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Death prevailed in the world

CHAP. V.

from Adam to Moses.

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14 Nevertheless, death reigned from litude of Adam's transgression, who A...102.962An. Olymp. a Adam to Moses, even

Au. Olyınp. Moses, even over them is the figure of him that was to cir. ccix: 2.

cir. CCIX.2. A.U.C.cir.811. that had not sinned after the simi- come.

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a Ch. 4. 15. Hos. 6. 7. Wisd. 1. 14.

b 1 Cor. 15. 21, 22, 45.

Col. 2. 17.

the judgment to condemnation, pronounced upon Adam, Verse 13. For until the law, sin was in the world] As came upon all men, chap. v. 12. to the end. And thus he death reigned from Adam to Moses; so also did sin. Now, gives us a view of the principal dispensations from the be as there was no written law from Adam till that given to ginning of the world.

Moses; the death that prevailed could not be the consequence “ II. In this last case, as well as in the two former, he uses of the breach of that law; for sin, so as to be punished with law, or forensic terms; judgment to condemnation, justi- temporal death, is not imputed when there is no law, which fication, justify, made sinners, made righteous. And there shews the penalty of sin to be death. Therefore, men are fore, as he considers both Jews and Gentiles at the coming of not subjected to death, for their own personal transgresChrist, and Abraham, when the covenant was made with sions, but for the sin of Adam; as through his transhim; so he considers Adam, and all men, as standing in the gression, all come into the world with the seeds of death court, before the tribunal of God. And this was the clear and corruption in their own nature, superadded to their est and concisest way of representing his arguments.”- moral depravity. All are sinful-all are mortal-and all Notes, p. 283.

must die. Sin entered into the world] There was neither sin nor Verse 14. Nevertheless, death reigned from Adam tu death before the offence of Adam; after that, there were Moses] This supposes, as Dr. Taylor very properly ob. both. Adam's transgression was therefore the cause of serves :-1. That sin was in the world from Adam to Moses. both.

2. That law was not in the world from Adam to Moses, durAnd death by sin] Natural evil is evidently the effect of ing the space of about 2500 years : for, after Adam’s transmoral evil; if man had never sinned, he had never suf- gression, that law was abrogated; and, from that time, men fered. Dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return, were either under the general covenant of grace given to was never spoken till after Adam had eaten the forbidden Adam or Noah; or under that which was specially made with fruit.

Abraham. 3. That therefore the sins committed were not Death passed upon all men] Hence we see, that all human imputed unto them to death ; for they did not sin after the beings partook in the consequences of Adam's sin. He pro- | similitude of Adam's transgression; that is, they did not, pagated his like; and, with the rudiments of his own nature, I like him, transgress a law, or rule of action, to which death, propagated those of his moral likeness.

as the penalty, was annexed. And yet--4. Death reigned For that all have sinned) All are born with a sinful na over mankind during the period between Adam and Moses. ture; and the seeds of this evil soon vegetate, and bring. Therefore, men did not die for their own transgressions, but forth corresponding fruits. There has never been one in- in consequence of Adam's one transgression. stance of an immaculate human soul since the fall of Adam. Who is the figure of him that was to come.] Adam was Every man sins, and sins too after the similitude of Adam's is the figure, TUTOS, the type, pattern or resemblance of him transgression. Adam endeavoured to be independent of God: who was to come: i. e. of the Messiah. The correspondence all his offspring act in the same way; hence prayer is little between them appears in the following particulars : used, because prayer is the language of dependence; and this ' 1. Through him, as its spring and fountain, sin became difis inconsistent with every emotion of original sin. When fused through the world, so that every man comes into the these degenerate children of degenerate parents are detected world with sinsul propensities : for, by one man, sin entered in their sins, they act just as their parents did; each excuses into the world ; and death by sin; and so judgment passed himself, and lays the blame on another. What hast thou upon all men, ver. 12. Through Christ, as its spring and done ?--The woman whom thou gavest me, to be with me; fountain, righteousness becomes diffused through the earth ; She gave me, and I did eat. What hast ruou done ?The so that every man is made partaker of a principle of grace SERPENT beguiled me, and I did eat. Thus, it is extremely and truth; for he is the true light that lighieneth every man difficult to find a person who ingenuously acknowledges that cometh into the world, John i. 9. 2. As in Adam all his own transgression. See the notes on Gen. iii. 6, &c. die ; so in Christ shall all be made alive, 1 Cor. xv. 92. where the doctrine of original sin is particularly con- | For, since by man came death, by man came also the resurrecsidered.

