« הקודםהמשך »
The doctrine of justification
by faith, stated
A. M. cir.4062.
HEREFORE,' * being justified into this grace "wherein we stand,
by faith, we have b peace with and rejoice in hope of the glory Arcelimo A.U.C.cir.811. God through our Lord Jesus Christ : of God. 2 * By whom also we have access by faith 3 And not only so, but 'we glory in tribula
• Isai. 32. 17. John 16. 33. ch. 3. 28, 30. Eph. 2. 14. Col. 1. 20.
• John 10.9. & 14.6. Eph. 2. 18. & 3. 12. Hebr. 10. 19.
di Cor. 15. 1. e Hebr. 3. 6. - Matt. 5. 11, 12. Acts 5. 11. 2 Cor.
12. 10. Phil. 2. 17. Jam. 1.2, 12. 1 Pet. 3. 14.
NOTES ON CHAP. V.
Verse 2. By whom also] We are not only indebted to In the former chapter, the apostle, having proved that the our Lord Jesus Christ for the free and full pardon which we believing Gentiles are justified in the same way with Abra- have received; but our continuance in a justified state deham, and are, in fact, his seed, included with him in the pro- pends upon his gracious influence in our hearts; and his inmise and covenant; he judged this a proper place, as the tercession before the throne of God. Jews built all their glorying upon the Abrahamic covenant, We have access] II popaywy ry 85%yxauey, we have reto produce some of the chief of those privileges and blessings ceived this access. It was only through Christ that we could in which the Christian Gentile can glory, in consequence of, at first approach God; and it is only through him that the prihis justification by faith. And he produces three particulars, vilege is continued to us. And this access to God, or introwhich, above all others, were adapted to this purpose. 1. The duction to the Divine presence, is to be considered as a lasthope of eternal life, in which the law, wherein the Jew ing privilege. We are not brought to God for the purpose gloried, chap. ii. 17. was defective, ver. 2. 2. The perse- of an interview, but to remain with him ; to be his housecutions and sufferings to which Christians were exposed, hold : and, by faith, to behold his face, and walk in the light ver. 3, 4. and on account of which the Jews were greatly of his countenance. prejudiced against the Christian profession : but he shews Into this grace] This state of favour and acceptance. that these had a happy tendency to establish the heart in the Wherein we stand] Ilaviug firm footing, and a just title Hope of the gospel. 3. An interest in God, as our God and through the blood of the Lamb, to the full salvation of Father; a privilege upon which the Jews valued themselves God. highly above all nations, ver. 11.
And rejoice] Have solid happiness, from the evidence we These three are the singular privileges belonging to the ' have of our acceptance with Him. gospel state ; wherein true Christians may glory, as really In hope of the glory of God.] Having our sins remitted, belonging to them, and greatly redounding, if duly under and our souls adopted into the heavenly family, we are bestood and improved, to their honour and benefit. Taylor, come heirs; for if children, then heirs, Gal. iv. 7. and that
glory of God is now become our endless inheritance. While
the Jews boast of their external privileges; that they have Verse 1. Therefore being justified by faith] The apostle the temple of God among them ; that their priests have an takes it for granted that he has proved that justification is by entrance to God as their representatives, carrying before the faith ; and that the Gentiles have an equal title with the Jews, || mercy-seat, the blood of their offered victims ; we exult in to salvation by faith. And now he proceeds to shew the being introduced by Jesus Christ to the Divine presence; his effects produced in the hearts of the believing Gentiles, by blood having been shed and sprinkled for this purpose; and this doctrine. We are justified, have all our sin pardoned thus we have spiritually and essentially, all that these Jewish by faith, as the instrumental cause ; for, being sinners, we rites, &c. signified. We are in the peace of God; and we have no works of righteousness that we can plead.
