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Circumcision is of the

CHAP. II.

heart, by the Spirit.

A. D. cir. 58.

An. Olyınp. cir. CCIX. 2. A.U.C. cir.811.

cir. CCIX. 2.

A. righteousness of the law, shall not | outwardly ; neither is that cir- A. M. cir.4062.

An. Olymp: his uncircumcision be counted forcumcision, which is outward in the
A.U.C.cir.811. circumcision?

flesh: 27 And shall not uncircumcision, which is

,

29 But he is a Jew, which is one inwardly ; by nature, if it fulfil the law, "judge thee and circumcision is that of the heart, in the who by the letter and circumcision dost trans- spirit, and not in the letter ; 'whose praise is

not of men, but of God. 28 For he is not a Jew, which is one

gress the law ?

* Matt. 12. 41, 42.- Matt. 3.9. John 8. 39. ch. 9. 6, 7. Gal. 6. 15.

Rev. 2. 9.

C1 Pet. 3. 4.- Col. 2. 11. Phil. 3. 3. ch. 7. 6. 2 Cor. 3. 6.

1 Cor. 4.5. 2 Cor. 10. 18. 1 Thes. 2. 4.

im of the Rabbins themselves; for they allowed that an because he has entered into the spirit and design of the coapostate or ungodly Israelite must go to hell, notwithstand venant made with Abraham; and has got the end of his faith, ing his circumcision.

the salvation of his soul. Sentiments like these, on the Verse 26. Therefore, if the uncircumcision, &c.] If the same subject, may be found in the ancient Jewish writers. Gentiles be found to act according to the spirit and design of Rabbi Lipman gires the opinion of their most ancient and the law; his acting thus uprightly, according to the light pure writers in these words: “A certain Christian mocked which God has afforded him, will be reckoned to him as if us, saying, "Women, who cannot be circumcised, cannot be he were circumcised, and walked agreeably to the law. reckoned among Jews.' Such persons are ignorant that

Verse 27. And shall not uncircumcision, which is by faith does not consist in circumcision, but in the heart. He, nature] And shall not the Gentile, who is ex QueEWS, ac who has not genuine faith, is not a partaker of the Jewish cording to the custom of his country; who is by birth not circumcision; but he who has genuine faith, is a Jew, alobliged to be circumcised.

though not circumcised.Nizzachon Num. 21. p. 19. It If it fulfil the law] If such a person act according to the is a curious maxim of the Talmudists, That the Jews sit in the spirit and design of the law; judge, rpiveu, condemn thee, in most recesses of the heurt. Nidda fol. 20. 2.

This is exwho, whilst thou dost enjoy the letter, the written law; and actly the sentiment of St. Paul, circumcision is of the heart, bearest in thy body the proof of the circumcision which it in the spirit. In short, common sense, as well as their requires, dost transgress that law ?

law and their prophets, taught every considerate man among Verse 28. For he is not a Jew] A genuine member of them that God could be pleased with their rites and exterthe church of God, who has only an outward profession. nal performances, no further than they led to holiness of

Neither is that circumcision] Circumcision is a rite which heart and righteousness of life, represents a spiritual thing, viz. the change and purification of the heart, as may be seen Jer. iv. 4, 6, 10. ix. 26. Ezek. 1. What the apostle says in the preceding chapter conxliv. 7, 9.

cerning the Gentiles doing by nature the things contained in Verse 29. But he is a Jew] A true member of the church the law, if properly considered, would lead certain persons of God.

from forming erroneous judgments concerning the divine dis. Which is one inwardly] Who has his heart purified, ac pensations. We are not to suppose that God is not to be cording to what God has uniformly prescribed by his pro- found, where his written word does not appear ; nor, that phets, see above ; for circumcision is of the heart, in the spirit the salvation of the nations yet unblessed with the light of EY TreULATI, by the Spirit of God, who is the author of all the Gospel, is impossible. God has nerer confined bimself spiritual affections and holy purposes: or every thing here to any one particular way, of communicating his salvation; is to be understood spiritually and not literally; for with no more than he has contined his saving grace to one people. out holiness none can please God, and without holiness none Ilis word is an indescribable blessing; but that word becan see him.