tion of the dead, ver. 21. 3. As in, or through Adam, guilt

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The free gift is greater in

ROMANS.

its effects, than the offence.

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15 But not as the offence, so also much more the

grace of God, A. M.cir.4062. An. Olymp; is the free gift. For, if through and the gift by

by grace,

grace, which An Olymp. A.U.C.cir.811

. the offence of one, many be dead ; is by one man, Jesus Christ, A. U.C.cir.817.

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a Isai. 53. 11. Dan. 12. 2. John 1. 16.

+ Ch. 8. 29. John 3. 16.

came upon all men; so, through Christ, the free gift comes we should take into his conclusion the whole of the gift, so upon all men unto justification of life, ver. 18. These alone far as it can reach, to all mankind.” seem to be the instances, in which a similitude exists between For, if through the offence of one, many be dead] That Adam and Christ.

the ós Tom.201, the many, of the apostle, here means all manVerse 15. But not as the offence, so also is the free gift] kind, needs no proof to any but that person who finds himThe same learned writer quoted above, continues to observe ; | self qualified to deny that all men are mortal. And if the “ It is evident that the apostle, in this and the two following many, that is, all mankind, have died through the offence of verses, is running a parallel, or making a comparison between one; certainly, the gift by grace, which abounds unto Tous the offence of Adam and its consequence; and the opposite Torinous, the many, by Christ Jesus, must have reference to gift of God, and its consequences. And, in these three every humun being. If the consequences of Christ's incare verses, he shews, that the comparison will not hold good in nation and death extend only to a few, or a select number of all respects; because the free gift, xaciou.a, bestows bless mankind, which, though they may be considered many

in ings far beyond the consequences of the offence; and which, themselves, are few in comparison of the whole human race; therefore, have no relation to it. And this was necessary, then, the consequences of Adam's sin have extended only to not only to prevent mistakes concerning the consequence of a few, or to the same select number: and if only many, and Adam's offence, and the extent of gospel grace; but it was not all have fallen, only that many had need of a Redeemer. also necessary to the apostle's main design ; which was not For, it is most evident, that the same persons are referred to only to prove that the grace of the gospel extends to all men, in both clauses of the verse. If the apostle had believed so far as it takes off the consequence of Adam's offence, that the benefits of the death of Christ had extended only [i. e. death, without the promise or probability of a resurrec to a select number of mankind; he never could have used tion,] but that it likewise extends to all men, with respect to the language he has done here: though, in the first clause, the surplusage of blessings; in which it stretches far beyond he might have said, without any qualification of the term, the consequences of Adam's offence. For, the grace through the offence of one, many are dead; in the 2nd that takes off the consequence of Adam's offence, and the clause, to be consistent with the doctrine of particular regrace which abounds beyond it, are both included in the demption, he must have said, The grace of God, and the gift same wasious, or free gift, which should be well observed ; | by grace, huth abounded unto some. As by the offence of one for, in this I conceive lie the connexion and sinews of the ar- judgment came upon alL men to condemnation ; so, by the gument: the free gift, which stands cpposed to Allam's of-righteousness of one, the free gift came upon some to jusfence; and which, i think, was bestowed immediately aftertification, ver. 18. As, by one man's disobedience, MANY the offence; Gen. iii. 15, The seed of the woman shall were made sinners; so, by the obedience of one, sholl SONE bruise the serpents heal. This gift, I say, includes both the be made righteous, ver. 19. As in Adam ALL die ; so, in grace which exactly answers to the offence; and also that | Christ, shall some be made alive, i Cor. xv. 22. But part of the grace which stretches far beyond it. And, if the neither the doctrine nor the thing ever entered the soul of one part of the gift be freely bestowed on all mankind, as this divinely inspired man. the Jews allow, why not the other ? especially, considering Nath abounded unto many] That is, Christ Jesus died that the whole gift stands upon a reason and foundation in for every man; salvation is free for all; saving grace is excellence and worth, vastly surpassing the malignity and tendered to every soul; and a measure of the Divine light is demerit of the offence; and, consequently, capable of pro-actually communicated to every heart, John i. 9. And, as ducing benefits vastly beyond the sufferings occasioned by the grace is offered, so it may be received ; and hence the the offence. This is the force of the apostle's argument: and apostle says, ver. 17, they which receive abundance of grace, therefore, supposing that in the 18th and 19th verses, lite- j and of the gift of righteousness, shall reign in life by Christ rally undertsood, he compares the consequence of Adam's Jesus : and, by receiving, is undoubtedly meant not only the offence, and Christ's obedience, only so far as the one is act of receiving, but retaining and improving the grace which commensurate to the other; yet his reasoning, ver. 15, 16, they receive : and, as all may receive, so all may improve 17. plainly shews, that it is his meaning and intention that || and retain the grace they do receive; and, consequently,

