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The Apostle's earnest desire to

ROMANS.

visit the Christians at Rome.

cir. CCİX: 2.

A.M.cir. 1062.
A.D. cir. 38.

means now at length I might have a 13 Now I would not have you igno- 4.1. cir: 4062. eir. CEIX, prosperous journey by the will of rant, brethren, that oftentimes I An. Olymp. A.U.C.cir.811. God to come unto

you.
purposed to come unto you, (but' was

A.U.C.cir.811. Il For I long to see you, that "I may im let hitherto,) that I might have some 5 fruit part unto you some spiritual gift, to the end ye "among you also, even as among other Gentiles. may be established ;

14 'I am debtor both to the Greeks, and to 12 That is, that I may be comforted together the Barbarians; both to the wise, and to the with you by the mutual faith both of you and unwise. ,

15 So, as much as in me is, I am ready to

me.

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9. It signifies benignity, benevolence, favour. Rom. v. I, a disastrous journey to them, the 27th of the Acts fully Being justified by faith, we have Peace with God. In con proves. sequence of having our sins forgiven, we have a clear sense Verse 11. Some spiritual gift] This probably means of the Divine favour. Phil. iv. 7, The PEACE of God, which some of the extraordinary gifts of the Holy Spirit ; which, , passeth all understanding; the inexpressible blessedness of a being given to them, might tend greatly to establish their sense of the Divine fuvour. See Schleusner's Lexicon. faith in the gospel of Christ; and it is very likely, that such

From God our Father] The Apostle wishes them all the gifts were only conferred by means of apostles ; and as the blessings which can flow from God, as the fountain of grace; Apostle had not yet been at Rome, consequently the Roman producing in them all the happiness which a heart filled with Christians had not yet received any of these miraculous the peace of God can possess; all of which are to be commu- gifts, and thus they differed widely from all the other churches nicated to them through the Lord Jesus Christ. See the which had been raised by the Apostles' ministry. note on Acts xxviii. 31.

Verse 12. That I may be comforted together with you] Verse 8. First, I thank my God] From this, to the end He here, with great address, intimates that he longs for this of ver. 17. belongs to the preface, in which the Apostle en- | opportunity, as well on his own account as on theirs ; and to deavours to conciliate the good opinion of the Christians shew them that he arrogates nothing to himself, for he inat Rome; and to prepare their minds for his reproofs and timates that it will require the conjoint action of their faith exhortations.

as well as his own, to be the means of receiving those blessYour faith is spoken] Katayyaetas is celebrated ings from God to which he refers. throughout the whole worldIn every place where the Chris Verse 13. But was let hitherto] The word let, from the tian religion is professed, through all parts of the Roman Anglo-Saxon, letran to hinder, signifies impediment, or dominions ; for in this sense we should understand the words hindrance of any kind : but it is likely that the original word the whole zcorld.

EXWAU977, I was forbidden, refers to a Divine prohibition :Verse I. Whom I serve with my spirit] Aançeuw, whom he would have visited them long before, but God did not see I worship with the profoundest religious reverence; for so right to permit him. the original certainly means : I not only employ all the Verse 14. I am a debtor both to the Greeks, and to the powers of my body in this service, but all those of my soul; Barbarians] It has been remarked before, that all the being thoroughly convinced of the absolute truth of the reli- nations of the earth, themselves excepted, were termed bar. gion I preach. Probably St. Paul opposes, in this place, the barians by the Greeks. See the origin of the word barbarus, spiritual worship of the gospel, to the external, or what some in the note on Acts, chap. xxviii. 2. The Apostle considers call, the carnal worship of the Jews. Mine is not a religion himself, by his apostolical office and call, under obligation to of ceremonies, but one in which the life and power of the preach the gospel to all people, as far as the providence of eternal Spirit, are acknowledged and experienced.