comes effectual to salvation, when accompanied by the power Whose praise is not of men] It has, with great probabi- of the Iloly Spirit. It was that Spirit which gave the word lity, been conjectured, that the apostle may here refer to originally; and that same Spirit can speak without this word, the signification of the name Jew, or Judah, 717 Yehuduh, It is through his influence alone, that the Gentiles do the PRAISE, from 17 Yadah, he PRAISED. Such a one is a things contained in his own law; and it is not to be wontrue Israelite, who walks in a conformity to the spirit of his dered at, that the work is the same, both in the luxo and religion; his countrymen may praise him because he is a in the heart, when it has proceeded from the sume Spirit. steady professor of the Jewish faith ; but God praises him, 2. God'therefore will judge all nations according to the

The superior advantages

ROMANS.

of the Jewish people.

use and abuse they have made of this word, whether it was neglect, the Gentile nations will not be destroyed by a met. written in the heart, or written on tables of stone.

ciful God; yet the Europeans will have a most solenn and 3. As he is no respecter of persons, all nations are equally awful account to render to their judge, that they have hiddear to him; and he hus granted and will grant to them such den the heavenly light under their own bushel. BRITAIN is discoveries of himself, as have been, and will be sufficient for shaking herself from the dust, and by means of the British their salvation.

and FOREIGY BIBLE SOCIETY is sending the holy Scriptures 4. His Word is an infinite blessing; and he has given it to every kingdom, and nation, and people and tongue. The to one people that they may be the means of conveying it to Gentiles are now learning from the written law more fully another. Europe, and especially Christian Europe, has got and savingly what the Spirit of God had before written on the Biels; and God requires Europe to send the Bible | their hearts; and it seems as if the kingdom of God were now throughout the earth. If this be not done through their about to come, with all conquering power.

CHAPTER III. The apostle points out the peculiar privileges of the Jews, 148. but shews that they also, as well as the Gentiles,

had sinned, and forfeited all right and title to God's especial furour, 9. The corrupt state of all mankind, 10 -18. All the world is guilty before God, and none can be justified by the works of the law, 19, 20. God's Mercy in providing redemption for a lost world, by Jesus Christ, 21-26. This excludes boasting on the part, both of Jew and Gentile ; provides salvation through faith for both, and does not set aside, but establishes the law, 27—31.

HAT 'advantage then hath the 2 Much every way: chiefly, because A.M.cir. 4062. An. Olymp.

Jew? or what profit is there that "unto them were committed the A.U.C.cir. 811. of circumcision?

oracles of God.

A.M.cir. 4062.
A. D. cir. 58.

cir. CCIX. 2.

A. D. cir. 38. An. Olyınp. cir, ccix. 2. A.U.C.cir.811.

– Ch. 2. 25, 26, 28, 29. Ps. 3. 9.

+ Deut. 4.7, 8.

Ps. 147. 19, 20.

ch. 2. 18. & 9.4.

NOTES ON CHAP. III.

at once stripped him of all his peculiar honours and priviDr. Taylor observes, “In the preceding chapter, the apostle | leges ; and the apostle, who had often argued with his counhas carried his argument to the utmost length : what re trymen on these points, knew what they would be ready to mains is to keep the Jew in temper, to fix his convictions, say on this subject; and, therefore, introduces a dialogue and to draw the grand conclusion.

