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Observations on some

ROMANS.

parts of the preceding chapter.

seeds are not produced in men by their own personal trans- ! to permit them to propagate theirlike in such circumstances, that gressions, is most positively asserted by the Apostle in the their offspring must be unavoidably and eternally wretched. preceding chapter; and that they exist before the human be God has therefore provided such a Saviour, the merit of whose ing is capable of actual transgression, or of the exercise of passion and death should apply to every human being, and should will and judgment, so as to prefer and determine, is evident infinitely transcend the demerit of the original transgression, to the most superficial observer ; 1st, from the most marked and put every soul that received that grace, (and all may,) evil propensities of children long before reason can have any into a state of greater excellence and glory than that was, or influence or controul over passion; and, 2ndly, it is demonstrat could have been, from which Adam, by transgressing, fell. ed by the death of millions in a state of infancy. It could not, 7. The state of infants dying before they are capable of therefore, be personal transgression that produced the evil hearing the gospel ; and the state of heathens who have no ropensities in the one case; nor death in the other.

opportunity of knowing how to escape from their corruption 4. While misery, death, and sin are in the world, we and misery; have been urged as cases of peculiar hardship. shall have incontrovertible proofs of the fall of man. Men But, first, there is no evidence in the whole book of God, may dispute against the doctrine of original sin ; but such facts that any child dies eternally for Adam's sin. Nothing of as the above, will be a standing irrefragable argument against this kind is intimated in the Bible; and as Jesus took upon every thing that can be advanced against the doctrine itself. him lumun nature, and condescended to be born of a woman

5. The justice of permitting this general infection to be in a state of perfect helpless infuncy, he has, consequent. come diffused, has been strongly oppugned. “Why should ly, sanctified this state, and has said, without limitation or the innocent suffer for the guilty ?” As God made man to 'exception, Suffer little children to come unto me, and forbid propagate his like on the earth, his transmitting the same them not, for of such is the kingdom of God. We may justly kind of nature with which he was formed, must be a neces- infer, and all the justice as well as the mercy of the Gedhead sary consequence of that propagation. He might, it is true, supports the inference, that all human beings, dying in an have cut off for ever, the offending pair ; but this, most evi- infant state, are regenerated by that grace of God which bringdently, did not comport with his creative designs. *** But he eth salvation to all men. Titus ii. 11. and go infallibly to might have rendered Adam incapable of sin.” This does the kingdom of heaven. As to the Gentiles, their case is exnot appear. If he had been incapable of sinning, he ceedingly clear. The apostle has determined this ; see chap. would have been incapable of holiness ; that is, he could ii. 11. and 15. and the notes there. He, who, in the course not have been a free agent ; or, in other words, he could of his providence, has withheld from them the letter of his not have been an intelligent or intellectual being; he must i word, has not denied them the light and ir fiuence of his have been a mass of inert and unconscious matter. “But Spirit; and will judge them in the great day, only accord God might have cut them off and created a new race.” Heing to the grace and means of moral improvement with which certainly might; and what would have been gained by this?! they have been favoured. No man will be finally damped, beWhy, just nothing. The second creation, if of intelligent, cause he was a Gentile, but because he has not made a proper beings at all, must have been precisely similar to the first ; use of the grace and advantages which God had given him. Thus and the circumstances in which these last were to be placed, we see that the Judge of all the earth has done right; and we must be exactly such as infinite wisdom saw to be the most pro- may rest assured that he will eternally act in the same way. per for their predecessors; and consequently the most pro 8. The term FALL we use metaphorically, to signify deper for them.

