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Observations on particular parts

ROMANS,

of the preceding chapter.

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a case can be relieved by the gospel of Christ only: or, in efficient law; and he was left in thraldom under an equally other words, that no scheme of redemption can be effectual inefficient gospel. The very genius of Christianity demonto the salvation of any soul, whether Jero or Gentile, but strates that nothing like this, can, with any propriety, be that laid down in the gospel of Christ,

spoken of a genuine Christian. all means be used, which human wisdom can 3. Bu', it is farther supposed, that these things cannot be device, guilt will still continue uncancelled ; and in-bred sin spoken of a proud or wicked Jew; yet we learn the con. will laugh them all to scorn, prevail over them, and finally trary from the infallible testimony of the word of God. triumph. And this is the very conclusion to which the apostle of this people, in their fallen and iniquitous state, God says brings his argument in the following clause ; which, 1 ke the by his prophet, They seek me vily, und delight 10 rest of the chapter, bas been most awfully abused, to favour | know my ways, as a nation that did RIGHTEOUSNESS, and unti-evangelicul purposes.

FORSOOK not the ORDINANCES of their Gud: they ask me So then, with the mind I myself serve the law of God] of the ordinances of JUSTICE, and takE DELIGHT in ap. That this clause contains the inference from the preceding prouching to God, Isai. lviii. 2. Can any thing be stronger train of argumentation, appears evident from the asa cuv, than this? And yet, at that time, they were most dreadfully therefore, with which the apostle introduces it. As if he had carnal, and sold under sin, as the rest of that chapter p.oves. said—“ To conclude, the sum of what I have advanced, con. It is a most notorious fact, that how little soever the life of cerning the power of sin in the carnal man, and the utter in- a Jew was conformed to the law of his God, he notwithsufficiency of all human means, and legal observances to par. I standing professed the highest estcem for it, and gloried in it: don sin, and expel the corruption of the heart, is this, that and the apostle says nothing stronger of them in this chapthe very same person, the autos eyu, the sume I, while"ter, than their conduct and profession verify to the present without the gospel, under the killing power of the law, will day. They are still delighting in the law of God, after the find in himself two opposite principles, the one subscribing to,, inzeurd man; with their mind, serving the laws of God; asko and approving the law of God; and the other notwithstand. ing for the ordinances of justice, seeking God daily, and taking, bringing him into captivity to sin : his inward man, his ing delight in approaching to God; they even glory, and rational powers and conscience, will assent to the justice and greatly exult and glory, in the Divine original and excellency propriety of the requisitions of the law; and yet, notwith of their law; and all this while they are most abominably standing this, his fleshly appetites, the law in his members, carnal, sold under sin, and brought into the most degrading will war against the luxe of his mind, and continue, till he captivity, to the laro of sin and death. If then, all that the receives the gospel of Chriyt, to keep bin in the galling cap- apostle states of the person in question, be true of the Jeas, tivity of sin and death.”

through the whole period of their history, even to the pre

sent time:-If they do, in all their professions, and their 1. The strong expressions in this clause have led many to religious services, which they zealously maintain, confess, conclude, that the apostle himself, in his regenerated state, and conscientiously too, that the law is holy, and the comis indisputably the person intended. That all that is said in mandment holy, just, and good; and yet, with their fish, this chapter, of the carnal man, sold under sin, did apply to serve the law of sin; thu same certainly may be said with Saul of Tursus, no man can doubt : that what is here said equal propriety of a Jewish penitent, deeply convinced of his can ever be with propriety, applied to Paul the Apostle, who lost estate, and the total insufficiency of his legal observances can believe? Of the former, all is natural ; of the latter, to deliver him from his body of sin and death. And conall he:e said would be monstrous, and absurd, if not blas- sequently, all this may be said of Paul the Jew, while going phemous.