between himself and a Jew, in which he gives him leave to “ He has shewn that the Jews were more wicked than the answer and defend himself. In this dialogue the apostle, Gentiles ; that their possession of the law, circumcision and undoubtedly, refers to the rejection of the Jews, which he outward profession of relation to God, were no ground of considers at large in the ix. X. and xi. chapters. After the acceptance with him. This was, in effect, to say, that the dialogue is finished, he resumes his argument, and proves by Jews had forfeited their right to the privileges of God's pe- their own Scriptures, that the Jews were guilty as well as culiar people; and that they were as unworthy to be con other men; and that no part of mankind could have any tinued in the church, as the Gentiles were to be taken into right to the blessings of God's kingdom by any works which it; and consequently, in order to their enjoying the privi- || they had performed; but merely through the propitiatory leges of the church under the Messiah, they stood in need sacrifice offered by Christ: and that this, far from destroying of a fresh display of grace, which, if they rejected, God the law, was just the thing that the law required, and by would cast them out of the vineyard. The apostle was sen which its claims were established. sible that the Jew would understand what he said in this “ The sum and force of the apostle's argument is this, all sense; and that it must be very irritating to him to hear that sorts of men, Jews as well as Gentiles, have sinned; therehis law, circumcision, and all his external advantages, werefore, none of them ean lay claim to the blessings of his king. utterly insufficient to procure him the favour of God. This II dom on the ground of obedience. The Jew, therefore, stands

The faithfulness and righteousness

CHAP. II.

of God are everlasting

A.U.C.cir.811.

A.M. cir. 4062.

3 For, what if some did not believe? righteousness of God, what shall we A M.CIT. 4962 A. D. cir, 58. Ancelinap shall their unbelief make the faith say? Is God unrighteous who taketh Anceleme A.U.C.cir.811. of God without effect?

vengeance ? (* I speak as a man.) 4 ‘God forbid : vea, let God be true, but 6 God forbid : for then how shall God every man a liar; as it is written. 'That thou judge the world? mightest be justified in thy sayings, and might 7 For, if the truth of God hath more abounded est overcome when thou art judged.

through my lie unto his glory; why yet am ! 5 But, if our unrighteousness commend the also judged as a sinner ?

• Ch. 10. 16. Hebr. 4. 2. b Numb. 23. 19. ch.9. 6. & 11. 29. 2 Tim.

2. 13. Job 40. 8. _ Jobn 3. 33.

e Ps. 62. 9. & 116.11.-Ps. 51.4.-sch 6. 19. Gal. 3.15. Gen. 18.

25. Job 8. 3. & 31. 17.

as much in need of God's grace to give him a title to those nant, be a God to him, and to his seed after him. Gen. xvii.7. blessings, as the Gentile; and, consequently, the Gentile has Shall God, therefore, by stripping the Jews of their peas good a title as the Jero. And when all are in the same culiar honour, as you intimate he will, falsify his promise circumstances, it is perfectly absurd for any to pretend to to the nation, because some of the Jews are bad men ? engross it to themselves exclusively of others, who are only Verse 4. APOSTLE. God forbid] My Yevolto, let it not be, as bad as they

far from it, by no means. Yea, let God be true, but every “Thus the apostle solidly proves, that we Gentiles, through || man a liar, &c. We must ever maintain that God is true, and faith alone, have a good and firm title to all the blessings of that if in any case, his promise appear to fail, it is because the gospel corenant, election, adoption, pardon, privileges, or the condition on which it was given has not been complied dinances, the Holy Spirit, and the hope of eternal life." Tay-with; which is the sense of what is written, Psal. li. 4, B lor's Notes p. 259, 260.

acknowledge my sin, and condemn myself that the truth of As the nine first verses are a dialogue between the Apostle | thy promise, (2 Sam. vii. 15, 16.) to establish my house and and a Jero, I shall prefix the speakers to their respective throne for ever, may be vindicated when thou shalt execute questions and answers, to make the whole the more intelli- that dreadful threatening (2 Sam. xii. 10.) that the sword gible to the Reader.