They also must have been in a state of gradation: literally, it signifies stumbling, so as to lose the probation; they also must have been placed under a lare; centre of gravity, or the proper poise of our bodies, in conthis law must be guarded by penal sanctions; the possibility sequence of which we are precipitated on the ground. The of transgression must be the same in the second case as in the term seems to have been borrowed from the TTÇATTWZ

of first; and the lapse as probable, because as possible to this se the apostle, chap. v. 15—18. which we translate offence, cond race of human beings, as it was to their predecessors. | and which is more literally FALL, from muça intensite, and It was better, therefore, to let the same pair continue, to TIITITW I fall, a grievous, dangerous, and ruinous fall, and is fulfil the great end of their creation, by propagating their properly applied to transgression and sin in general; as like upon the earth; and to introduce an antidote to the poi- every act is a degradation of the soul, accompanied with son, and by a dispensation as strongly expressive of wisdom hurt, and tending to destruction. The term, in this sense, is as of goodness, to ake the ills of life, which were the con still in common use; the degradation of a man in power, we sequences of their transgression, the means of correcting the term his fall; the impoverishment of a rich man we express evil, and through the wondrous æconomy of grace, sancti- in the same way; and when a man of picty and probity is fying even these to the eternal good of the soul.

overcome by any act of sin, we say he is fallen; he has de6. Had not God provided a Redeemer, he, no doubt, scended from his spiritual eminence, is degraded from his would have terminated the whole mortal story, by cutting spiritual excellence, is impure in his soul, and becomes off the original transgressors; for it would have been unjust ll again exposed to the displeasure of his God.

They who believe in Christ,

CHAP v1.

must not continue in sin.

CHAPTER VI. We must not abuse the boundless goodness of God by continuing in sin, under the wicked persuasion that the

more we sin, the more the grace of God will abound, 1. For, having been baptized into Christ, we have professed thereby to be dead to sin, 2—4. And to be planted in the likeness of his resurrection, 5. For we profess to be crucified with him, to die and rise again from the dead, 6–11. We should not, therefore, let sin reign in our bodies, but live to the glory of God, 12--14. The gospel makes no provision for living in sin, any more than the law did, and those who commit sin, are the slaves of sin, 15-19. The degrading and afflictive service of sin, und its wages eternal death; the blessed effects of the grace of God in the heart ; of which eternal life is the fruit, 20–23.

HAT shall

shall we

we say then ? 2 God forbid. How shall we, that A. M. cir.4062. a Shall we continue in sin, l are dead to sin, live any longer cit.com

: A.U.C.cir.8/1. that grace may abound?

therein ?

A.U.C.cir.811.

A.M.cir. 4062.
A. D. cir.58.

An. Olymp. cic. CCIX.'2.

WH.

CHAT

A. D. cir. 58.

. 2.

à Ch. 3. 8. ver. 15.

b Ver. 11. ch. 7.4. Gal. 2. 19. & 6. 14.

NOTES ON CHAP. VI.

hurt, now that he was in the favour of God. And we need The Apostle having proved that salvation both to Jew and not wonder that a Gentile, just emerging from the deepest Gentile, must come through the Messiah, and be received by darkness, might entertain such thoughts as these; when we faith only, proceeds in this chapter to shew the obligations find that eighteen centuries after this, persons have appeared under which both were laid, to live a holy life; and the in the most Christian countries of Europe, not merely asking means and advantages they enjoyed for that purpose. This such a question, but defending the doctrine with all their he does, not only as a thing highly and indispensably neces- might; and asserting, in the most unqualified manner, “that sary in itself, for without holiness none can see the Lord ; || believers were under no obligation to keep the moral law of but to confute a calumny which appears to have been gaining | God; that Christ had kept it for them : that his keeping it considerable ground even at that time ; viz. that the doctrine was imputed to them; and that God, who had exacted it from of justification by faith alone, through the gruce of Christ Him, who was their surety and representative, would not Jesus, rendered obedience to the moral law useless; and that exact it from them; forasmuch as it would be injustice to rethe more evil a man did, the more the grace of God wouldquire two payments for one debt.These are the Antinoabound to him, in his redemption from that evil. That this miuns who once flourished in this land, and whose race is calumny was then propagated, we learn from chap. iii. 8. not yet utterly extinct. and the Apostle defends himself against it in the 31st verse of Verse 2. God forbid!] Mn YEYO1to, let it not be, by no the same, by asserting, that his doctrine, far from making means ; far from it ; let not such a thing be mentioned !void the law, served to establish it. But in this, and the | Any of these is the meaning of the Greek phrase, which is a two following chapters, he takes up the subject in a regular, | strong expression of surprize and disapprobation : and is formal manner; and shews both Jews and Gentiles, that the not properly rendered by our God forbid; which, though principles of the Christian religion absolutely required a it may express the same thing, yet it is not proper to make holy heart and a holy life, and made the amplest provision the sacred NAME so familiar on such occasions. for both.