are happy in the enjoyment of that peace; and have a blessed We have peace with God] Before, while sinners, we were foretaste of eternal glory. Thus, we have heaven upon in a state of enmity with God, which was sufficiently proved earth, and the ineffable glories of God in prospect. by our rebellion against his authority; and our transgression Verse 3. And not only so] We are not only happy from of his laws : but now, being reconciled, we have peace with being in this state of communion with our God, and the prosGod. Before, while under a sense of the guilt of sin, we pect of being eternally with him ; had nothing but terror and dismay in our own consciences; But we glory in tribulations also] All the sufferings we now, having our sin forgivea, we have peace in our hearts ; \ endure for the testimony of our Lord, are so sanctified to us feeling that all our guilt is taken away. Peace is generally | by his grace, that they become powerful instruments of inthe first fruits of our justification.
creasing our happiness. Through our Lord Jesus Christ]. His passion and death Tribulation worketh patience] Trousyry, endurance under being the sole cause of our reconciliation to God.
trials, without sustaining loss or deterioration. It is a me
The blessed effects
A.M.Cir.1962. tions also : “knowing that tribulation the love of God is shed abroad in our A.M.cir. 41063. An. Olymp; worketh patience;
hearts by the Holy Ghost which is
An. Olymp: A.U.C.cir.811. 4 And patience, experience; and given unto us. experience, hope :
6 For when we were yet without strength, in 5 · And hope maketh not ashamed ; because due time 'Christ died for the ungodly.
cir. ccix.2. A.U.C.cir.811.
• Jam. 1. 3.-Jam. I. 12.- Phil. 1. 20.-- 2 Cor. 1. 22. Gal. 4.6.
Eph. 1. 13, 14.
• Or, according to the time. Gal. 4. 4.
- ver. 8. ch. 4. 25.
taphor taken from refining metals. We do not speak thus know that this is the love of God; it differs widely from all from any sudden raptures, or extraordinary sensations that is earthly and sensual. The IIoly Ghost comes with it; we may have of spiritual joy: for we find that the tribula- | by his energy it is diffused, and pervades every part; and, by tions through which we pass, are the means of exercising and his light, we discover what it is; and know the state of grace increasing our patience, our meek forbearance of injuries in which we stand. Thus we are furnished to every good received, or persecutions experienced, on account of the word and work: have produced in us the miud that was in gospel.
Christ; are enabled to obey the pure law of our God in its Verse 4. And patience, experience] Arxiury, full proof spiritual sense, by loving him with all our heart, soul, mind, by trial, of the truth of our religion, the solidity of our and strength; and our neighbour; any and every soul of Christian state, and the faithfulness of our God. In such man, as ourselves. This is, or ought to be, the common excases, we have the opportunity of putting our religion to the perience of every genuine believer ; but, in addition to this, test; and, by every such test, it receives the deeper sterling the primitive Christians had, sometimes, the miraculous gifts stamp. The apostle uses here also a metaphor, taken from of the Holy Spirit. These were then needful; and were the purifying, refining, and testing of silver and gold. they needful now, they would be again communicated.
Experience, hope] For we thus calculate, that he who Verse 6. For when we were yet without strength] The has supported us in the past, will support us in those which apostle having pointed out the glorious state of the believing may yet come; and as we have received so much spiritual Gentiles, takes occasion to contrast this with their former profiting by means of the sufferings through which we have state; and the means by which they were redeemed from it. already passed, we may profit equally by those which are Their former state he points out in four particulars ; which yet to come: and this hope prevents us from dreading com may be applied to men in general. ing trials : we receive them as means of grace, and find I. They were ac levels, without strength; in a weak, dying that all things work together for good, to them that love state: neither able to resist sin, nor do any good: utterly God.
devoid of power to extricate themselves from the misery of Verse 5. And hope maketh not ashamel] A hope that is their situation. not rationally founded, will have its expectation cut off; and II. They were actress, ungodly; without either the then shame and confusion will be the portion of its possessor. worship or knozeledge of the true God; they had not God in But our hope is of a different kind; it is founded on the them; and, consequently, were not partakers of the Divine goodness and truth of God; and our religious experience nature: Satan lived in, ruled, and enslaved their hearts. shews us that we have not misapplied it; nor exercised it on III. They were pastwion, sinners, ver. 8. aiming at wrong or improper objects.