shall never depart from my house, which I own I have brought

upon myself by my own iniquity. Should any man say, that Verse 1. Jew. What advantage then hath the Jew.? or the promise of God had failed toward' him; let him examine that profit is there of circumcision] As if he had said, you his heart and his ways, and he will find that he has delately allowed (chap. ii. 25.) that circumcision verily pro- | parted out of that way in which alone God could,, confited; but if circumcision, or our being in covenant with sistently with his holiness and truth, fulfil the promise. God, raises us no higher in the divine favour than the Gen Verse 5. Jew. But if our unrighteousness commend the tiles; if the virtuous among them are as acceptable as any | righteousness of God] May we not suppose that our unof us, nay, and condemn our nation too, as no longer de righteousness may serve to commend and illustrate the mercy serving the divine regards; pray tell me, wherein lies the of God, in keeping and fulfilling to us the promise which superior honour of the Jew; and what benefit can arise to he made to our forefathers ? The more wicked we are, the him from his circumcision, and being vested in the privileges more his faithfulness to his ancient promise is to be admired. of God's peculiar people?

And if

so,

would not God appear unjust in taking vengeance Verse 2. APOSTLE. Much every way] The Jews, in refer- and casting us off? ence to the means and motives of obedience, enjoy many I speak as a man] I feel for the situation both of myself and advantages beyond the Gentiles, and principally, because to my countrymen; and it is natural for one to speak as I do. them were committed the oracles of God; that revelation of Verse 6. APOSTLE. God forbid] Mn Yevoito, by no means. his will to Moses and the prophets, containing a treasure of God cannot be unjust ; were he unjust, he could not be excellencies, with which no other part of the world has qualified to judge the world, nor inflict that punishment on been favoured; though they have most grievously abused the unfaithful Jews, to which I refer. these privileges.

Verse 7. Jew. For if the truth of God, &c.] But to reVerse 3. Jew. For thut] Ti yap, what then? if some sume my reasoning, (see verse 5.) If the faithfulness of God did not believe, &c. If some of the Jewish nation have in keeping his promise made to our fathers, is, through our abused their privileges, and acted contrary to their obliga- | unfaithfulness, made far more glorious than it otherwise tions, shall their wiekediness annul the PROMISE which God would have been; why should we then be blamed for that made to Abraham, that he would, by an everlasting cove which must redound so much to the honour of God?

Jews and Gentiles have sinned,

ROMANS.

and there is none righteous.

A. M. cir.4062.
A. D. cir. 58.

A.U.C.cir. 811.

of the way,

8 And not rather, (as we be slan- || 11 There is none that understand. A. M. cir:4069. ch... Olymp; derously reported, and as some affirmeth, there is none that seeketh after A. Olymp. A.U.C.cir.811. that we say,) . Let us do evil, that God. good may come ? whose damnation is just. 12 They are all gone out of the

9 What then ? are we better than they ? No, they are together become unprofitable ; there in no wise: for we have before proved both is none that doeth good, no, not one. Jews and Gentiles, that they are all under 13 Their throat is

open sepulchre; with their tongues they

they have used de10 As it is written, « There is none righteous, ceit ; f the poison of asps is under their no, not one :

lips :

an :

sin;

a Ch. 5. 20. & 6. 1, 15. Gr. charged, ch. 1. 23, &c. & 2. 1, &c.—

over. 23. Gal. 3. 22.

d Ps. 14. 1, 2, 3. & 53. 1. Ps. 5.9. Jer. 5. 16. Ps. 140.3.

Verse 8. APOSTLE.--And not rather, &c.] And why do have either abandoned or corrupted the worship of God: the you not say, seeing you assume this ground, that in all cases Jews, in forsaking the law and the prophets; and the Gentiles, we should do wickedly, because God, by freely pardoning, in acting contrary to the law which God had zoritten on their can so glorify his own grace? This is a most impious sen hearts.