about to estublish his own righteousness, his own plan of jus2. But it is supposed that the words must be understood tification ; he had not as yet submitted to the righteousness as implying a regenerate man, because the apostle says, I of God, the divine plan of redemption by Jesus Christ. ver. 22, I delight in the law of God; and in this verse, I 4. It must be allowed that, whatever was the experience of myself, with the mind, serve the luxe of God. These things, so eminent a man, Chri-tian, and Apostle, as St. Paul, it say the objectors, cannot be spoken of a wicked Jew, but of must be a very proper standard of Caristianity. And if we

But when a regenerate man, such as the apostle then was.

aie to take what is here said, a, his experience as a Christian, we find that the former verse speaks of a man who is brought it would be presumption in us to expect to go higher; for, he into captivity to the luw of sin and death ; surely there is no certainly had pushed the principles of his religion to their part of the regenerate state of the apostle, to which the utmo t consequences. But his whole life, and the account words can possibly apply. Had he been in captivity to the which he immediately gives of himself in the succeeding law of sin and death, after his conversion to Cristianity ; chapter prove, that he, as a Christian and an Apostle, bad a what did he gain by that conversion ? Nothing for his per- widely different experience ; an experience which amply jus. sonal holiness. lle had found no salvation under an in- tifies that superiority, which he attributes to the Christian

G

The blessedness of those

CHAP. VIII.

who believe in Christ.

religion over the Jewish; and demonstrates that it not only || dwarfish state : at the same time, we should not be disis well calculated to perfect all preceding dispensations; but couraged at what we thus feel, but apply to God, through that it affords salvation to the uttermost, to all those who || Christ, as Paul did ; and then we shall soon be able, with flee for refuge to the hope that it sets before them. Besides, him, to declare to the eternal glory of God's grace, that there is nothing spoken here of the state of a conscientious the law of the Spirit of life, in Christ Jesus, has made us Jew, or of St. Paul in his Jewish state, that is not true of free from the law of sin and death. This is the inheritance every genuine penitent ; even before, and it may be, long be of God's children; and their salvation is of me, saith the fore, he has believed in Christ, to the saving of his soul. Lord. The assertion, that every Christian, howsoever advanced I cannot conclude these observations, without recommend. in the Divine life, will, and must feel all this inward con ing to the notice of my Readers, a learned and excellent flict, &c." is as untrue as it is dangerous. That many, called discourse on the latter part of this chapter, preached by the Christians, and probably sincere, do feel all this, may be Rev. James Smith, minister of the gospel in Dumfermline, readily granted; and such we must consider to be in the Scotland ; a work to which I am indebted for some useful same state with Saul of Tarsus, previously to his conver observations, and from which I should have been glad to have sion ; but that they must continue thus, is no where inti- copied much, had my limits permitted. Reader, do not plead mated in the gospel of Christ. We must take heed how we for Baal; try, fully try, the efficiency of the blood of the make our experience, which is the result of our unbelief and covenant; and be not content with less salvation than God unfaithfulness, the standard for the people of God; and has provided for thee. Thou art not straightened in God, lower down Christianity to our most reprehensible and be not straightened in thy own bowels.

CHAPTER VIII.

The happy stale of those who believe in Christ, and walk under the influence of His Spirit, 1, 2. The design of

God in sending his Son into the world, was to redeem men from sin, 3, 4. The miserable state of the carnally minded, 5–8. How Christ lives and works in his followers ; their blessedness here, and their happiness hereafter, 9–17. Sufferings are the common lot of all men; and from which Gentiles and Jews have the hope of being finally delivered, 18–23. The use and importance of hope, 24, 25. The Spirit makes intercession in the followers of Christ, 26, 27. All things work together for good to them that love God, and who act according to his gracious purpose in calling them, 28. The means used to bring men to eternal glory, 29, 30. The great blessedness, confidence, and security of all genuine Christians, whom, while they hold fast faith and a good conscience, nothing can separate from the love of God, 31–39.

THERE is, therefore, now no|| the flesh, but after the Spirit. A: W. Com

condemnation to them which are 2 For the law of the Spirit An. Olymp; A.U.C.cir.811. in Christ Jesus, who a walk not after of life in Christ Jesus, hath made A.U.C.cir.811.