happiness, but constantly missing the mark, which is the ideal Because the love of God is shed abroad in our hearts] We meaning of the Hebrew run chata; and the Greek OM. ASTA?W. have the most solid and convincing testimony of God's love See this explained Gen. xiii. 13. And in missing the mark, to us, by that measure of it which he has communicated to they deviated from the right way; walked in the wrong way; our hearts. There, exxeyuran, it is poured out, and diffused trespassed, in thus deviating; and, by breaking the comabroad; filling, quickening, and invigorating all our powers mandments of God, not only missed the mark of felicity, but and faculties. This love is the spring of all our actions; it exposed themselves to everlasting misery. is the motive of our obedience; the principle through which IV. They were ex9.201 enemies, ver. 10. from emios hatred, we love God; we love him because he first loved us : and enmily, persons who hated God and holiness; and acted in we love him with a love worthy of himself, because it springs continual hostility to both. What a gradation is here ! from him : it is his own; and every flame that rises from this 1. In our fall from God, our first apparent state is, that we pure and vigorous fire, must be pleasing in his sight: it are without strength; have lost our principle of spiritual consumes what is unholy; refines every passion and appetite ; || power, by having lost the image of God, righteousness and sublimes the whole, and assimilates all to itself. And we true holiness, in which we were created.
2. We are una
The greatness of God's love,
in the gift of Christ.
A. D. cir. 58.
A.M. cir.4062, A.M.cir. 4062. 7 For scarcely for a righteous // would even
dare to die. A. D. cir. 58. An. Olymp: man will one die : «yet perad 8 But God commendeth his love Au. Olymp.
cir. CCIX. 2. cir. CCIX. 2.
A.U.C.cir.811. A.U.C.cir.811. venture for
a good man some toward us, in that, while we were
Luke 6. 33. Col. 1. 13, 14.
b Jolin 3. 16. & 15. 13. 1 Pet. 3. 18. 1 John 3. 16. & 4.9, 10.
FOR you ;
godly, having lost our strength to do good; we have also lost proper time, will appear in the following particulars:all power to worship God aright. The mind which was made | 1. Christ was manisested in the flesh when the world needed for God, is no longer his residence. 3. We are sinners ; him most—2. When the powers of the human mind had been feeling we have lost our centre of rest, and our happiness, cultivated to the utmost, both in Greece and Rome ; and had we go about seeking rest, but find none : what we have lost made every possible effort, but all in vain, to find out some in losing God, we seek in earthly things; and thus are con eficient scheme of happiness—3. When the Jews were in the tinually missing the mark, and multiplying transgressions lowest state of corruption, and had the greatest need of the against our Maker. 4. We are enemies; sin, indulged, in- | promised Deliverer—4. When the fulness of the time came, creases in strength; evil acts engender fixed and rooted habits; foretold by the prophets-5. When both Jews and Gentiles, the mind, every where poisoned with sin, increases in averse the one from their jealousy, the other from their learning, ness from good; and mere aversion produces enmity; and were best qualified to detect imposture and to ascertain factenmity, acts of hostility, fell cruelty, &c. So that the enemy 6. In a word, Christ came, when his advent was most likely of God hates his Maker and his service, is cruel to his fellow- to promote its great object, glory to God in the highest; and creatures ; foe to God, was ne'er true friend to man." peace and good will among men. And the success that at. And even torments his own soul! Though every man brings tended the preaching of Christ and his apostles, together into the world the seeds of all these evils; yet, it is only by with the wide and rapid spread of the gospel, all prove that growing up in him, that they acquire their perfection : nemo it was the due time, xata xalçow, the proper season; and, repentè fuit turpissimus : no man becomes a profligate at
man becomes a profligate at that Divine wisdom was justified in fixing upon that time in once; he arrives at it by slow degrees : and the speed he preference to all others. makes is proportioned to his circumstances; means of grati. Died for the ungodly.) Thep QTE6we are have, He died infying sinful passions, evil education, bad company, &c. &c. STEAD of the ungodly, see also ver. 8. so Luke xxii. 19. These make a great diversity in the moral states of men : all | The body of Christ, to UTTEP UMWY O Ouevov, which was given have the same seeds of evil, nemo sine vitiis nascitur, all come
i. e. the life that was laid down in your stEAD. defiled into the world; but all have not the same oppor. In this way the preposition, utep, is used by the best Greek tunities of cultivating these seeds. Besides, as God's Spirit writers. is continually convincing the world of sin, righteousness, and Verse 7. For scarcely for a righteous man will one die] judgment; and the ministers of God are seconding its in- The Jews divide men, as to their moral character, into four fluence with their pious exhortations: as the Bible is in classes. 1. Those who say, - what is mine is my own; and almost every house; and is less or more heard or read by what is thine, is thy own.” These may be considered the almost every person, these evil seeds are receiving continual just, who render to every man his due; or rather, they who blasts and checks, so that, in many cases, they have not a neither give nor take. The second class is made up of those vigorous growth. These causes make the principal moral who say, “What is mine, is thine ; and what is thine, is differences that we find among men; though, in evil propen- mine." These are they who accommodate each other; who sities they are all radically the same.
