.- Deut. 29. 4. Isai. 6. 9, Jer. 5. 21. Ezek. 12. 2.

Matt. 13. 14. John 12. 40. Acts 28. 26, 27.-P. 69. 92.-Ps. 69. 23.--- Acts 13. 16. & 18. 6. & 22. 18, 21. & 28. 21, 28. ch. 10. 19.

they, as well as the others, would have been excluded, had Messiah, and therefore they rejected him, whose kingdom they, like the rest, remained in unbelief; and into this elec was not of this world. tion of grace all the Jews, to a man, notwithstanding they Verse 10. Let their eyes be darkened] All these words were all sinners, would have been taken, had they believed are declarative, and not imprecatory. God declares what in Christ Jesus. This is the true notion of the election of will be the case of such obstinate unbelievers ; their table, grace. See Taylor.

their common providential blessings, will become a snare, Verse 7. What then] What is the real state of the case be- a trap, a stumbling-block, and the means of their punishment. fore us? Israel, the body of the Jewish people, have not Their eyes will be more and more darkened, as they persist obtained that which they so earnestly desire, i. e. to be con- in their unbelief, and their back shall be bowed down alrays; tinued, as they have been hitherto, the peculiar people of far from becoming a great and powerful nation, they shall God; but the clection hath obtained it, as many of them as continue ever in a state of abject slavery and oppression, till have believed in Jesus Christ, and accepted salvation through they acknowledge Jesus as the promised Messiah ; and subhim ; this is the grand scheme of the election by grace; God mit to receive redemption in his blood. chuses to make those his peculiar people who believe in his Verse 11. Hare they stumbled that they should fall] Ilave Son, and none other shall enjoy the blessings of his kingdom. the Jews, now for their disobedience and unbelief rejected, Those who would not receive him are blindeil; they have so sinned against God, as to be for ever put out of the reach shut their eyes against the light, and are in the very circum- of his mercy? By no means. Are they, as a nation, utterly stances of those mentioned by the prophet Isaiah, chap. irrecoverable? This is the sense of the place, and here the xxix. 10.

prophecy of the restoration of the Jewish nation commences, Verse 8. God hath given them the spirit of slumber] But rather, through their fall, salvation is come] The As they had reilfully closed their eyes against the light; so church of God cannot fail; if the Jews have broken the everGod has, in judgment, given them up to the spirit of slumber. lasting covenant, Isaiah xxiv. 5. the Gentiles shall be taThe very word and revelation of God which should have ken into it; and this very circumstance shall be ultimately awakened their consciences, and opened their eyes

and

ears, the means of exciting them to seek and claim a share in the have had a very different effect; and because they did not blessings of the new covenant; and this is what the apostle receive the truth in the love thereof, that, which would other terms provoking them to jealousy, i. e. exciting them to emuwise have been the savour of life unto life, has become the lation, for so the word should be understood. We should savour of death unto deuth; and this continues to the present observe here, that the fall of the Jeres was not, in itself, the day.

cause or reason of the calling of the Gentiles ; for whether Verse 9. Anil Daril saith, Let their table, &c.] And from the Jews had stood or fallen, whether they had embraced or their present disposition, it is reasonable to conclude, that's rejected the gospel ; it was the original purpose of God to the same evils will fall upon them as fell upon the disobedi- take the Gentiles into the church ; for this was absolutely ent in former times, as predicted by David, Psalm lxix. 22, implied in the covenant made with Abraham: and it was ia 23. that their very blessings should become curses to them ; ! virtue of that covenant, that the Gentiles were now called; and their temporal mercies be their only recompence; and and not BECAUSE of the unbelief of the Jews. And hence we yet, even these earthly blessings, by not being enjoyed in see that their fall was not the necessary means of the sal. the Lord, should be a stumbling-block, over which they vation of the Gentiles; for certainly the unbelief of the Jea! should fall; and instead of being a blessing, should be the could never produce faith in the Gentiles. The simple state means of their punishment. They would have a worldly of the case is; the Jews, in the most obstinate and unprin

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The state of the Jews deplorable,

CIAP. XI.

but not irretrievable. 4. M. cir.1982. their fall, salvation is come unto the || 13 For, 1 speak to

13 For, 1 speak to you Gentiles, in- A.M.cir: 4062. . Au. Olymp Gentiles, for to provoke them to asmuch as "I am the apostle of the cancello A.U.C.cir.bli. jealousy.

Gentiles, I magnify mine office : 12 Now, if the fall of them be the riches

14 If by any means I may provoke to emulaof the world, and the ' diminishing of them tion them which are my flesh, and might save the riches of the Gentiles; how much more their some of them. fulness?