M cir. 4062.

A.M.cir. 4062.
A. D. cis.58.

An. Olymp. cir. CCIX. 2.

2.

a Ver. 4. Gal. 5. 16, 25.- John 8. 36. ch. 6. 18, 22.

Gal. 2. 19. & 5.1.1 Cor. 15. 45. 2 Cor. 3. 6.

NOTES ON CHAP. VIII.

being on the point of giving up all hope, he hears of re. Verse 1. There is, therefore, nowo no condemnation] Todemption by Jesus Christ, thanks God for the prospect he do justice to St. Paul's reasoning, this chapter must be read has of salvation, applies for, and receives it; and now mag. in the closest connection with the preceding. There we have nifies God for the unspeakable gift of which he has been seen the unavailing struggles of an awakened Jew, who made a partaker. gought pardon and holiness from that law which he was con Those who restrain the word now, so as to indicate by it scious he had broken, and in which he could find no pro the gospel dispensation only, do not take in the whole of the vision for pardon; and no power to sanctify. This convic- apostle's meaning. The apostle has not been dealing in getion having brought him to the very brink of despair; and neral matters only, but also in those which are particular.

What the law could not do,

ROMANS.

the Lord Jesus has performed.

A.M.cir. 4062.
A. D, cir.58.

A. D. cir.58.

me free from the law of sin and sending his own Son in the likeness A. M.cir: 4062. An. Olymp; death.

of sinful flesh, and "for sin, con

An. Olymp:

A.U.C.cir.811. A.U.C.cir.811. 3 For, what the law could not do, demned sin in the flesh: in that it was weak through the flesh, God 4 That the righteousness of the law might be

cir. CCİX: 2.

c Gal. 3. 13. 2 Cor. 5. 21.- Or, by a sacrifice for sin.

a Ch.7. 24, 25.-- Acts 13. 39. ch. 3. 20. llebr. 7. 18, 19. & 10. 1, 2,

10, 14.

Ile has not been pointing out merely the difference between thus the apostle says, whether of himself or the man whom the two dispensations, the Mosaic and the Christian; but he he is still personating, the lawo of the Spirit of life in Christ marks out the state of a penitent under the former, and Jesus hath made me free from the law of sin and death. that of a believer under the latter. The last chapter closed Most people allow, that St. Paul is here speaking of his with an account of the deep distress of the penitent; this own staie; and this state is so totally different from that deone opens with an account of his salvation. The now, scribed in the preceding chapter, that it is absolutely impos. therefore, in the text, must refer more to the happy tran-sible that they should have been the state of the same being, sition from darkness to light, from condemnation to pardon, | at one and the same time. No creature could possibly be which this believer now enjoys; than to the Christian dispen- ournal, sold under sin, brought into captivity to the law of sation taking the place of the Jewish economy.

sin and death; and at the same time be made free from that Who walk not after the flesh, &c.] In this one verse we luw of sin and death, by the law of the Spirit of life find the power and virtue of the gospel scheme; it pardons in Christ Jesus ! Until the most palpable absurdities and sanctifies; the Jewish law could do neither. By faith || and contradictions can be reconciled ; these two opposite in our Lord Jesus Christ, the penitent, condemned by the states can never exist in the same person at the same time. law, is pardoned; the carnal man, labouring under the over Verse 3. For what the law could not do] The law could powering influence of the sin of his nature, is sanctified. not pardon; the law could not sanctify; the law could not He is first freely justified ; he feels no condemnation : he is dispense with its own requisitions ; it is the rule of rightefally 'sanctified, he talks not after the FLESTI, but after the ousness, and therefore must condemn unrighteousness. This SPIRIT.

is its unalterable nature. Had there been perfect obedience This last clause is wanting in the principal MSS. Versions to its dictates ; instead of condemning, it would have apand Fathers. Griesbach has excluded it from the text, and plauded and rewarded ; but, as the flesh, the curnal and Dr. White says, certissimè delenda ; it should most undoubt-rebellious principle had prevailed, and transgression had edly be expunged. Without it, the passage