1

Sin and death have come by Adam;

CHAP. V.

righteousness and life by Jesus Christ.

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A. D. cir. 58.

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abounded unto many. ance of grace and of the gift of 4. M. cir.4062 An. Olymp. cir. CCİX. 2. 16 And not as it was by one righteousness shall reign in life by An. Olymp. A.U.C.cir.811. that sinned, so is the gift: for the one, Jesus Christ.) judgment was by one to condemnation ; but 18 Therefore, as by the offence of one, the free gift is of many offences unto justi- judgment came upon all men to condemnafication.

tion ; even so by the righteousness of one, the 17 For, if bhy one man's offence death reigned free gift came oupon all men unto justification by one ; much more they which receive abund- of life.

* Isai. 53. 11. Matt. 20. 28. & 26. 28.-—.to Or, by one offence.

by one offence.

_c Or,

Or, by one righteousness.

e John 12. 32. Hebr. 2. 9.

hace life.

ALL may be eternally saved. But of multitudes, Christ still same sense as in Matt. xiii. 20, He heareth the word, and may say, They will not come unto me, that they might with joy RECEIVETI it. John i. 12, But as many as RE

CEIVED him, to them guve. he power to become the sons of Verse 16. And not as it was by one that sinned] That God. John iii. 11, Ye RECEIVE not our witness.-See also is, the judicial act that followed Adam's sin, (the sentence ver. 32, 33. John v. 43, I am come in my Father's name, of death pronounced upon him, and his expulsion from Pa- and ye RECEIVE me not. John xii. 48, He that RECEIVETH radise,) took its rise from his one offence alone, and termi- ' not my words. John xiii. 20, He that receiveth whomsoever nated in condemnation; but the free gift of God in Christ I send, RECEIVETH me. John xiv. 17, The Spirit of truth takes its rise also from the many offences which men, in a rohom the world cannot receive. John xvii. 8, I have given long course of life, have personally committed ; and the ob- them the words which thou gavest me; and they have REject of this grace is to justify them freely, and bring them to CEIVED them. In all these passages it is evident that reeternal life.

ceiving and not receiving, imply improving or not imVerse 17. Death reigned by one] Death is here per- 'proving. sonified, and is represented as reigning over the human Verse 18. Therefore, as by the offence of one, &c.] The race; and death, of course, reigns unto death; he is known Greek text of this verse is as follows, Aça ouv, ws dievos as reigning, by the destruction of his subjects.

