« הקודםהמשך »
The long-suffering of God is intended
to lead men to repentance.
A. V.cir. 1062.
An. Olymp: cir. CCÍX:2.
* forbearance and long-| well doing, seek for glory and honour A. M.c:14062. Au. Olymp; suffering ; not knowing that the and immortality ; eternal life : A.U.C.cir.811. goodness of God leadeth thee to re 8 But unto them that are A.U.C.cir.811. pentance ?
tentious, and f do not obey the truth, 5 But after thy hardness and impenitent heart but obey unrighteousness, indignation and a treasurest up unto thyself wrath against the wrath, day of wrath and revelation of the righteous
the righteous 9 Tribulation and anguish upon every soul judgment of God;
of man that doeth evil, of the Jew 5 first, and 6 Who will render to every man according to also of the Gentile ; his deeds :
10 But glory, honour, and peace, 7 To them, who by patient continuance in every man that worketh
that worketh good, to the Jew
a Ch. 3. 25.-- Exod. 31. 6.- Isai. 30. 18. 2 Pet. 3. 9, 15.e Deut. 32. 31. Jam. 5. 3. -e Job 31. 11. Ps. 62. 12. Prov. 21. 12. Jer. 17. 10. & 32. 19. Matt. 16. 27. ch. 14. 12. Cor. 3. 8. 2 Cor. 5. 10.
Rev. 2. 23. & 20. 12. & 22. 12. Job 24. 13. ch. 1. 18. 2 Thes. 1. 3.
God towards thee, which has given so many superior ad- riches of goodness, in the preceding. As surely as thou des. vantages; and that forbearance which has tolerated thy pisest, or neglectest, to improve the RICHES of God's GOODmany miscarriages : and that long-suffering, which, after Ness, so surely thou shalt share in the TREASURES of his repeated provocations, still continues to bear with thee?
The punishment shall be proportioned to the mercy Not knowing] Ayxowy, not acknowledying, that this good thou hast abused. ness of God, which has so long manifested itself in forbear Verse 6. Who will render] Who, in the day of judg. ance and long-suffering, leadeth thee to repentance; was de- ment, will reward and punish every man according as his life signed to accomplish this blessed end ; which thy want of and conversation have been. consideration and acknowledgment has rendered, hitherto, Verse 7. To them, &c.] In this manner will God, in ineffectual. This was a maxim among the Jews themselves; the great day, dispense punishments and rewards : 1. He for, in Synopsis Sohur it is said, the holy blessed God delays will give eternal life to them, who, in all the trials and difhis anger against the wicked, to the end that they may repent :'ficulties of the present state, have persevered in welland be converted.
doing; seeking for, and expecting glory, honour, and imVerse 5. But after thy hardness] Occasioned by thy mortality. long course of iniquity. And impenitent heurt; produced Verse 8. But unto them, &c.] 2. He will manifest his by thy hardness, through which thou art callous to the calls indignation, and inflict wrath, punishment, on all who are and expostulations of conscience. Treasurest up; con- contentious, who obstinately dispute against the truth, and tinuest to increase thy debt to the Divine justice, which will obey unrighteousness; who act under the influence of the infallibly inflict wrath, punishment, in the day of wrath; the principle of sin, and not under the influence of the Spirit judgment-day, in which he will render to every man accord of God. ing to his works. The word treasure, the Hebrew uses to Verse 9. Tribulation and anguish] Misery of all deexpress any kind of store, or collection :- Treasure, or scriptions without the possibility of escape, will this righteous plenty of rain.
Deut. xxviii. 12, The Lord shall open unto judge inflict upon every impenitent sinner. The Jew first, thee his good TREASURE, to give the Rain unto thy land. as possessing greater privileges; and having abused greater Treasure, of punishment. Deut. xxxii. 34, 35, Is not this mercies: and also on the Gentile, who, though he had not sealed up among my TREASURES? To me belongeth VEN the same advantages, had what God saw was sufficient for his GEANCE and RECOMPENSE. Treasures of mines, i. e. abund-state ; and having sinned against them, shall have punishment ance of minerals. Deut. xxxiii. 19, They shall seek of the proportioned to his demerit. ABUNDANCE of the seas, and of TREASURES hid in the sand. Verse 10. But glory, honour, and peace] While the So treasures of gold, silver, corn, wine, oil, &c. mean col- tinally impenitent Jew and Gentile shall experience the lections, or an abundance of such things; the word is used fullest effects of the righteous indignation of the supreme by the Greek writers precisely in the same sense. By wrath Judge. Every man that worketh good, that lives in a we are to understand punishment, as in chap. i. 18.; and is conscientious obedience to the known will of God, whether used so by the very best Greek writers. See Kypke. he be Jew or Gentile, shall have glory, honour, and
The treasure of wrath, in this verse, is opposed to the peace ; i. e. eternal blessedness.
God is no respecter
A. D. cir. 58.
A. D. cir. 58.
cir. CCÍX. 2.
A. M cir. 4062. first, and also to the · Gentile : before God, but the doers of the law A. M.cir.4062. An. Olymp. cir. CCIX. 2.