Without it, the passage reads thus : taken place; it was rendered weak, inefficient to undo this There is, therefore, no condemnation to them that are in work of the flesh, and bring the sinner into a state of parChrist Jesus; for the lawo of the spirit of life, &c. don and acceptance with God. fairly assumed point, that those which are in Christ Jesus, God sending his own Son, in the likeness of sinful flesh] who believe in his name, have redemption in his blood ; are Did that which the law could not do; i. e. purchased pardon made partakers of his Spirit, and have the mind in them that for the sinner, and brought every believer into the favour of was in him; will not walk after the flesh, but after the God. And this is effected by the incarnation of Christ: He Spirit: therefore, the thing itself is included in the being in in whom dwelt the fulness of the Godhead bodily, took Christ, whether it be erpressed or not: and it was probably upon him the likeness of sinful flesh, that is, a human body to make the thing more obvious, that this explanatory clause like ours; but not sinful as ours : and for sin, xa. El was added by some copyist; for it does not appear to have afastias, and as a sacrifice for six, (this is the sense of made an original part of the text: and it is most likely that the word in a multitude of places,) condemned sin in the flesh; it was inserted here from the fourih verse.

condemned that to death and destruction, which had conVerse 2. For the laro of the Spirit of life] The gospel demned us to both : and this he did, of the grace of Christ, which is not only a law or rule of Verse 4. That the righteousness of the law might be fullife, but affords that sovereign energy by which guilt is re-filled in us] That the gailt might be pardoned through the moved from the conscience, the power of sin broken, and its merit of that sacrifice; and that we might be enabled, by the polluting influence removed from the heart. The law was a power of his own grace and Spirit, to walk in newness of spirit of death, by which those who were under it were life : loving God with ail our heart, soul, mind and strength; bound down, because of their sin, to condemnation and and our neighbour as ourselves : and thus the righteousness, death. The gospel proclaims Jesus the Saviour; and what the spirit, design, and purpose of the law is fulfilled in us, the law bound unto death, it looses unto life eternal. And through the strength of the Spirit of Christ, which is here

It is a

Miserable state of those who are under

CHAP. VIII.

the influence of the carnal mind.

cir. CCIX. 2.

cir. CCIX, A.U.C.cir.sli.

4. M. cir: 4082 fulfilled in us, a who walk not after 7 Because the carnal mind is en- A.M. cir4O. An. Olymp: the flesh, but after the Spirit. mity against God: for it is not sub- An. Olymp.

5 For “they that are after the fleshject to the law of God, i neither in- A.U.C.cir.811. do mind the things of the flesh; but they that deed can be. are after the Spirit the things of the Spirit 8 So then, they that are in the flesh cannot

6 Ford toe be carnally minded is death ; | please God. but 'to be spiritually minded is life and peace. 9 But ye are not in the flesh, but in the Spirit,

a Ver. 1.- John 3. 6. 1 Cor. 2. 14. Le Gal. 5. 92, 25.--ch. 6.21.

ver. 13. Gal. 6. 8. -- Gr. the minding of the flesh: So ver. 7.

Gr. the minding of the Spirit.- Gr. the minding of the flesh.

h James 1. 4.— I Cor. 2. 14.

put in opposition to the weakness of the law through the no obedience ; for it is sin, and the very principle of rebelfesh.

lion ; and therefore it cannot be subject, nor subjected; for it It is very likely that the concluding clause of this verse, is essential to sin to shew itself in rebellion; and when which is the very same as that found in the common text of the ceases to rebel, it ceases to be sin. first verse, has been transferred to that verse, from this place. From this we learn, that the design of God, in the

Condemned sin in the flesh] The design and object of the economy of the gospel, is not to weaken, curtail, or lay the incarnation and sacrifice of Christ were to condemn sin, to carnal principle in bonds, but to destroy it. As it is not subhave it executed and destroyed; not to tolerate it as someject, and cannot be subject to the law of God, it must be think; or to render it subservient to the purposes of his destroyed ; else it will continue to rebel against God. It cangrace, as others; but to annihilate its power, guilt, and being, not be mended, or rendered less offensive in its nature, even in the soul of a believer.