God might open his way; for this is implied in the Divine Verse 10. Making request, &c.] By this we see

By this we see how commission-Go ye into all the world, and preach the Gospel earnestly the Apostle longed to see Rome. It had long been to every creature; to the wise and the unwise ; to the learned a subject of continual prayer to God, that he might have and cultivated, as well as to the unlearned and uncultivated: a prosperous journey to, or rather meeting with them, for so this evidently appears to be the import of the terms. we should understand the word evoĉw.TY,Touan: that he had a Verse 15. I am ready to preach] Ilpo@unior; I have a prosperous meeting with them we cannot doubt ; that he had | ready mind. I was only prevented by the Providence of

He describes the nature and

CHAP. I.

design of the Gospel.

A. D. cir. 58. An. Olymp. cir. CCLX. 2.

cir. CCIX. 2.

A. D.Cr.582 preach the gospel to you that are at the Jew first, and also to the A. M.cir.4062 . An. Olymp: Rome also.

Greek. A.U.C.cir.811. 16 For I am not ashamed of the 17 For “therein is the righteous- A.U.C.cir.811. gospel of Christ: for it is the power of God un- | ness of God revealed from faith to faith : as it is to salvation to every one that believeth ; 'to written, The just shall live by faith.

Ch. 3. 21.- Hab. 2. 4. John 3. 36. Gal. 3. 11. Phil. 3.9. Ileb. 10. 38.

• Ps. 40.9, 10. Mark 8. 38. 2 Tim. 1. 8.1 Cor. 1. 18. & 15. 2.

• Luke 2. 30, 31, 32. & 24. 47. Acts 3. 26. & 13. 26, 46. ch. 2.9.

struct you.

God, from visiting you long ago. His time is best : in the ence between them; and Jesus Christ having fusted death fur mean time, I write by his direction, to comfort and in

EVERY man.

Verse 17. For therein] In the gospel of Christ. Verse 16. I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ] Is the righteousness of God] God's method of saving This text is best illustrated by Isai. xxviii. 16. xlix. 23. | sinners. quoted by the Apostle chap. x. 11. For the Scripture saith, Revealed from faith to faith] Shewn to be by faith, and not Whosoerer believeth on him, shall not be ashamed; i. e. they | by the works of any law; for Abraham, the father and founder shall neither be confounded, nor disappointed of their hope. of the Jewish people, was justified by faith, before even the The Jezs, by not believing on Jesus Christ, by not receiving law was given ; and from believing in reference to the spihim as the promised Messiah, but trusting in others, have || ritual object held forth in the various ordinances of the law, been disappointed, ashamed, and confounded, from that time and now revealed under the gospel, he and all bis believing to the present day. Their expectation is cut off: and while descendants have been justified. And thus the faith of the rejecting Christ, and expecting another Messiah, they have old covenant led on to the faith of the new covenant ; which continued under the displeasure of God, and are ashamed of shews that salvation has been by faith, from the call of Abratheir confidence. On the other hand, those who have be- ham to the present time. And from the beginning, all that lieved on Christ, have, in and through him, all the blessings || were just or righteous in the earth, became such by faith, and of which the prophets spoke; every promise of God being by this principle alone, they were enabled to persevere; as yea and amen through him. Paul, as a Jew, believed on it is written, the just shall lide by faith. That Arxaioruny, Christ Jesus ; and in believing he had life through his name; which we translate righteousness in this verse, signifies God's through him he enjoyed an abundance of grace, so that being method of saving mankind by faith in Christ, is fully evident filled with that happiness which an indwelling Christ pro- from the use of the term in chap. ix. 30. The Gentiles which duces, he could cheerfully say, I am not ashamed of the followed not after RIGHTEOUSNESS; who had no knowledge gospel of Christ. And why? because he felt it to be the by revelation, of God's method of justifying and saving sin. power of God to the salvation of his believing soul. This ners, have attained to RIGHTEOUSNESS; have had imparted appears to be the true sense of this passage, and this inter- || to thein God's method of salvation by faith in Christ, verse pretation acquires additional strength from the consideration | 31. But Israel, the Jews, which followed after the law of that St. Paul is here most evidently addressing himself to righteousness ; that law, the end or object of which is Christ, the Jews.

and through him Justification to all that believe; (ch. x. 4.) It is the power of God'unto salvation] Arrauis 22 Osov have not attained to the law of righteousness; have not found 651. The almighty power of God aocompanies this preach out the genuine plan of salvation, even in that law which so ing to the souls of them that believe; and the consequence is, strongly and generally proclaims justification by faith ; and they are saved ; and what but the power of God can, cave a why have they not found it? verse 32, becuuse they sought fallen, sinful soul?