llow shall we, that are dead to sin) The phraseology of

this verse is common among Hebrews, Greeks, and Latins. Verse 1. Shall we continue in sin] It is very likely that To die to a thing, or person, is to have nothing to do with it these are the words of a believing Gentile ; who, having as or him; to be totally separated from them: and to live to a yet received but little instruction, for he is but just brought thing or person, is to be wholly given up to them ; to have the out of his heathen state to believe in Christ Jesus, might | most intimate connection with them. So Plautus Clitell. iii. imagine, from the manner in which God had magnified his | 1, 16, Nihil mecum tibi, MORTUUS TIBI sum.

I have nomercy in blotting out his sin, on his simply believing on thing to do with thee; I am dead to thee. Persa. i. 1, 20, Christ; that, suppose he even gave way to the evil propensi- | Mihi quidem tu jam MORTUUS ERAS, quia te non visitavi: ties of his own heart, his transgressions could do him no Thou wert DEAD to me, because I have not visited thee.

Those who are baptized, profess

ROMANS.

to walk in newness of life.

A.M.cir. 4062.
A. D. cir. 58.

An. Olyinp: cir. CCIX. 2.

b

A.M.cir.4062.
A. D. cir.58.
An. Olymp:
cir. CCÍX. 2.

US as

3 Know ye not, that “so many of even so, we also should walk in new

were baptized into Jesus ness of life. A.U.C.cir.811. Christ, were baptized into his death? 5 "For, if we have been planted to- A.U.C.cir.B]1

. 4 Therefore, we are buried with him by bap- "gether in the likeness of his death, we shall be tism into death : that like as Christ was raised also in the likeness of his resurrection : up from the dead by the glory of the Father, 6 Knowing this, that 'our old man is crucified

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a Col. 3. 3. 1 Pet. 2. 21. - Or, are.--I Cor. 15. 29. d Col. 2. 12.

e ch. 8. 11. 1 Cor. 6. 14. 2 Cor. 13. 1.- John 2.11. & 11. 10.

6 Gal. 6. 15. Eph. 4. 22, 23, 24. Col. 3. 10. - Phil. 3. 10, 11.-

i Gal. 2. 20. & 5. 24. & 5. 14. Eph. 4. 22. Col. 3.5, 9.

So Ælian, Var. Ilist. iii. 13. 071 $.29086TATOV & vos TO TWv the Apostle may allude to this. The grand point is, that this Tamuwv, TETONTOY, W5€ <ño autOUS SY Ooreen 791 TI TU 2.8150baptism represents our death to sin, and our obligation to του ζιου εν τη προς αυτον ομιλια καταναλισκειν· “ The walk in newness of life : without which, of what use can it, Tapyrians are such lovers of wine, that they live in wine ; or any other rite be? and the principal part of their life is devoted to it.They Raised up from the dead by the glory of the Father] From live to wine ; they are insatiable drunkards. See more ex this we learn that, as it required the glory of the Father, amples in Wetstein and Rosenmuller.

that is, his glorious energy, to raise up from the grave the Verse 3. Know ye not, &c.] Every man who believes the dead body of Christ ; so it requires the same glorious energy, Christian religion, and receives baptism as the proof that he' to quicken the dead soul of a sinner, and enable him to walk believes it, and has taken up the profession of it, is bound in newness of life. thereby to a life of righteousness. To be baptized into Christ, Verse 5. For if we have been planted together] Evu UTCH is to receive the doctrine of Christ crucified, and to receive yeyovapey; Dr. Taylor observes, that our translation does baptism as a proof of the genuineness of that faith, and the not completely express the Apostle's meaning. Ta oulouring obligation to live according to its precepts.

are such plants as grow, the one upon, and in the other, deBaptized into his death?] That, as Jesus Christ, in his riving sap and nourishment from it, as the misletoe upon the crucifixion, died completely, so that no spark of the ouk; or the cion upon the stock in which it is grafted. He natural or animal life remained in his body; so, those who would therefore translate the words, For if we have been profess his religion, should be so completely separated and growers together with Christ in the likeness of his death, (or saved from sin, that they have no more connection with it, in that which is like his death,) we shall be also growers tonor any more influence from it, than a dead man has with gether with him in the likeness of his resurrection; or in that or from his departed spirit.