15 For, if the casting away of them be the re

A.U.C.cir.811.

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cipled manner, rejected Jesus Christ and the salvation fall

, and the fall of them, he means no more than such a offered them in his name : then the apostles turned to the lapse as was recoverable ; as in the case of Adam's offence. Gentiles, and they heard and believed. The Jews them. See Dr. Taylor. selves perceived that the Gentiles were to be put in posses The riches of the world] If, in consequence of their unsion of similar privileges to those which they, as the peculiar belief, the riches of God's grace and goodness be poured out people of God, had enjoyed ; this they could not bear, and on the whole Gentile world ; how much more shall that disput forth all their strength in opposition and persecution. pensation of grace and mercy enrich and aggrandize the The calling of the Gentiles, which existed in the original Gentiles, which shall bring the whole body of the Jews to purpose of God, became in a certain way accelerated, by the faith of the gospel. llere the apostle supposes, or rather the unbelief of the Jews, through which they forfeited all predicts, that such a dispensation shall take place; and that, their privileges, and fell from that state of glory and dignity therefore, the Jews have not so stumbled as to be finally in which they had been long placed as the peculiar people of irrecoverable. God. See Taylor.

Verse 13. This, and the following verse, should be read Verse 12. Now, if the full of them] The English reader in a parenthesis. St. Paul, as the apostle of the Gentiles, may imagine that, because fall is used in both these verses, wished to shew them the high pitch of glory and blessedness the original word is the same. But their fall, and the fall of to which they had been called, that they might have a due them, is TACOTTWY., the same word which we render offence, sense of God's mercy, in calling them to such a state of salchap. v. 15, 17, 18. and might be rendered lapse. Whereas ration; and, that they might be jealous over themselves, lest that they should fall, (ver. 11.) is, 1a TEOWTI' Now, TITTW they should fall as the Jews had done before them : and he to fall, is used in a sense so very emphatical as to signify dwells particularly on the greatness of those privileges being slain. So Homer II. viii. ver. 475.

which the Gentiles had now received, that he might stir up Ηματι τα, ,

cr'ay
αν οι μεν επι πρυμνησί μαχωνται,

the minds of his countrymen to emulation ; and might be

, Στεινει εν αινοτατω, περι πατροκλοιο πεσόντος:

the means of saving some of them, as he states in the fol. Ως γαρ θεσφατον εςι. .

lowing verse.

I magnify mine office] This is a very improper translation And for Patroclus sluin, the crowded hosts

of ty Claxorax uou doEatw, which is, literally, I honour this In narrow space, shall at the ships contend.

my ministry. Dr. Taylor has justly observed, that magnify, Such the Divine decree.

except when applied to the Most High, carries with it, in our And again, Il. xi. ver. 84.

language, the idea of stretching beyond the bounds of truth. Οφρα μεν ηως ην και αεξετο ίεοον ημαρ, ,

Whereas the apostle simply means that he does justice to his Τετρα μαλ' αμφοτερων βελε' ήπτετο, πιπτε δε λαος. ministry, by stating the glorious things which he was comWhile morning lasted, and the light of day

missioned to preach among the Gentiles : blessings which the Increased, so long the weapons on both sides

Jews, by their obstinacy, had forfeited.
Flew in thick vollies; and the people fell.

Verse 14. Might save some of them.] And yet all these
CowPER.

were among the reprobate, or rejected; however, the apostle

supposed that none of them was irrecoverably shut out from It is well known, that to fall in battle, means to be killed. the Divine favour; and that some of them, by his preach. It is in such a sense as this, that St. Paul used the word fall, ing, might be disposed to receive salvation by Christ Jesus. when he says, Hare they stumbled that they should fall? he Verse 15. But life from the dead] If the rejection of means a fall quite destructive and ruinous ; whereas by their the Jews became the occasion of our receiving the gospel, so

The Jewish nation shall be again

ROMANS.

restored to the divine fuvour.

cir. CCIX. 2.

AMC:46. conciling of the world, what shall" takest of the root and fatness of A M.Cir. 1062

An. Olymp: caro.co.p; the receiving of them be, but life, the olive tree; A.U.C.cir.811. from the dead?

18 ° Boast not against the branches. A.U.C. cir.sli. 16 For, if the a firstfruit be holy, the lump. But if thou boast, thou bearest not the root, but is also holy: and if the root be holy, so are the root thee. the branches.