And the departure of both from the truth, proves timent, but it follows from your reasoning; it has indeed the evil propensity of human nature in general. been most injuriously laid to the charge of us apostles, who They are together become unprofitable] HYPE1W97Jay; they preach the doctrine of free pardon, through faith, without the are useless, good for nothing; or, as the Hebrew has it, merit of works; but this is so manifest a perversion of the innka ne-elachu, they are putrid : he views the whole mass truth, that a just punishment may be expected to fall on the of mankind as slain, and thrown together, to putrify in propagators of such a slander.

heaps. This is what is termed the corruption of human Verse 9. JEW—What then?] After all, have not we nature; they are infected and infectious : what need of the Jews a better claim to the privileges of the kingdom of God, mercy of God to save from such a state of degeneracy ! than the Gentiles have?

There is none that doeth good] In ver. 10. it is said, APOSTLE—No, in no wise] For I have already proved that there is none righteous—here, there is none that doeth good: both Jews and Gentiles are under the guilt of sin ; that they the first may refer to the want of a righteous principle ; the 2d, are equally unworthy of the blessings of the Messiah’s king- to the necessary consequence of the absence of such a prindom ; and that they must both, equally, owe their salvation ciple. If there be no righteousness within, there will be no to the mere mercy of God.–From this, to the end of the

acts of goodness without. 26th verse, the apostle proceeds to prove his assertion, that Verse 13. Their throat is an open sepulchre] This, with both Jews and Gentiles were all under sin ; and that he might all the following verses, to the end of the 18th, are found in enforce the conviction upon the heart of the Jew, he quotes the Septuagint, but not in the Hebrew text; and it is most his own scriptures, which he acknowledged had been given evident that it was from this Version that the apostle quoted, by the inspiration of God, and consequently true.

as the verses cannot be found in any other place with so near Verse 10. As it is written] See Psal. xiv. 1, 2, 3. from an approximation to the apostle's meaning and words. The which this, and the two following verses, are taken.

verses in question however, are, not found in the Alexandrian There is none righteous] This is true, not only of the MS. But they exist in the Vulgate, the Æthiopic, and the Jews, but of the Gentiles; of every soul of man considered | Arabic. As the most ancient copies of the Septuagint do in his natural and practical state, previously to his receiving not contain these verses; some contend that the apostle the mercy of our Lord Jesus Christ. There is no righteous has quoted them from different parts of Scripture; and principle in them, and, consequently, no righteous act can later transcribers of the Septuagint, finding that the 10th, be expected from them; see on ver. 12. God himself is re 11th, and 12th verses were quoted from the xivth Psalm, presented as looking down from heaven, to see if there were imagined that the rest were found originally there too, any that feared and sought after him; and yet he, who can- and so incorporated them in their copies, from the apostle's not be deceived, could find none! And therefore, we may text. safely conclude there was none to be found.

Their throat is an open sepulchre-By their malicious and Verse 12. They are all gone out of the way] [Tartes wicked words, they bury, as it were, the reputation of all EEEXNvov; they have all diverged from the right way; they men : the whole of this verse appears to belong to their habit

The wretched and sinful state

CHAP. III.

both of Jews and Gentiles.

cir. CCIX. 2.

are

mouth may

A.M.cir.1062.
14 - Whose mouth is full of cursing

19 Now we know that what things A. 1.C. 55. A. D. cir. 58. An. Olyn p: and bitterness :

soever the law saith, it saith to An. Olymp. cir. CCIX. 2. A.U.C.cir.811. 15 Their feet are swift to shed them who under the law :

A.U.C.cir.811. blood :

that
every mouth

be stopped, and 16 Destruction and misery are in their ways: f all the world may become 6 guilty before 17 And the way of peace have they not God. known :

20 Therefore, "by the deeds of the law there 18 There is no fear of God before their shall no flesh be justified in his sight: for i by eyes.

the law is the knowledge of sin.