which is like his resurrection. He reckons it a beautiful Verse 4. We are buried with him by baptism into cleath] metaphor, taken from grafting, or making the cion grow toIt is probable that the Apostle here alludes to the mode of gether with a new stock. administering baptism by immersion, the whole body being But, if we take the word planted in its usual sense, we shall put under the water, which seemed to say, the man is find it to be a metaphor, as beautiful and as expressive as the drowned, is dead; and, when he came up out of the water, | former. When the seed, or plant, is inserted in the ground, he seemed to have a resurrection to life; the man is risen it derives from that ground all its nourishment, and all those again; he is alive! lle was, therefore, supposed to throw juices by which it becomes developed; by which it increases off his old Gentile state, as he threw off his clothes, and to in size, grows firm, strong, and vigorous; and puts forth its assume a new character, as the baptized generally put on new, leaves, blossoms, and fruit. The death of Jesus Christ is repreor fresh garments. I say it is probable, that the Apostle alludes 1 sented as the cause whence his fruitfulness, as the author of to this mode of immersion; but it is not absolutely certain eternal salvation to mankind, is derived; and genuine bethat he does so, as some do imagine; for, in the next verse, lievers in him, are represented as being planted in this death, our being incorporated into Christ by baptism is also de- and growing out of it; deriving their growth, vigour, firmnoted by our being planted, or rather, grafted together in the ness, beauty and fruitfulness, from it. In a word, it is by likeness of his death: and Noah's ark floating upon the his death, that Jesus Christ redeems a lost world : and it is water, and sprinkled by the rain from heaven, is a figure from that vicarious death, that believers derive that pardon corresponding to baptism, 1 Pet. iii. 20, 21. but neither of and holiness which make them so happy in themselves, and so these gives us the same idea of the outward form, as burying. ( useful to others. This sacrificial death is the soil in which We must be careful, therefore, not to lay too much stress on they are planted ; and from which they derive their life, their such circumstances. Drowning among the ancients was fruitfulness, and their final glory. considered the most noble kind of death; some think that Verse 6. Our old man is crucified with him] This seems

Christ died for us, that we

CHAP. VI.

might be delivered from sin.

4.1.1.1962 with him, that the body of sin might 7 For "he that is dead is `freed 4. M. cir:6062 An. Olymp; be destroyed,

that henceforth we from sin. A.C.C.cir.811. should not serve sin.

8 Now "if we be dead with Christ, A.U.C.cir. 811.

An. Olymp. cir. CCIX. 2.

cir. CCIX...

a Col. 2. 11.

b 1 Pet. 4. 1.

- Gr. justified._d 2 Tim. 2. 11.

to be a farther extension of the same metaphor. When a performing its essential functions, than a dead body can perseed is planted in the earth, it appears as if the schole body form the functions of natural life. of it perished. All seeds, as they are commonly termed, are Verse 7. Ile that is dead is freed from sin.] Asdinauwt och composed of two parts; the germ, which contains the ru- literally, is justified from sin; or, is freed or delivered from diments of the future plant ; and the lobes, or body of the it. Does not this simply mean, that the man who has reseed, which, by their decomposition in the ground, become ceived Christ Jesus by faith, and has been, through believthe first nourishment to the extremely fine and delicate rootsing, made a partaker of the Holy Spirit, has had his old man, of the embryo plant; and support it till it is capable of de- all his eril propensities destroyed; so that he is not only jusriving grosser nourishment from the common soil. The tified freely from all sin, but wholly sanctified unto God? body dies, that the germ may live. Parables cannot go on The context shews that this is the meaning. Every instance all fours: and in metaphors, or figures, there is always some