it not by fuith, but as it were by the works of the law; they To the Jew first] Not only the Jews have the first offer did not discern that even its works or prescribed religious of this gospel, but they have the greatest need of it; being observances were intended to lead to faith in that glorious so deeply fallen, and having sinned against such glorious pri- Mediator, of whom they were the types and representatives ; vileges, they are much more culpable than the Gentiles, who but the Jews trusted in the observances themselves, lioping to ac. never had the light of a divine revelation.

quire justification and final salvation by that means. For And also to the Greek.] Though the salvation of God has they stumbled at the stumbling stone, at the doctrine of Christ hitherto been apparently confined to the Jewish people; yet crucified, as the only sure ground on which the expectation it shall be so no longer, for the gospel of Christ is sent to | of future salvation can be founded. Therefore being ignathe Gentiles, as well as the Jews ; God having put no differ- || runt of God's righteousness"; God's method of saving sin.

The judgments of God are revealed

ROMANS.

against the unrighteousness of men.

A. M. cir.4062.
A. D. cir. 58.

18 “For the wrath of God is re- || who hold the truth in unrighteous- A.M.ci:1067

. An. Olymp; vealed from heaven against all un- ness; A.U.C.cir.811. godliness and unrighteousness of men, 19 Because that which may be A.U.c.cir.811.

An. Olymp cir. CCIX. 2.

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ners, and going about to establish their own rightcousness, | God. Luke i. 75, Might serve him in holiness and RIGATEtheir own method of salvation, by the observance of those OUSNESS all the days of our life. rites and ceremonies which should have led them, by faith, 3. It signifies benignity, liberality, and particularly alms. to Christ; they did not submit themselves to the righteousness giving; as justice and righteousness require us, being only of God; they would not submit to be saved in God's way, || stewards of God's bounty, to share it with the necessitous. and therefore rejected, persecuted, and crucified the Lord Matt. vi, Take heed that ye do not your ALMS, Q1x210 cuvy, Jesus, see chap. x. 3. This collation of passages most evi- your RIGIITEOUSNEss, before men. Rom iii. 5, But if our dently shews that the word righteousness here means simply | unrighteousness commend the righTEOUSNESS, the benignity God's method of saving sinners, or God's way of salvation; || of God. 2 Cor. ix. 10, Increase the fruits of your RIGHTEin opposition to the ways and means invented by the fancies | Ousness, i. e. of your liberality. or prejudices of men.

4. It signifies God's method of saving sinners ; the way There are few words in the Sacred Writings which are taken which is agreeable to his righteousness and liberality. See in a greater variety of acceptations, than the word npastsede- the former part of this note, and the Scriptures there rekah in Hebrew, and Aixalotuer, in Greek, both of which we ferred to. generally translate righteousness. . Our English word was 5. It signifies the reward, or issue of liberality. 2 Cor. originally rightwiseness, from the Anglo-Saxon pıht justice, | ix. 9, He hath scattered abroad; he hath given to the poor ; right, and pitan to know ; and thus the righteous man was a his RIGHTEOUSNESS, the reward of his bounty, remaineth person who was allowed to understand the claims of justice for ever. See Psal. cxii. 9. and right, and who knowing them, acted according to their 6. It signifies the whole collection of graces, which constitute dictates. Such a man is thoroughly wise, he aims at the at the complete Christian character. Matt. v. 6, Blessed are tainment of the best end, by the use of the best means. This they that hunger and thirst after RIGOTEOUSNESS; they who is a true definition of wisdom, and the righteous man is he ardently long for the full salvation of God. Ib. v. 10, 20, that knows most and acts best. The Hebrew pos tsadak, in If your righTEOUSNEss exceed not the righteousness, &c. its ideal meaning, contains the notion of a beam or scales in Ib. vi. 33, Seek the kingdom of God and his RIGHTEequipoise, what we call even balance ; and it is well known, OUSNESS. that in all the personifications of justice, both ancient and mo. 7. It signifies the result of faith in God, and submission dern, she is represented as a beautiful female with a bandage to his will, exemplified in a holy and useful life. Heb. xi. 7. on her eyes, and a beam and scales in her hand, so perfectly | By faith Noah prepared an ark, and became heir of the poised that neither end preponderates.