19 Thou wilt say then, The branches were 17 And, if some of the branches be broken broken off, that I might be grasled in. ofl, and thou, being a wild olive tree, wert 20 Well; because of unbelief they were graffed in among them, and with them par- broken off, and thou standest by faith.

a Lev. 23. 10. Num. 15. 18, 19, 20, 21.— Jer. 11. 16.

• Acts 2. 39. Eph. 2. 12, 13.-—-_ Or, for them-me 1 Cor. 10. 12.

that we can even glory in our tribulations, though they them entitled to the same privileges: and as the root still remains, selves became chief instruments of our sufferings; yet so and the branches also, the descendants from that root still far must we feel from exulting over them, that we should remain ; they still have a certain title to the blessings of the esteem their full conversion to God as great and choice a covenant; theugh, because of their obstinate unbelief, these favour as we would the restoration of a most intimate friend blessings are suspended, as they cannot, even on the ground to life, who had been at the gates of death.

of the old covenant, enjoy these blessings but through fuith: The restoration of the Jews to a state of favour with God, for, it was when Abraham believed God, that it was accounted to which the apostle refers, and which is too plainly inti to him for righteousness; and thus he became an heir of the mated by the spirit of prophecy, to admit of a doubt, will be righteousness which is by faith. a most striking event. Their being preserved, as a distinct Verse 17. And, if some of the branches, &c.] If the people, is certainly a strong collateral proof that they shall present nation of the Jews, because of their unbelief, are cut once more be brought into the church of God: and their off from the blessings of the church of God, and the high conversion to Christianity will be an incontestible proof of honour and dignity of being his peculiar people ; and thou the truth of Divine revelation ; and doubtless will become being a wild olive-ye Gentiles, being without the knowthe means of converting multitudes of deists, who will see ledge of the true God, and consequently bringing forth no the prophecies of God which had been delivered so long be- fruits of righteousness; wert grafted in among them, are now fore, so strikingly fulfilled in this great event. We need inserted in the original stock, having been made partakers of not wonder if a whole nation should then be born, as in the faith of Abraham, and consequently of his blessings; a day.

and enjoy, as the people did who sprang from him, the fatVerse 16. For, if the firstfruit be holy] As the con ness of the olite tree, the promises made to the patriarchs, secrating the firstfruits to God, was the means of drawing and the spiritual privileges of the Jewish church: down his blessing upon the rest ; so the conversion of Abra Verse 18. Boast not against the branches.] While you ham to the true faith, and the several Jews who have now are ready to acknowledge that you were included in the embraced Christianity, are pledges that God will, in process covenant made with Abraham, and are now partakers of the of time, admit the whole Jewish nation into his favour same blessings with him; do not exult over, much less insult again, so that they shall constitute a part of the visible the branches, his present descendants, whose place you church of Christ.

now fill up, according to the election of grace : for, remember If the root be holy, so are the branches.] The word holy ye are not the root, nor do ye bear the root, but the root bears in this verse, is to be taken in that sense which it has so fre- you. You have not been the means of deriving any blessing quently in the Old and New Testaments, viz. consecrated, on the Jewish people ; but through that very people which set apart to sacred uses. It must not be forgotten that the you may be tempted to despise, all the blessings and excelfirst converts to Christ were from among the Jeros; these lencies which you enjoy, have been communicated to you. formed the root of the Christian church : these were holy, Verse 19. Thou will say then, &c.] You may think 40/196, consecrated to God, and those who among the Gentiles that you have reason to exult over them ; because it is a fact were converted by their means, were also aplot, consecrated ; 1 that God has been displeased with them, and therefore has but the chief reference is to the ancestors of the Jewish || broken them off; has cast them out of the church, and taken people, Abraham, Isaac and Jacob; and as these were de- you into it in their place :voted to God, and received into his covenant; all their pos Verse 20. Well; because of unbelief, &c.] This stateterity, the branches which proceeded from this root, became ment is all true; but then, consider, why is it that they were

!

The Gentiles stand in the favour

CHAP. XI.

of God, by faith.

A.M. cir. 1062 · Be not highminded, but "fear : || 22 Behold, therefore, the goodness 4.M.0166.2.

21 For, if God spared not the na- and severity of God: on them which A.U.C.cir.811. tural branches, take heed lest he also fell, severity ; but toward thee,

goodness, if thou continue in his goodness :

A. D. cir. 58.

An. Olymp. cir. CCIX. 2.

An. Olymp: cir. CCIX.2. A.U.C.cir.811.

spare not thee.

a Ch. 12. 16.

- Prov. 28. 14. Isai. 66. 2. Phil. 2. 12.