by the operations of God; it is ever sin, and sin is ever enVerse 5. For they that are after the flesh] And here is mity; and enmity, wherever it has power, will invariably the great distinction between Jews and genuine Christians : / shew itself in acts of hostility and rebellion. the former are after the flesh; are under the power of the Verse 8. So then] Because this carnal mind is entity carnal, rebellious principle; and consequently mind, abovou- | against God; they that are in the flesh, who are under the Giv, relish the things of the flesh; the things which appertain power of the workings of this carnal mind, (which every merely to the present life; having no relish for spiritual and soul is, that has not received redemption in the blood of eternal things.

the Lamb,) But they that are after the Spirit] They who are rege Cannot please God.] Because of the rebellious workings nerated, who are born of the Spirit, being redeemed from the of this principle of rebellion and hatred. And, if they caninfluence and law of the carnal mind; these relish the things not please God, they must be displeasing to him ; and conof the Spirit, they are spiritually minded, and pass through sequently in the broad road to final perdition. things temporal, so as not to lose the things which are eternal. Verse 9. But ye are not in the flesh] Ye Christians who And this, which in these apostolic times distinguished be- have believed in Christ Jesus, as the sin-offering which has tween the carnal Jew, and the spiritual believer in Christ, is condemned sin in the flesh; and having been justified by the grand mark of distinction between the nominal and the faith, and made partakers of the Holy Spirit, are enabled to real Christian now. The former are earthly minded, and walk in newness of life. live for this world; the latter are spiritually minded, and live If so be that the Spirit of God dwell in you) Or seeing for the world to come.

that, Eintep, the Spirit of God dwelleth in you. The flesh, Verse 6. For, to be carnally minded is death] To live the sinful principle, dwelt in them before, and its motions under the influence of the carnal mind, is to live in the state were the proofs of its indwelling : but now the Spirit dwells of condemnation ; and consequently, liable to death eternal : in them; and its testimony in their conscience, and its powerwhereas, on the contrary, he who is spiritually minded, has fal operations in their hearts, are the proofs of its indwellthe life and peace of God in his soul; and is in full prospecting. God made man in union with himself, and his heart of life eternal.

was his temple. Sin being committed, the temple was deVerse 7. Because the curnal mind is enmity against God] filed, and God abandoned it. Jesus Christ is come by his Because it is a carnal mind, and relishes earthly and sinful sacrifice and Spirit to cleanse the temple, and make man again things; and lives in opposition to the pure and holy law of a habitation of God through the Spirit. And when this God: therefore, it is enmity against God, it is irreconcile- Almighty Spirit again makes the heart his residence; then the able and implacable hatred.

soul is delivered from the moral effects of the fall. And, It is not subject to the law of God] It will come under that this is absolutely necessary to our present peace, and

Genuine Christians are not obliged

ROMANS.

to live after the flesh.

An. Olymp. cir. CCIX. 2.

eth in you.

A.M.c.7.4062 if so be that the Spirit of God that raised up Christ from the A.V.: 4062
A.COY!;. dwell in you. Now, if any man have dead shall also quicken your mor-
A.U.C.cir. 811. not "the Spirit of Christ, he is none tal bodies by his Spirit that dwell- A.U.C.cir.811

. of his.

10 And if Christ be in you, the body is dead 12 Therefore, brethren, we are debtors, not because of sin ; but the Spirit is life because of to the flesh, to live after the flesh. righteousness.

13 For 5 if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die: 11 But, if the Spirit of him that raised | but if ye through the Spirit do → mortify the up Jesus from the dead dwell in you," he deeds of the body, ye shall live.

a 1 Cor. 3. 16. & 6. 19.