RIGHTEOUSNESS which is by faith; he escaped the deluge The Greek word Aixaloguer, has been derived from orgasm and was made the instrument of re-peopling the world. to divide ; and hence Aixn justice, because it is the property 8. It signifies an exact observance of religious ordinances, of this virtue to divide to each his due. With other etymo- and precepts. Phil. iii. 6, Touching the RIGHTEOUSNESS logies, it is useless to trouble the Reader.

Both the noun which is of the law, blameless ; having lived in an exact con. dixano ourn and the verb Orxanow have a great variety of mean-formity to all the Mosaic precepts. In this sense it is to be ing in the New Testament, but they are all reducible to this understood, Matt. iii. 15, Thus it becomes us to fulfil all original idea, acting according to the requisitions of justice RIGHTEOUSNESS ; to observe every precept of the law. or right. It may not be improper to notice some of the 9. It signifies the favour or pardoning mercy of God. Rom. chief of these acceptations in this place.

iv. 6, The blessedness of the man unto whom God imputetk 1. The act of distributing to each man his due, is the sense of RIGHTEOUSNESS without works; the man is happy to whom the word. Acts xvii. 31, He will judge the world in RIGIITEOUS God has granted the remission of sins, without respect to his NESS, i.e. according to the principles of eternal justice and observance of the law of Moses. rectitude. See also Rev. xix. 2, In RIGHTEOUSNESS doth he 10. In 2 Cor. v. 21, GiralocUVY, righteousness, is put for judge and make war.

Orxanos, righteous ; that we might become the righteousness 2. It signifies a holy life, as proceeding from piety towards of God; that we might receive such a righteousness or holi

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A. M. cir.4062. known of God is manifest “in them ;! from the creation of the world are A.M.cir, 1062 A. D. cir. 58.

A. D. cir. 58. An. Olymp; for God hath shewed it unto them.

An. Olymp: rir. CCİX. 2.

clearly seen, being understood by the

cir. CCIX, 2. A.C.C.cir.811.

20 For the invisible things of him things that are made, even his eternal A.U.C. cir.811

a Or, to them.

John 1. 9.

c Ps. 19. 1, &c. Acts 14. 17. & 17. 27.

1, 9.

ness, such a salvation, as is worthy of God's grace to 7. It signifies also to receive one into favour, to pardon sin. impart; and such as the necessities of mankind require. Rom. viii. 30, Whom he called, them he also JUSTIFIED; he

A few of the leading acceptations of the verb dir.alow, received them into fuvour and pardoned their sins. Luke which we translate to justify, may be here properly sub xviii. 14, This man went down to his house JUSTIFIED; he joined, as this verb is so repeatedly used in this Epistle. humbled himself, repented of his iniquity, and God forgave

1. It signifies to declare or pronounce one just or righteous; his sin. Rom. iii. 20, By the deeds of the law there shall no or, in other words, to declare him to be what he really is. flesh be JUSTIFIED; no soul can have his sins forgiven, 1 Tim. iii. 16, He was justified in the Spirit. By the al- through the observance of the Mosaic law. Ib. iv. 2, If mighty power of the Spirit, he was proved to be the TRUE Abraham were JUSTIFIED, (had his sin pardoned,) by works. MESSLAN.

1 Cor. vi. 11, Such were some of you, but ye are JUSTIFIED; 2. To esteem a thing properly. Matt. xi. 19, Wislom is ye are received into the divine favour, and have your sins JUSTIFIED of her children. Wisdom, propriety of conduct, forgiven. See Jam. ii. 21–25. Rom. iii. 24, 28. v. is properly estimated by wise men.