of violence is done to the whole scope and design of the one, (or more,) remarkable property by which the doctrine apostle, by the opinion, that “this text is a proof that beintended is illustrated. To apply this to the purpose in || lievers are not fully saved from sin, in this life; because only hand : how is the principle of life which Jesus Christ has || he, that is dead, is freed from sin.Then death is his jusimplanted in us, to be brought into full effect, vigour, and tificr and deliverer! Base and abominable insinuation, highly usefulness? By the destruction of the body of sin, our old derogatory to the glory of Christ! Dr. Dodd, in his note on man, our wicked, corrupt, and fleshly self, is to be crucified : | the preceding verse, after some inefficient criticism on the to be as truly slain as Christ was crucified: that our souls word xarabyrin destroyed, which, he thinks, should be renmay as truly be raised from a death of sin, to a life of dered enervated, has the following most unevangelical senrighteousness, as the body of Christ was raised from the timentą“ The body of sin in believers is, indeed, an engrave, and afterwards ascended to the right hand of God. feebled, conquered, and deposed tyrant, and the stroke of But, how does this part of the metaphor apply to Jesus death finishes its destruction.So then, the death of Christ, Christ? Plainly and forcibly. Jesus Christ took on him a and the influences of the Holy Spirit were only sufficient to body; a body in the likeness of sinful flesh, Rom. viii. 3. depose and enfeeble the tyrant sin; but our death must come and gave up that body to death; through which death alone, in to effect his total destruction! Thus our death is at least an atonement was made for sin; and the way laid open for partially our Saviour: and thus, that which was an effect of the vivifying spirit to have the fullest access to, and the most sin; (for sin entered into the world, and death by sin,) be. powerful operation in, the human heart. Here, the body of comes the means of finally destroying it! That is, the effect Christ dies, that he may be a quickening Spirit to mankind. of a cause can become so powerful, as to re-act upon that Our body of sin is destroyed by this quickening Spirit, that cause, and produce its annihilation! The divinity and phibenceforth we should live unto Him who died and rose losophy of this sentiment are equally absurd. It is the blood again. Thus the metaphor, in all its leading senses, is com

of Christ alone, that cleanses from all unrighteousness; and plete ; and applies most forcibly to the subject in question. the sanctification of a believer, is no more dependent on We find that 79.7.2005 0.99$Tos the old man, used here and in death than his justification. If it be said, “ that believers Eph. iv. 22. and Coloss. iii. 9. is the same as the flesh zeith do not cease from sin till they die ;” I have only to say, they its affections and lusts, Galat. v. 24.; and the body of the are such believers as do not make a proper use of their faith: sins of the flesh, Coloss. ii. 11. And the very same which and what can be said more of the whole herd of transgres. the Jewish writers term '10751 078 Adam hakadamoni, the sors and infidels? They cease to sing when they ceuse to old Adam; and which they interpret by 077 3* yetsar hará, breathe. If the Christian religion bring no other privileges “evil concupiscence,” the same which we mean by in- | than this to its upright followers; well may we ask, wherein dwelling sin, or the infection of our nature, in consequence doth the wise mun differ from the fool, for they have both of the fall. From all which we may learn, that the design one end? But the whole gospel teaches a contrary doctrine. of God is to counter-work and destroy the very spirit and Verse 8. Now, if we be dead with Christ] According sonl of sin, that we shall no longer serve it, &con.svelv, no to what is stated in the preceding verses. See particularly longer be its slaves. Nor shall it any more be capable of on the 5th verse.

ou

We must reckon ourselves to be

ROMANS.

dead to sin, and alive to God.

An Olymp. him : cir. CCIX. 9. A.U.C.cir.811.

A. D. cir. 58. An. Olymp. cir. CCIX. 2. A.U.C.cir.811.

A. D. 01:58. we believe that we shall also live with a dead indeed unto sin, but alive 4. M. cir.4062.

unto God through Jesus Christ our 9 Knowing that ^ Christ being rais- | Lord. ed from the dead dieth no more ; death hath no 12 'Let not sin therefore reign in your mormore dominion over him.

tal body, that ye should obey it in the lusts 10 For, in that he died, he died unto sin thereof. once : but in that he liveth, he liveth unto 13 Neither yield ye your 6 members as "inGod.

struments of unrighteousness unto sin : but 11 Likewise reckon ye also yourselves to be yield yourselves unto God, as those that are

a Rev. 1. 18.- llebr. 9. 27, 28. - Luke 20. 38. ver. 2.