παραπτωματος, εις παντας ανθρωπους εις κατακριμα: ουτω Shall reign in life) Those who receive, retain, and im- και δι' ενος δικαιώματος, εις παντας ανθρωπους, εις δικαίωσιν prove the abundant grace offered by Jesus Christ, shall be Śwns; which, literally rendered, stands thus—Therefore, as redeemed from the empire of death, and exalted to the throne by one offence unto all men, unto condemnation ; so likewise, of God, to live and reign with him ever, world without end. I by one righteousness unto all men, to justification of life. See Rev. i. 5, 6. ii. 7, 10, 11. iii. 21.

This is evidently an elliptical sentence, and its full meaning If we carefully compare ver. 15. with ver. 17. we shall can be gathered only from the context. He who had no parfind that there is a correspondence between Teplotalav, the 'ticular purpose to serve, would, most probably, understand abounding, ver. 17. and ETTE PIOTEUTE, hath abounded, ver. 15. it, from the context, thus—Therefore, as by one sin, all men between Tys owpeas ons dixaloturns, the gift of righteousness, came into condemnation; so also, by one righteous act, all i. e. justification, ver. 17. and on Owpea ev yapiti, the gift by men came unto justification of life ; which is more fully ex. grace, ver. 15. Therefore, if we understand the abounding pressed in the following verse. Now, leaving all particular of grace, and the gift of justification, ver. 17. we shall un creeds out of the question ; and taking in the scope of the derstand the grace of God, and the gift by grace which hath apostle's reasoning in this, and the preceding chapter, is not abounded unto the many, ver. 15. But the abounding of the sense evidently this? Through the disobedience of Adam, grace, and the gift of justification, ver. 17. is that gruce and a sentence of condemnation to death, without any promise gift which is RECEIV ED by those who shall reign in eternal or hope of a resurrection, passed upon all men; so by the life. Reigning in life, is the consequence of receiving the obedience of Christ unto death, this one grand righteous act, grace and gift. Therefore, receiving the grace, is a necessary the sentence was so far reversed, that death shall not finally qualification on our part, for reigning in life; and this neces- triumph; for all shall again be restored to life: justice must sarily implies our believing in Christ Jesus, as having died have its due; and therefore all must die. The mercy of for our offences, receiving the grace so freely offered us ; || God, in Christ Jesus, shall have its due also ; and therefore using the means, in order to get more grace, and bringing all shall be put into a salvable state bere, and the whole forth the fruits of the Spirit. Receive, must here have the human race shall be raised to life at the great day. Thus

Many made sinners by Idam;

ROMANS.

many made righteous by Christ.

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19 For, as by one man's “dis- one, shall many be made righte- A. Mcir.4062. An. Olymp; obedience, many were made sin- ous.

ners ;
so, by the obedience of
20 Moreover, the law entered, that A.U.C.cir.811

.

, 2. A.U.C.cir.811.

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a 1 Kings 1. 21. Isai. 53. 4, 5, 6, 10. 2 Cor. 5.21.

" John 15. 22. ch. 3. 20. & 4. 15. & 7.8. Gal.3. 19, 23.

ever.

both justice and mercy are magnified; and neither is exalted fit tabernacle for the soul in a glorified state for ever and at the expense of the other.

The Apostle uses three remarkable words in these three The same writer observes, that when the Apostle speaks verses ; 1. Arkiva Justification, verse 16. 2. 417.210cum, of forgiveness of sins, simply, he insists on faith as the conwhich we render righteousness, verse 17. but is best rendered dition ; but here where he speaks of justification of life, he justification, as expressing that pardon and sulvation offered mentions 110 condition ; and therefore he supposes, justificato us in the gospel : see the note chap. i. 16. 3. Aixoswois, tion of life, the phrase being understood in a forensic sense, which is also rendered justification, verse 18.

to mean no more than the decree or judgment that determines The first word, dixewi. O, is found in the following places, the resurrection from the dead. This is a favourite point Luke i. 6. Rom. i. 32. ii. 26. v. 16, 18. viii. 4. Heb. ix. 1, 10. with the Doctor, and he argues largely for it: see his Notes. Rev. xv. 4. and xix. 8. to which the reader may refer. Ai Verse 19. For, as by one man's disobedience, &c.] The expla