An. Olymp. 11 For there is no respect of per- shall be justified. A.U.C.cir.811. sons with God.
14 For, when the Gentiles, which A.U.C.cir.817. 12 For as many as have sinned without law, have not the law, do by nature the things conshall also perish without law : and as many as tained in the law, these, having not the law, are have sinned in the law, shall be judged by the a law unto themselves :
15 Which shew the work of the law written 13 (For, not the hearers of the law are just in their hearts, their conscience also bearing
· Gr. Greek. - Deut. 10. 17. 2 Chron. 19. 7. Job 31. 19. Acts 10. 34.
Gal. 2. 6. Eph. 6. 9. Col. 3. 25. 1 Pet. 1. 17.
• Matt. 7. 21. Jam. 1. 22, 23, 25. 1 John 3.7.- Or, the conscience
witnessing with them.
Verse 11. For, there is no respect of persons with God.]
Verse 13. For, not the hearers of the law, &c.] It does The righteous Judge will not act according to any principle not follow that because one people are favoured with a of partiality; the character and conduct alone, of the per- divine revelation, that therefore they shall be saved; while sons, shall weigh with him. He will take no wicked man to the others, who have not had that revelation, shall finally glory, let his nation or advantages be what they may: and perish : this is not God's procedure ; where he has given a he will send no righteous man to perdition, though brought law, a divine revelation, he requires obedience to that law; up in the very bosom of Gentilism. And as he will judge in and only those who have been doers of that law, who have that day, according to character and conduct; so his judg.lived according to the light and privileges granted in that ment will proceed on the ground of the graces, privileges, revelation, shall be justified ; shall be finally acknowledged and blessings, which they had received, improved or abused to be such as are fit for the kingdom of God. And, as there is no respect of persons with God in judg. Verse 14. For, when the Gentiles, which have not the law, ment; so there can be none in the previous administration of &c.] Nor does it follow that the Gentiles who have not his saving blessings : he that will be condemned for his un- || had a divine revelation, shall either perish, because they had righteousness, will be condemned on the ground that he had it not; or their unrighteous conduct pass unpunished; besufficient grace afforded him for the salvation of his soul : cause, not having this revelation, might be considered an and his condemnation will rest on the simple principle, that excuse for their sins :he abused the grace which was sufficient to save him; by Do by nature the things contained in the lazo] Do without acting in opposition to its dictates and influence No this divine revelation, through that light which God imparts in that great day, shall be brought to heaven through any par- to every man, the things contained in the law, act according tiality of the Judge: and no man sent to hell, because God to justice, mercy, temperance and truth, the practice of did not afford him sufficient grace; or because he had made which the revealed law so powerfully enjoins ; these are a a decree, which rendered even his use of it, ineffectual to his ilaw unto themselves, they are not accountable to any other salvation. In reference to the great design of God, in the law; and are not to be judged by any dispensation different salvation of man; it shall be said, in time, at the day of judg. from that under which they live. ment, and throughout eternity, THERE IS NO
Rabbi Tanchum brings in the Supreme Being as saying
When I have decreed any thing against the Gentiles, to whom Verse 12. For, as many as have sinned without lax, &c.] I have not given laws and statutes, and they know what I They, viz. the Gentiles, who shall be found to have trans- have decreed, immediately they repent; but the Israelites do gressed against the mere light of nature; or rather, that true not so. Tanchum, fol. 43. 2. light that lighteth every man that cometh into the world, Verse 15. Which shew the work of the law] In acting John i. ver. 9. shall not come under the same rule with according to justice, mercy, temperance and truth; they those, the Jews, who have, in addition to this, enjoyed an shew that the great object of the law, which was to bring extraordinary revelation; but they shall be dealt with ac men from injustice, cruelty, intemperance and falsity, is according to the inferior dispensation, under which they lived : complished so far in them: their conscience also bearing witwhilst those, the Jews, who have sinned against the law, the ness; that faculty of the soul, where that divine light dwells positive divine revelation granted to them, shall be judged and works, shews them that they are right; and thus they by that law; and punished proportionably to the abuse of have a comfortable testimony in their own souls, of their such an extraordinary advantage.
own integrity: their thoughts, the mean while accusing, or
PERSONS WITH GOD.
Some morality found
among the Gentiles.
A. D. cir. 58.
A.M.cir.4062. witness, and their thoughts, “the mean 16 "In the day when God shall A.M.cir.1962
en Olyme:2. while, accusing or else excusing one judge the secrets of men by Jesus Ancolume A.U.C.cir.811. another ;)
Christ, according to my gospel.