Galat. ii. 16, 17. ii. 11, 24. v. 4. Tit. iii. 7. In all these 3. It signifies to approve, praise, and commend. The publi- texts, the word justify is taken in the sense of remission of cans JUSTIFIED God, Luke vii. 29. praised him for calling sins through faith in Christ Jesus; and does not mean making them to such a state of salvation. Ib. xvi. 15, Yeare they which the person just or righteous, but treating him as if he were JUSTIFY yourselves before God; ye are self-commended, self- so, having already forgiven him his sins. applauded, and self-praised. In this sense it is often used in The just shall live by faith] This has been understood two the Greek Apocryphal books. Ecclus. vii. 5, Justify not ways: 1. that the just or righteous man cannot live a lioly thyself before the Lord; do not applaud thyself in the and useful life, without exercising continual faith in our presence of thy Maker. Ib. x. 29, Who will justify, Lord Jesus : which is strictly true; for He only, who has (praise or applaud,) him that sinneth against his own soul. | brought him into that state of salvation, can preserve him in Ib. xviii. 2, The Lord only is righteous, sixalwGroetal, shall it; and he stands by faith. 2. It is contended by some able be JUSTIFIED, i. e. praised, because there is none other critics that the words of the original text should be pointed but he.

thus : 'O de Soxanne Ex T15€*;, $75672). The just by faith, 4. The verb cixadouan is used to clear from all sin. 1 Cor. shall live, that is, he alone that is justified by faith, shall be iv. 4, For I know nothing by myself ; yet am I not hereby saved; which is also true, as it is impossible to get salvation

A man's own consciousness of integrity, is not in any other way. This last meaning is probably the true a proof that he is clear from all sin in the sight of God. one, as the original text in lah. ii. 4. speaks of those, who

5. A judge is said to justify, not only when he condemns believed the declarations of God when the Chaldeans beand punishes, but also when he defends the cause of the in- sieged Jerusalem ; and having acted conforniably to them, nocent. See Eurip. Heraclid. ver. 190. Thucyd. iii. p. 200. they escaped with their lives. POLYB. iii. 31. and SCHLEUSNER on õixanow. Ilence dix06 Verse 18. For the wrath of God is revcaled] The Apostlc 651aig is taken in a forensic sense, and signifies to be found has now finished his Prefuce, and comes to the grand subject or declared righteous , innocent, &c. Matt

. xii. 37, By thy of the Epistle ; namely, to shew the absolute need of the words thou shalt be JUSTIFIED; thou shalt be declared to Gospel of Christ, because of the universal corruption of be righteous. Rom. iii. 4, That thou mightest be JUSTIFIED mankind ; which was so great as to incense the justice of in thy sayings; that thou mightest be proved to be true in God, and call aloud for the punishment of the world. what thou hast said.

He shews that all the heathen nations were utterly corrupt, and 6. It signifies to set free, to escape from. Aets xiii. 39, And deserved this threatened punishment. And this is the subject by him, all that beliere are JUSTIFIED from all things from of the first chapter from verse 18 to the end. 2. He shews which ye could not be JUSTIFIED by the law; by faith in that the Jews, notwithstanding the greatness of their privileges, Christ man escapes those evils, which, otherwise, the were no better than the Gentiles; and therefore the wrath law of Moses would inflict upon him. Rom. vi. 7, For he of God was revealed against them also. This subject he treats that is dead, dedixo. WTI.), is JUSTIFIED, properly rendered by in chap. ii. and chap. iii. 1-19. 3. Ile returns, as it were, our translators, is FREED from sin.

on both, chap. iii. 20—31. and proves that as the Jews and

JUSTIFIED.

a

The Gentiles did not retain

ROMANS.

the knowledge of God,

as

A. D. Cor. 58. power and Godhead ; "so that they | God, they glorified him not
An. Olymp. are without excuse :

God, neither were thankful; but An. Olymp. cir. CCIX. 2. 21 Because that, when they knew "became vain in their imaginations, A.U.C.cir.811

.

A. M, cir.4062. A. D. cir. 58. cir. CCIX.2.

A.U.C.cir.811.

a Or, that they may be.

+ 2 Kings 17. 15. Jer. 2. 5. Eph. 4. 17, 18.