100signifies, among the Greek writers, the sentence of a nation of this verse has been anticipated in the foregoing. judge, acquilling the innocent, condemning, and punishing the Verse 20. The low entered that the offence might abound] guilty; but in the New Testament it signifies whatever God After considering various opinions concerning the true meanhas appointed or sanctioned as a luw; and appears to answering of this verse, (see under verse 12.) I am induced to preto the Hebrew 7974 vaun mishpat Yehovah, the statute, or fer my own, as being the most simple. By law I understand judgment of the Lord. It has evidently this sense in the Mosaic law. By entering in, Tapisya9, or rather Luke i. 6. walking in all the commandments and ordin- coming in privily, see Gal. i. 4. (the only place where it ocANCES, dixawwu.256, of the Lord blameless ; and it has the curs besides,) I understand the temporary or limited use of like meaning in the principal places referred to above; but that law, which was, as far as its rites and ceremonies are in the verse in question, it most evidently means absolution, considered, confined to the Jewish people; and to them, only or liberation from punishment, as it is opposed to ratanoiva till the Messiah should come; but considered as the moral condemnation, verse 18. see the note on chap. i. 16. and luw, or rule of conscience and life, it has in its spirit and see Schleusner in voce.

power been slipt in, introduced into every conscience that The second word, 8ixaucou, I have explained at large in sin might abound, that the true nature, deformity and ex. chap. i. 16. already referred to.

tent of sin might appear; for by the law is the knowledge The third word, fixo uwois, is used by the Greek writers, of sin : for how can the finer deviations from a straight line almost universally, to denote the punishment inflicted on a be ascertained, without the application of a known straight criminal, or the condemnatory sentence itself ; but in the edge? Without this rule of right, sin can only be known in New Testament, where it occurs only twice, (Rom. iv. 25, a sort of general way; the innumerable deviations from posie he was raised for our justification, direiwoly, and chap. v. 18, tive rectitude can only be known by the application of the unto justification of life, drowwony (wns,) it evidently signifies / righteous statutes of which the law is composed. And it the pardon and remission of sins; and seems to be nearly sy was necessary that this law should be given, that the true nonymous with δικαιωμα. Dr. Taylor thinks that “Sixalo- | nature of sin might be seen, and that men might be the better ourn is gospel pardon and salvation; and has reference to prepared to receive the gospel ; finding that this law worketh God's mercy. Aixdiwua is our being set quite clear and only wrath, i. e. denounces punishment, forasmuch as all right; or our being restored to sanctity, delivered from eter- have sinned. Now, it is wisely ordered of God, that whernal death, and being brought to eternal life ; and has refer- ever the gospel goes, there the law goes also; entering every ence to the power and guilt of sin. And drawwois he thinks where, that sin may be seen to abound, and that men may may mean no more than our being restored to life at the re be led to despair of salvation in any other way, or on any surrection.Taking these in their order: There is, first, terms, but those proposed in the gospel of Christ. Thus the pardon of sin. Secondly, purification of heart, and prepar- sinner becomes a true penitent, and is glad, seeing the cur:e ation for glory. Thirdly, the resurrection of the body, and of the law hanging over his soul, to flee for refuge to the its being made like to his glorious body, so as to become a hope set before him in the gospel.

Sin reigns unto death;

CHAP. V.

grace reigns unto eternal life.

4. M. cir.4062. the offence might abound. But where even so might grace reign through 4. b.C.1.58.

Aus Olymo sin abounded, grace did much "more righteousness unto eternal life, by car.cclxm. A.U.C.cir.811. abound:

Jesus Christ our Lord. 21 That as sin hath reigned unto death,

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a Luke 7. 47. 1 Tim. 1. 14.

b 2 Cor. 15. 56, 57 ch. 6. 16, 21, 23.