borrow and lend. The third class is composed of those who That all the preceding characters are applied by some say, “What is mine, is thine; and what is thine, let it be learned men to the Gentiles, exclusively as such, I am well thine." These are the pious, or good, who give up all for aware; and that they may be all applied to them in a the benefit of their neighbour. The fourth class are those national point of view, there can be little doubt. But there who say, “ What is thine, is mine ; and what is thine shall be are too many correspondences between the state of the mine." These are the impious, who take all, and give nomodern Gentiles and that of the ancient Gentiles, to justify thing. Now, for one of the first class, who would die? There the propriety of applying the whole as fully to the former as is nothing amiable in his life or conduct that would so endear to the latter. Indeed the four particulars already explained, | him to any man, as to induce him to risk his life to save such point out the natural and practical state of every human a person. being, previously to his regeneration by the grace and Spirit Peraltventure for a good man some would even dare to of God.
die.] That is for one of the third class, who gives all he bas In due time Christ died for the ungodly] This due or for the good of others. This is the truly benevolent man,
An. Olymp. cir. (CÌX. 2.
A. D. cir. 58. An. Olymp: cir. CCIX. 2.
Reconciliation to God
through Christ only. A.D.Cr.38. yet sinners, Christ died for
us. more, being reconciled, we shall be A.M. cir. 4062. 9 Much more then, being now jus- saved by his life. A.U.C.cir. 811. tified by his blood, we shall be saved 11 And not only so, but we also A.U.C.cir.811. from wrath through him.
joy in God through our Lord Jesus Christ, 10 For if, when we were enemies, 1 we were by whom we have now received the 8 atonement. reconciled to God by the death of his Son, much 12 Wherefore, as "by one man sin entered
* Ch. 3. 25. Eph. 2. 13. Hebr. 9. 14. I Joho 1. 7. ch. 1. 18. il 1 Thes. 1. 10. ch. 8. 32.-_ 2 Cor. 5. 18, 19. Eph. 2. 16. Col. 1. 20, 21.
• John 5. 26. & 14. 19. 2 Cor. 4. 10, 11.- ch. 2. 17. & 3. 29, 30. Gal. 4.9.-- Or, reconciliation, ver. 10. 2 Cor. 5. 18, 19. a Gen. 3. 6. 1 Cor. 15. 21.
whose life is devoted to the public good : for such a person, the renovation of our nature, and our being restored to the peradventure, some who have had their lives perhaps pre- image of God, so, owir, copaix ev in Ğwn avtov, may be renserved by his bounty, would even dare to die : but such cases dered we shall be saved in his life ; for, I suppose, it is pretty may be considered merely as possible: they exist, it is true, in generally agreed, that the life of God, in the soul of man, is romance : and we find a few rare instances of friends expos- essential to its salvation. 4. The example also of the life of ing themselves to death for their friends. See the case of Christ, is a means of salvation. He hath left us an example Jonathan and David; Damon and Pythias, Val. Max. lib. iv., that we should follow his steps; and he that followeth him, c. 7. And our Lord says, John x. 11, 12, Greater love hath shall not walk in darkness, but shall have the light of LIFE, no man than this, that a man lay down his life for his friend. John viii. 12. This is the utmost we can expect among men.