> John 3. 34. Gal. 4.6. Phil. 1. 19. 1 Pet. 1.11. Acts 2. 24.

d Ch. 6. 4, 5. 1 Cor. 6. 14. 2 Cor. 4. 14. Eph. 2.5.- Or, because of his

Spirit. ch.6.7, 14.-5 ver. 6. Gal. 6. 8. Eph. 4. 22. Col. 3.5.

final salvation, is proved from this : that if any man have not I. Draws the general conclusion from all his arguments the Spirit of Christ ; the mind that was in hin, produced upon this subject, ver. 12. there, by the power of the Holy Ghost; he is none of his, he II. Proves the validity of their claims to eternal life, does not belong to the kingdom, flock, or family of God. ver. 14-17. This is an awful conclusion! Reader, lay it to heart.

III. And as the affair of suffering persecution was a Verse 10. And if Christ be in you, &c.] This is the great stumblingblock to the Jews, and might very much discriterion, by which you may judge of the state of grace in courage the Gentiles; he introduces it to the best advantage, which ye stand. If Christ dwell in your hearts by faith, ver. 17. and advances several arguments to fortify their the body is dead because of sin ; di au aptlar, in reference to minds under all trials : as-(1.) That they suffered with sin; the members of your body no more perform the work of Christ—(2.) In order to be glorified with him in a manner sin, than the body of a dead man does the functions of natural | which will infinitely compensate all sufferings, ver. 17, 18.life. Or the apostle may mean, that although, because of|(3.) All mankind are under various pressures, longing for a sin, the life of man is forfeited ; and the sentence, dust thou better state, ver. 19–22.-(4.) Many of the most eminent art, and unto dust thou shalt return, must be fulfilled on Christians are in the same distressed condition, ver. 23.every human being, 'till the judgment of the great day; yet, (5.) According to the plan of the gospel, we are to be their souls being quickened by the indwelling Spirit of | brought to glory after a course of patience, exercised in a Christ, which enables them to live a life of righteousness, variety of trials, ver. 24, 25.--(6.) The Spirit of God will and gives them a full assurance that their bodies, which are supply patience to every upright soul under persecution and now condemned to death because of sin, shall be raised again suffering, 26, 27.-(7.) All things, even the severest trials, to a life of immortal glory.

shall work together for their good, ver. 28. And this he Verse 11. But, if the Spirit, &c.] This verse confirms proves, by giving us a view of the several steps which the the sense given to the preceding. He, who here receives the wisdom and goodness of God have settled, in order to our grace and Spirit of Christ, and continues to live under complete salvation, ver. 29, 30. Thence he passes to the its influence a life of obedience to the Divine will; shall | affair of our perseverance ; concerning which he concludes, have a resurrection to eternal life: and the resurrection from the whole of his preceding arguments, that as we are of Christ shall be the pattern, after which they shall be brought into a state of pardon by the free grace of God, raised.

through the death of Christ, who is now our mediator in By his Spirit that dwelleth in you.] Instead of old tou heaven; 10 possible cause, providing we continue to love and EVOIXOUYTOS AUTOU TIVEUPATOS, because of the Spirit of him who serve God, shall be able to pervert our minds, or separate us dwelleth in you, DEFG. a great many others, with the from his love in Christ Jesus, ver. 31—39. Therefore, Vulgate, Itala, and several of the Fathers, have ola to lapa ouy, is the grand inference, from all that he has been EVOIXOUX AUTOU TVEUud, which gives almost 10 variety of || arguing in relation to sanctity of life, both to the Gentiles, meaning. The latter may be neater Greek, but it is not chap. vi. and to the Jews, chap. vii. and viii. to this verse, better sense than the preceding.

where I suppose he begins to address himself to both, in a Verse 12. Therefore, brethren, &c.] Dr. Taylor is of body, to the end of the chapter. Taylor, p.g. 317. opinion that the apostle, having spoken separately both to Verse 13. For, if ye live after the flesh, ye shall die] Jews and Gentiles, concerning holiuess, and the obliga- | Though perete at:09vyoxsiy may mean ye shall afterwards tions to it, now addresses himself to both conjointly, and, I die, and this seems to indicate a temporal death ; yet not

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