« 1 Cor. 15. 2. llebr. 3. 6, 14.

cast out? Was it not because of their unbelief? And you Fit nodo sinus : huc alienâ ex arbore germen
stand by faith: you were made partakers of these blessings Includunt; udoque docent inolescere libro.
by faith ; be not highminded; let this humble, not exalt you

For where the tender rinds of trees disclose in your own estimation ; for if the blessings were received

Their shooting gems, a swelling knot there grows; by faith, consequently not by works : and if not by works,

Just in that space, a narrow slit we make, you have no merit; and, what you have receivedl, is through

Then other buds from bearing trees we take; the mere mercy of God. They once stood by faith ; they

Inserted thus, the wounded rind we close; gave place to unbelief, and fell : you stand now by faith, but

In whose moist womb, the admitted infant grows. it is as possible for you to be unfaithful, as it was for them ;

DRYDEN. and consequently you may fall under the Divine di-pleasure, as they have done; be not highminded, but fear; watch over In all countries the principle is the same, though the mode yourselves with godly jealousy.

is various. Verse 21. For, if God spared not the natural branches] The apostle having adopted this metaphor as the best he If Hle, in his infinite justice and holiness, could not tolerate could find, to express that act of God's justice and mercy, sin in the people whom he foreknew, whom he had so long by which the Jews were rejected, and the Gentiles elected lored, cherished, miraculously preserved and blessed; take in their stead; and, in order to shew that though the Jewish heed lest he also spare not thee. Be convinced that the same tree was cut down, or its branches lopped of', yet it was not righteous principle in him will cause him to act towards you rooted up, he informs the Gentile believers that, as it is cusas he has acted towards them, if you sin after the similitude tomary to insert a good cyon in a bad or useless stock, they of their transgression : and to this, self sufficiency, and self-, who were bad, contrary to the custom in such cases, were confidence, will soon lead you. Remember, therefore, the' grafted in a good stock, and their growth and fruitfulness * rock whence you were hewn; and the hole of the pit whence proclaimed the excellence and vegetative life of the stock in ye were digged. Depend incessantly on God's free grace, which they were inserted. This was the goodness of the that ye may abide in his favour.

heavenly Gardener to them; but it was severity, amor, an Verse 22. Behold, therefore, the goodness] The excla- act of excision to the Jews. mation, behold the goodness of God! is frequent among the

The Reader will observe that this term belongs to engraft. Jewish writers, when they wish to call the attention of ing : often, in this operation, a part of a branch is cut off ; men to particular displays of God's mercy; especially to in that part which remains in connexion with the tree, a little wards those who are singularly unworthy. See several in- slit is made, and then a small twig or branch taken from stances in Schoettgen.

another tree, is, at its lower end, shaved thing wedge-like, ind severity of God] As X875077,5, goodness, signifies' and then inserted in the cleft, after which the whole is tied the essential quality of the Divine nature, the fountain of all, together, clayed round, &c. and the bark unites to bark; and good to men and angels; so aTiOTO severity, as it is here j' the stock and the cyon become thus one tree, the juices of translated, signifies that particular exercise of his goodness the old stock circulating through the tubes of the newly in. and holiness which leads him to sever from his mystical body | serted twig; and thus both live, though the branch inserted whatsoever would injure, corrupt, or destroy it. The apostle bears a very different fruit from that which the parent stock in these verses a metaphor taken from engrafting, bore. I have often performed this operation, and in this έγκέντρισις, whence the verb έγκεντριζαν, from εν in, and

very way, with success. And I cannot conceive that the ZEYTPLIW to puncture, because engrafting was frequently, apostle could bave chosen a more apt, or a more elegant medone by making a puncture in the bark of a tree, and then taphor. The Jewish tree does not bring forth proper fruit; inserting a bud taken from another. This was the prac but it will answer well to ingraft a proper fruit-bearing tree tice in the Roman agriculture, as we learn from Virgil, The Gentiles are a wild olive, which is a tree that bears Georg. ii. ver. 73–

no fruit; but it may be made to bear if grafted on the Nam quà se medio tradunt de cortice gemmæ, Jewish stock. Some of the branches were cut off, that the Et tenues rumpunt tunicas; angustus in ipso

branches of this wild olive might be inserted : the act hy

uses

on.

When the Jews believe in Christ,

ROMANS.

they shall be restored.