Gentiles were equally corrupt, they could not be saved by having made a clear discovery of himself to them. For his the deeds of any law; that they stood equally in need of that being and perfections, invisible to our bodily eyes, have salvation which God had provided ; that both were equally been, ever since the creation of the world, evidently to be entitled to that salvation, for God was the God of the Gen- seen, if attentively considered, in the visible beauty, order, tiles as well as of the Jews.

and operations observable in the constitution and parts of the By oorn Osov, the wrath of God, we are not to under- universe; especially his eternal power and universal domistand any uneasy passion in the Divine Being: but the dis- | nion and providence; so that they cannot plead ignorance in pleasure of his righteousness, which is expressed by the pu- excuse of their idolatry and wickedness.” nishments inflicted on the ungodly, those who retain not God Verse 20. The invisible things of him] His invisible perin their knowledge; and the unrighteous, those whose lives fections are manifested by his visible works, and may be ap. are profligate.

prehended by what he has made; their immensity shewing As in the Gospel, the righteousness of God is revealed for his omnipotence; their vast variety and contrivance, his omthe salvation of the ungodly; so is the wrath of God revealed niscience; and their adaptation to the most beneficent puragainst the workers of iniquity. Those who refuse to be poses, his infinite goodness and philanthropy. saved in the way revealed by his mercy, must be consumed His eternal power] Aïdios autou cuvauis, that all-powerful in the way revealed by his justice.

energy that ever was, and ever will exist ; so, that ever since Ungodliness] Acebela, from a, negative, and cow or there was a creation to be surveyed, there has been intellisebouar, I worship, probably intended here to express Athe- gent beings to make that survey. ism, Polytheism, and Idolatry of every kind.

And Godhead S10T75, his acting as God in the govern. Unrighteousness] Aõixiy, from en negative, and dixen jus- ment and support of the universe. His works prove his betice, every thing contrary to strict morality; all viciousness ing; the government and support of these works prove it and profligacy of conduct.

equally. Creation and Providence form a twofold demonWho hold the truth in unrighteousness] In what sense

stration of God, ist. in the perfections of his nature, and, could it be said that the heathen held the truth in unrighteous. 2dly. in the exercise of those perfections. ness, when they really had not that truth? Some think this Verse 21. Because that when they knew Gol] When they refers to the conduct of their best philosophers, such as So- thus acquired a general knowledge of the unity and perfeccrates, Plato, Seneca, &c. who knew much more of the di tions of the divine nature; they glorified him not as God; vine nature than they thought safe or prudent to discover; they did not proclaim him to the people, but shut up his and who acted in many things contrary to the light which glory, (as Bishop Warburton expresses it,) in their mysteries, they enjoyed. Others think this to be spoken of the Gen- and gave the people in exchange for an incorruptible God, an tiles in general, who either did know, or might have known imaye made like to corruptible man. Wherefore God, in much of God from the works of creation, as the apostle in- punishment for their sins, thus furning his truth into a lye, timates in the following verses. But Rosenmüller and some suffered even their mysteries which they had erected for a others contend that the word ZITEZE12 here does not signify school of virtue, to degenerate into an odious sink of rice to hold, but to hinder; and that the place should be translated and immorality; giving them up unto all uncleanness and vile who through maliciousness hinder the truth ; i. e. prevent it affections. from taking hold of their hearts, and from governing their They glorified hiin not] They did not give him that worconduct. This is certainly a very usual acceptation of the ship which his perfections required. verb κατεγχειν, which lesychius interprets κρατειν, καλυειν,

Neither were thankful] They manifested no gratitude for GUTE7Ely, to retain, hinder, &c. these men hindering, by the blessings they received fiom his providence; but became their vicious conduct, the truth of God from being propa- vain in their imuginations; 01010 yıspons, in their reusonings. gated in the earth.

This certainly refers to the foolish manner, in which even Verse 19. That which may be known of God Dr. Taylor the wisest of their philosophers discoursed about the divine naparaphrases this aud the following verse thus; “ Although ture, not excepting Socrates, Pluto, or Seneca. Who can read the Gentiles had no written revelation, yet what may be their works without being struck with the vanity of their known of God is every where manifest among them, God reasonings, as well as with the stupidity of their nonsense, when

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