But where sin abounded] Whether in the world, or in the preceding chapter bring to our view! No less than the docheart of the individual, being discovered by this most puretrine of the fall of man from original righteousness; and the and righteous law ; grace did much more abound: not only i redemption of the world by the incarnation and death of pardon for all that is past, is offered by the gospel, so that Christ. On the subject of the Fall, though I have spoken all the transgressions for which the soul is condemned much in the notes on Genesis, chap. iii. yet it may be necesdeath by the law, are freely and fully forgiven ; but also sary to make a few farther observations: the Holy Spirit, in the abundance of his gifts and graces, is 1. That all mankind have fallen under the empire of death, communicated, so as to prepare the receiver for an exceed- || through this original transgression, the apostle most positive. ing and eternal weight of glory. Thus the grace of the gos- || ly asserts; and few men who profess to believe the Bible, pel not only redeems from death, and restores to life; but pretend to dispute. This point is indeed ably stated, argued, brings the soul into such a relationship with God, and into and proved by Dr. Taylor, from whose observations the such a participation of eternal glory, as we have no autho- | preceding notes are considerably enriched. But there is one rity to believe ever would have been the portion even of || point, which I think not less evident; which he has not only Adam himself, had he even eternally retained his innocence. not included in his argument, but as far as it came in his Thus, where sin abounded, grace doth much more abound. way, has argued against it, viz. the degeneracy and moral

Verse 21. That as sin hath reigned unto death] As ex- || corruption of the human soul. As no man can account for tensively, as deeply, as universally, as sin, whether imply- the death brought into the world, but on the ground of this ing the act of transgression, or the impure principle from primitive transgression; so none can account for the moral which the act proceeds, or both. Ilath reigned, subjected evil that is in the world, on any other ground. It is a fact, the whole earth and all its inhabitants; the whole soul, and that every human being brings into the world with him the all its powers and faculties, unto death, temporal of the seeds of dissolution and mortality. Into this state we are body, spiritual of the soul, and eternal of both; even so, fallen, according to divine revelation, through the one of as extensively, deeply, and universally, might grace reign, | fence of Adam. This fact is proved by the mortality of all men. filling the whole earth, and pervading, purifying, and refin- | It is not less a fact, that every man that is born into the world ing the whole soul : through righteousness, through this brings with him the seeds of moral evil; these he could not doctrine of free salvation by the blood of the Lamb, || have derived from his Maker; for the most pure and holy and by the principle of holiness transfused through the God can make nothing impure, imperfect, or unholy. Into soul by the Holy Ghost : unlo eternal life, the pro- this state we are reduced, according to the Scripture, by the per object of an immortal spirit's hope, the only sphere transgression of Adam; for by this one man, sin entered into where the human intellect can rest, and be happy in the world, as well as death. the place and state where God is; where he is seen as HE IS; 2. The fact, that all come into the world with sinful proand where he can be enjoyed without interruption in an eter- pensities, is proved by another fact, that every man sins; that nal progression of knowledge and beatitude: by Jesus sin is his first work, and that no exception to this has ever Christ our Lord, as the cause of our salvation, the means been noticed, except in the human nature of Jesus Christ; by which it is communicated, and the source whence it springs. and that exempt case is sufficiently accounted for from this Thus we find, that the salvation from sin here, is as exten- circumstance, that it did not come in the common way of sive and complete as the guilt and contamination of sin; patural generation. death is conquered, hell disappointed, the Devil confounded, 3. As like pruduces its like, if Adam became mortal and and sin totally destroyed. Here is glorying, to Him that sinful, he could not communicate properties which he did loved us, and washed us from our sins in his own blood, and not possess ; and he must transmit those which constituted has made us kings and priests to God and his Father, be his natural and moral likeness. Therefore all his posterity glory and dominion, for ever and ever. Amen! Hallelujah! | must resemble himself. Nothing less than a constant miraThe Lord God omnipotent reigneth! Amen, and Amen. culous energy, presiding over the formation and developement

of every human body and soul, could prevent the seeds of What highly interesting and momentous truths does the natural and moral evil from being propagated. That these

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