Verse 11. We also joy, (x20% WeYou, we exult, or glory) Verse 8. But God commendeth his lore, &c.] Euvignon, in God, &c.] We now feel that God is reconciled to
and God hath set this act of infinite mercy in the most con we are reconciled to him : the enmity is removed from our spicuous light, so as to recommend it to the notice and admi- souls; and Ile, for Christ's sake, through whom we have reration of all.
ceived the atonement, matandayan, the reconciliation, has reWhile we were yet sinners] We were neither righteous mitted the wrath, the punishment which we deserved : and nor good; but impious and wicked. See the preceding verse, now, through this reconciliation, we expect an eternal glory. and see the note on ver. 6.
It was certainly improper to translate xapanhayn here, by Verse 9. Much more then, being nozo justified] If Jesus atonement, instead of reconciliation; as xatariacow, signifies Christ, in bis endless compassion towards us, gave his life for to reconcile, and is so rendered by our translators in all the ours, while we were yet enemies; being now justified by his places where it occurs. It does not mean the atonement blood, by his death on the cross ; and thus reconciled to God, here, as we generally understand that word, viz. the sacri. we shall be saved from wrath, from punishment for past ficial death of Christ ; but rather the effect of that atone. transgression, through him, by what he has thus suffered ment, the removal of the enmity, and by this, the change of for us.
our condition and state; from xata intensive, and an acow Verse 10. For if, ichen we were enemies] See under to change; the thorough change of our state from enmity to ver. 6.
friendiship. God is reconciled to us, and we are reconciled to We were reconciled] The enmity existing before, ren- him by the death of his Son; and thus there is a glorious dered the reconciliation necessary. In every human heart change from enmity to friendship; and we can exult in God there is a measure of enmity to holiness; and, consequently, through our Lord Jesus Christ, by whom we have received to the author of it. Men seldom suspect this; for one pro- this reconciliation. Though boasting is forbidden to a Jew, perty of sin is, to blind the understanding, so that men do not because bis is a false confidence; yet boasting is enjoined know their own state.
to a Christian; to one reconciled to God : for, his boasting We shall be saved by his life.] For, as he died for our is only in that reconciliation, and the endless mercy by which sins, so he rose again for our justification : and his resurrec it was procured. So, he that glorieth, boasteth, must glory tion to life, is the grand proof that he has accomplished in the Lord. whatever he had purposed in reference to the salvation of Verse 12. Wherefore, as by one man, sin entered into
2. This may be also understood of his life of interces- the world] From this verse, to the conclusion of the chapsion : for it is written, he ever LIVETH to make inteRCES- ter, the apostle produces a strong argument to prove, that SION for us, Heb. vii. 25. Through this life of intercession as all mankind stood in need of the grace of God in Christ, at the right hand of God, we are spared and blessed. 3. And to redeem them from their sins; so this grace has been afford. it will not be amiss to consider that, as our salvation implies) ed equally to all, both Jews and Gentiles.
Sin and death entered into
the world by Adam's transgression.
A. M. cir.4062 into the world, and death by sin ; 13 (l'or until the law sin was in the A.M. cir. 4062.
there is no law.
A. D. cir. 58.
An. Olymp: cir. CCỦX. 2. A.U.C. cir.811.
a Gen. 2. 17. ch. 6. 23. 1 Cor. 15.21.- Or, in whom.
c Ch. 4. 15. 1 John 3. 4.
Dr. Taylor has given the following analysis of the apostle's 13, 14. .3. He affirms there is a correspondence between mode of argumentation. The argument stands thus.--" The Adam and Christ; or between the Tapatawua, offence; and consequences of Christ's obedience extend as far as the con the Xapoua free gift, ver. 14. 4. This correspondence, 50 sequences of Adam's disobedience.