Gal. 2. 19.

f Ps. 19. 13. & 119. 133.-46 ch.7.5. Col. 3. 5. James 1.1. Gr.

arms or weapons.--- ch. 12. 1. 1 Pet. 2. 24. & 4.2.

e

Verse 9. Christ being raised from the dead, dieth no more] || in the life. But do not these influences and these acts prove So we, believing in Christ Jesus, and having a death unto his dominion ? Certainly, the very existence of an evil sin, and a life unto righteousness, should sin no more. If thought to which passion or appetite attaches itself, is a proof we be risen indeed with Christ, we should seek the things that there, sin has dominion; for without dominion such pasabove; and set our affections on things above; and not on sions could not be excited. Wherever sin is felt, there sin the earth. The man who walks in humble, loving obedience, has dominion; for sin is sin only as it works in action or to an indwelling-Christ; sin has no more dominion over his passion against God. Sin cannot be a quiescent thing: if it do soul, than death has over the immortal and glorified body of not work, it does not exist. his Redeemer.

That ye should obey it in the lusts thereof.] AUTT

. E) TOUS Verse 10. He died unto sin once] On this clause Ro- | ".10.15 AUTOU. This clause is wanting in the most ancient senmüller speaks thus—66 Ty, au aptıq ATEG20€V EPATIT and reputable MSS. and in the principa! Versions : Griespropter peccatum mortuus est semel, et quidem miserà morte. | bach has left it out of his text : and professor White says, Tn au option i. €. UTTE! Tng Qu. astias, ad expianda peccata ; || certissime delenda. “ These words should certainly be exRes ipsa docet aliter homines, afi3v7Oxelv 7? Quaçua; aliter punged :” they are not necessary to the apostle's argument; Christum : amat Paulus parallelismum, in quo interpretando it was enough to say, let not sin reign in your mortal bodies, multâ cautione opus

est."

.” He died unto sin once : i e. he died that ye should obey it. If it be there, it will reign there; on account of sin, and truly a miserable death. Tn au aptıq, and its reign supposes, necessarily, the subjection of that in is the same as Utep 745 ap.aptiks, for the expiation of sin. Com- which it reigns. A king reigns when his laws are enforced; mon sense teaches us that men die to sin in one sense; Christ || and the people obey them. When there is no erecutive goin another : St. Paul loves parallelisms, in the interpretation vernment, there is no reign. There may be a royal shadow of which, there is need of much caution.” From the whole | there, but there is no king. scope of the apostle's discourse, it is plain that he considers Verse 13. Neither yield ye your members] Do pot yield the death of Christ, as a death or sacrifice for sin; a sin-of-to temptation. It is no sin to be tempted; the sin lies in fering: in this sense no man has ever died for sin, or ever || yielding. While the sin exists only in Satan's solicitation, it can die.

is the devil's sin, not ours: when we yield, we make the Verse 11. Reckon ye also yourselves to be dead] Die as devil's sin our own : then we ENTER Into temptation. Re. truly unto sin, as he died for sin. Live as truly unto God; sist the devil, and he will flee from you. Satan himself canas he lives with God. This seems to be the spirit of the not force you to sin : till he wins over your will, he cannot apostle's meaning.

bring you into subjection. You may be tempted; but yield Verse 12. Let not sin therefore rcign] This is a pro- | not to the temptation. sopopeia, or personification. Sin is represented as a king, l'ield yourselves unto God] Let God have your wills; ruler, or tyrunt, who has the desires of the mind, and the keep them ever on his side ; there, they are safe; and there, members of the body under his controul; so that by in- | they will be active. Satan cannot force the will; and God fiuencing the passions, he governs the body. Do not let sin will not. Indeed it would cease to be will, were it forced reign; do not let him work; that is, let him have no place, by either : it is essential to its being that it be free. no being in your souls; because, wherever he is, he governs, And your members as instruments, &c.] Let soul and less or more : and indeed sin is not sin without this. How is | body be employed in the service of your Maker: let him sin known? By evil influences in the mind, and evil acts have your hearts; and with them, your heads, your hands

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