1 Ps. 10.7.- Prov, l. 16. Isai. 59. 7,8.-- Ps. 36. I. - John JO. 34. & 15. 25. e Job 5. 16. Ps. 107. 42. Ezek. 16. 63. ch. 1. 20. & 2. 1.

Ver. 9, 23. ch. 2. 2.- Or, subject to the judgment of God.h Ps. 143. 2. Acts 13. 39. Gal. 2. 16. & 3. 11. Eph. 2. 8, 9. Tit. 3. 5.

ch. 7.7.

of lying, defamation, slandering, &r. by which they wounded, the lust of dominion ; the insatiable thirst for money; and the blasted, and poisoned the reputation of others.

desire to be sole and independent. This is the sin that ruined Verse 14. Whose mouth is full of cursing, &c.] They our first parents, expelled them from Paradise ; and which never speak but in profune oaths, blasphemies and malice. has descended to all their posterity; and proves fully, in

Verse 15. Their feet are swifi to shed bloodl] They make contestibly proves, that we are their legitimate offspring ; use of every means in their power, to destroy the reputation the fallen progeny of fallen parents. Children in whose and lives of the innocent.

ways are destruction and misery; in whose heart there is Verse 16. Destruction and misery are in their wuys), no faith ; and before whose eyes there is nothing of the DESTRUCTION is their work, and MISERY to themselves and fear of God. to the objects of their malice, is the consequence of their im Verse 19. What things soerer the law saith] That the pious and murderous conduct.

word law, here, does not mean the pentateuch, is evident Verse 17. And the way of peace have they not known] They from the preceding quotations, not one of which is taken neither have peace in themselves, nor do they suffer others from that work. Either the term luwo must here mean the to live in quiet : they are brooders and fomenters of discord. Jewish writings in general; or that rule of moral conduct

Verse 18. There is no fear of God before their eyes.] which God had given to both Jews and Gentiles : to the This completes their bad character : they are downright former in their own Scriptures; to the latter, in that law atheists, at least practically such. They fear not God's judg. written in their hearts by his own Spirit, and acknowledged ments ; although his eye is upon them in their evil ways. in their written codes, and in their pleadings in every civil There is not one article of what is charged against the Jews case. Now, according to this great law, this rule of moral and Gentiles here, that may not be found justified by the his- conduct, whether given in a written revelation, as to the Jews, tories of both, in the most ample manner. And what was or by the secret inspiration of his Spirit, as in certain cases, true of them in those primitive times, is true of them still. to the Gentiles; every mouth must be stopped, and the whole With very little variation, these are the evils in which the

world, Tas ó xoguos, both Jews and Gentiles, stand convast mass of mankind delight and live. Look especially at victed before God: for all mankind have sinned against men in a state of wurfare ; look at the nations of Europe, this law. who enjoy most of the light of God; see what has taken Verse 20. Therefore, by the deeds of the law] On the place among them, from 1792 to 1814; see what destruction score of obedience to this moral law, there shall no flesh, of millions; and what misery of hundreds of millions, have CU TATU carg, no human being, be justified; none can be been the consequence of Satanic excitement in fallen fero- ' accepted in the sight of God. And why? Because, by the cious passions! O Sin, what hast thou done! How many : luw is the knowledge of sin : it is that which ascertains what myriads of souls hast thou hurried, unprepared, into the sin is; shews how men have deviated from its righteous deeternal world! Who, among men or angels, can estimate mands; and sentences them to death because they have the greatness of this calamity! this butchery of souls!, broken it. Thus the law is properly considered as the rule What widows, what orphans, are left to deplore their sacri of right; and unless God had given some such means of ficed husbands and parents; and their own consequent discovering what sin is ; the darkened heart of man could wretchedness! And whence sprang all this ? From that, never have formed an adequate conception of it. For, as an whence come all wars and fightings; the evil desires of men; acknowledged straight edge is the only way in which the

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