The consequences of far as the two opposite parts answer to each other, is justly Adam's disobedience extend to all mankind; and therefore, expressed ver. 18, and 19. and there we have the main or so do the consequences of Christ's obedience. Now, if the fundamental position of the apostle's argument, in relation Jews will not allow the Gentiles any interest in Abraham, as to the point which he has been arguing from the beginning of not being naturally descended from him; yet they must own the Epistle ; namely, the extensiveness of the grace of the that the Gentiles are the descendants of Adam, as well as gospel, that it actually reaches to ALL MEN, and is not con. themselves; and being all equally involved in the conse
fined to the Jews. 5. But before he laid down this position, quences of his sin, from which,” (as far as the death of the it was necessary that he should shew that the correspondence body is concerned) “they shall all equally be released at between Adam and Christ, or between the offence and the the resurrection, through the free gift of God, therefore they gift, is not to be confined strictly to the bounds specified in could not deny the Gentiles a share in all the other blessings the position, as if the gift reached no farther than the conincluded in the same gift.”
sequences of the offence; when in reality it extends vastly This argument, besides proving the main point, goes to beyond them, ver. 15, 16, 17. 6. Having settled these shew-1. That the grace of God in the gospel abounds be- points, as previously necessary to clear his fundamental posiyond, or very far exceeds, the mere reversing of the suffer- tion, and fit to his argument, he then lays down that posiings brought upon mankind by Adam's one offence; as it tion in a diversified manner of speech, ver. 18, 19. just as in bestows a vast surplusage of blessings which have no re 1 Cor. xv. 20, 21. and leaves us to conclude, from the prelation to that offence, but to the many offences which man mises laid down, ver. 15, 16, 17. that the gift and the grace, kind have committed ; and to the exuberance of the Divine in its utmost extent, is as free to all mankind, who are willing grace. 2. To shew how justly the Divine grace is founded on to accept of it, as this particular instance, the resurrection the obedience of Christ; in correspondence to the dispensation from the dead. They shall all be raised from the dead Adam was under, and to the consequences of his disobe- hereafter: they may all be quickened by the Spirit here. dience : if this disobedience involved all mankind in death, || 7. Having thus shewn the extensiveness of the Divine grace, it is proper that the obedience of Christ should be the cause in opposition to the dire effects of the law under which Adam not only of reversing that death to all mankind, but also was; that the Jews might not overlook what he intended they of other blessings which God should see fit, (through him, should particularly observe, he puts them in mind that the to bestow on the world. 3. It serves to explain, and set in law given to Adam, transgress and die, was introduced into a clear view, the difference between the law and grace. It the Jewish constitution by the ministry of Moses; and for was the law, which, for Adam's one transgression, subjected this end, that the offence, with the penalty of death annexed him and his posterity, as included in him when he trans to it, might abound, ver. 20. But, to illustrate the Divine gressed, to death, without hopes of a revival. It is grace grace, by setting it in contrast to the law, he immediately which restores all men to life at the resurrection ; and over adds, where sin, subjecting to death, hath abounded, grace and above that, has provided a gracious dispensation for the hath much more abounded; that is, in blessings bestowed; it pardon of their sins; for reducing them to obedience; for has stretched far beyond both Adam's transgression, and the guarding them against temptations; supplying them with transgressions under the law of Moses, ver. 20, 21. and see strength and comfort ; and for advancing them to eternal the note on the first of these verses. life. This would give the attentive Jew a just notion of the Upon this argument the learned doctor makes the followlaw, which himself was under; and under which he was de- ing general remarks:sirous of bringing the Gentiles.
“ I. As to the order of time; the apostle carries his arguThe order in which the apostle handles this argument is ments backwards from the time when Christ came into the this :-1. He affirms that death passed upon all men, by world, (chap. i. 17. to chap. iv.) to the time when the coveAdam's one transgression, ver. 12. 2. He proves this, ver. nant was made with Abraham, (chap. iv.) to the time when