A. D. cir.58.

A.M.cir.4062. otherwise, “thou also shalt be cut 21 For, if thou wert cut out of A.M.cir.4062 An. Olymp; ofl.

the olive tree which is wild by na- r. olymp 23 And they also, if they abide ture; and wert grafied contrary to 4.C.C.cir.811. not in unbelief, shall be grassed in : for God is nature into a good olive tree: how much able to graff them in again.

shall these, which be the natural

cir. CCIX. 2. A.U.C.cir.811.

more

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which this insertion is made, is termed 229,5075,5 goodness, this there is no kind of necessity, for the original stock, the benignity: the act by which the branches of the original Abrahamic covenant, is sufficient to receive them all; and so stock are broken off, is termed ATTOTONIA excision, from OTO Jews and Gentiles become one eternal flock, under one from, and Teuvw, I cut, still keeping the metaphor, taken Bishop and Shepherd of all their souls. from engrafting, in view. Now, let the apostle's mode of Verse 23. If they abide not in unbelief] So, we find reasoning be observed ; the tree is cut down, or its branches that their rejection took place in consequence of their wilful are lopped olo; but the tree is not rooted up. The Jews have obstinacy : and, that they may return into the fold, the door stumbled, but not so as to full irrecoverably; for, if they of which still stands open. obide not still in unbelief, they shall be grasted in, ver. 23. For God is able to graf them in again.] Fallen as they The Gentiles, which are grafted in, on these cut-off branches, | are, and degraded, God can, in the course of his providence like the cyon inserted in another stock, partake of the root, and mercy, restore them to all their forfeited privileges ; and which absorbs from the earth the nutritious juices, and the this will take place if they abide not in unbelief; which infatness of the Jewish tree, the blessings and privileges which timates, that God has furnished them with all the power and that people have long enjoyed, in consequence of the Abra means necessary for faith ; and that they may believe on the hamic covenant, ver. 17. the root, the Jewish covenant, Lord Jesus whenever they will. The veil now continues on bears them; not they, the root, ver. 18. As, therefore, the their heart, but it is not a veil which God has spread there, continuance of the Gentiles, as the church and people of | but a veil occasioned by their own voluntary and obstinate God, depends upon their interest in the Abrahamic corenant, unbelief: and, when they shall turn to the Lord (Jesus) the the blessings of which they derive through the medium of veil shall be taken away. See what the apostle has said, the Jews; they should be grateful to God, and tolerant to 2 Cor. iii. 6--18. those through whom they have received such blessings. And Verse 21. The olive tree, which is wild by nature] Which as in the case of grafting, the prosperity of the engrafted is xata puole, naturally wild and barren; for, that the wild cyon depends on the existence of the parent stock ; so the olive bore no fruit, is sufficiently evident from the testimony continuance of the Gentiles in this state of favour, (follow- of the authors who have written on the subject; hence the ing the metaphor,) in a certain way, depends on the con- proverb AxI.STIGTSCOS aY PUTTGU; more unfruitful than the tinuance of the Jewish people : and they are preserved, as so wild olive. Λακωνες γαρ αγριαν ελαιαν, αγριπταν many cyons, which are, in process of time, to be ingrafted on ranouri for the Lacedemonians term the wild olive ary PITTO** the Gentiles ; and thus the Gentiles shall become the means See Suidas. And hence lesychius interprets Ayushes05, of salvation to the Jews ; as the Jews have been the means the wild olive, (the word used here by St. Paul,) by aractes, of salvation to the Gentiles. Following, therefore, the unfruitful: and the reason given in Diogen. Proverb. metaphor a little further, which seems to have been so well Cent. ii. n. 63, is qurov yao 5iv Ayitics aractor for chosen in all its parts; the continued existence of the Jews, the wild olice is an unfruitful tree. On this account the as a distinct people, together with the acknowledgment of apostle very properly says, thou wert cut, ex 77,5 XGT2 7051 the Gentiles, that they have derived their salvation and state ayçleżaucu, out of that olive which is uncultivated, because it of blessedness through them; of which Jesus Christ, born is barren: the nata çuoly does not refer here to its being naof the stock of David, is the author; and the Jewish scripturally barren; but to its being commonly, or customarily tures, which the Gentiles receive as inspired by God, are the permitted to remain so. And, that this is the import of evidence ; then, the restoration of the Jews, to the favour of the phrase here, is evident from the next clause of the God, is a necessary consequence: and, indeed, seems to be the principal end in reference to which the apostle reasons. And weri graffed contrary to nature] Ilaça Çutiv, comThe Gentiles, however, are to take care that the restoration trary to all custom; for a cyon taken from a barren or useof the Jews be not at their expense ; as their calling and less tree, is scarcely ever known to be grafted into a good election were at the expense of the Jews : the latter being stock : but here the Gentiles, a fruitless and sinful race, are cut off, that the former might be grafted in, ver. 19. Of grafted on the ancient patriarchal stock. Now, if it was

verse.

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