Or, between themselves.-- Eccles. 12. 14. Matt. 25. 31. John 12. 48.
ch. 3. 6. 1 Cor. 1.5. Rev. 20. 12.
e John 5. 22. Acts 10. 42. & 17. 31. 2 Tim. 4. 1, 8. 1 Pet. 4. 5.
d ch. 16. 25. 1 Tim. 1. 11. 2 Tim. 2. 8.
else excusing, one another; or rather, their reasonings between corruption of man ; but although it is true that man comes one another, accusing or answering for themselves : as if the into the world corrupt, and that all men, since the fall, are apostle had said — And this point, that they have a law, and very far gone from original righteousness, yet it is not clear act according to it, is farther proved from their conduct in that the text in Eph. ii. 3. speaks of any other thing than civil affairs; and from that correct sense which they have of the effects of this degeneracy. nutural justice in their debates, either in their courts of law,
I prefer this sense, in the passage in question, to that which or in their treatises on morality. All these are ample proofs says the light of nature, or natural instinct, is here meant : that God has not left them without light; and that, seeing for I know of no light in nature that is not kindled there by they have such correct notions of right and wrong, they are the grace of God. But I have no objection to this sense, accountable to God for their conduct, in reference to these “ When the Gentiles, which have not the law, do, by the innotions and principles. This seems to be the true meaning of fluence of God upon their hearts, the things contained in the this difficult clause. See below.
law, they are a law unto themselves; that light and influence Verse 16. In the day when God shall judge] And all serving instead of a divine revelation.” That the Gentiles this shall be further exemplified and proved in the day that did really do the things contained in the law, in reference to God shall judge the secrets of men by Jesus Christ; which what is termed natural justice : and made the wisest distinc. judgment shall be according to my gospel; according to tions relative to the great principles of the doctrine of civil what I am now laying down before you, relative to the im- Rights and WRONGS ; every man conversant with their partiality of God, and his righteous procedure în judging men, writings will admit. And in reference to this, the word not according to their opinions or prejudices; not according Puteh, may be legitimately understood thus—they incontesto revelations which they never possessed ; but according to tibly did the things contained in the law, &c. the various advantages or disadvantages of their political, The
passage in ver. 15, their thoughts, accusing or excusreligious, or domestic situation in life.
ing one another, certainly does not refer to any expostulaMuch stress has been laid on the word quoti, by nature, i tions or operations of conscience ; for this is referred to in in ver. 14. as if the apostle designed to intimate that Nature, the preceding clause. The words accusing, xatryogourtwy, independently of the influence of divine grace, possessed and excusing, are no youuerwy, answering or defending, one such principles as were sufficient to guide a man to glory. another ; HETAČU anirawy, among themselves; are all forenBut certainly the term cannot be so understood here. I sic, or lazo terms ; and refer to the mode of condueting suits rather think that the sense given to it in Suicer's Thesaurus, of law in courts of justice, where one is plaintiff, who proVol. II. col. 1475. reipsâ, rererâ, CERTAINLY, TRULY, is its duces his accusation ; another is defendant, who rebretts the sense here: for when the Gentiles, which have not the lux, charge, and defends himself; and then the business is argued ÇUTEL TIOM, Truly, or in effect, do the things contained in the before the judges. This process shews that they have a laro, &c. This seems to be its sense in Galat. iv. 8, When law of their own ; and that to this law it belongs to adjust ye knew not God, ye did service to them which, çurel, CER- differences ; to right those who have suffered wrong; and ta TMNLY are no gods ; i. e. are false gods. Suicer quotes punish the guilty. Cyrit of Alexandria, (sub Anathematismo iii. in Actis Ephe As to the phrase, written in their hearts, it is here opposed sinis, p. 212.) speaking of the union of the two natures in to the Jewish laws, which were written on tables of stone. Christ, he calls this union quoirnn, natural; that is, says he, The Jeżes drew the maxims by which their conduct was reaingth, true, or real. He adds, that the word should be thus gulated from a divine revelation : the Gentiles theirs, from understood in Eph. ii. 3, we were by nature quoel, children what God, in the course of his providence and gracious inof wruth; and says, Ouren, avti Tou, anna ws. Durel, is fluence, had shewn them to be right, useful, and necessary. here used for aan@wsy TAULY; we were TRULY, INCON And with them this law was well known and affectionately TestibuY, the children of wrath, even as others. That is, regarded; for this is one meaning of the phrase zaritten in like the rest of mankind, we have all sinned, and come short the heart. It was from this true light, enlightening the Genof the glory of God; and consequently, are exposed to tiles, that they had so many wise and wholesome laws; laws punishment. Some think that this text refers to the natural which had been among them from time immemoriad ; and of
The self-sufficiency and
unrighteousness of the Jews.
An. Olymp. cir. ccix: 2.
17 Behold, “thou art called a Jew, || ledge and of the truth
in the A-M.cir. 4062.
A. D. cir. 58. and restest in the law, and makest law.
cir. CCIX.2. 4.U.C.eir.811. thy boast of God,
21 Thou therefore which teach- A.U.C.cir.811. 18 And · knowest his will, and Rapprovest' the est another, teachest thou not thyself? thon that things that are more excellent, being instructed preachest a man should not steal, dost thou out of the law;
steal ? 19 And 5 art confident that thou thyself art a 22 Thou that sayest a man should not comguide of the blind, a light of them which are in mit adultery, dost thou commit adultery? darkness,
thou that abhorrest idols, "dost thou commit 20 An instructor of the foolish, a teacher sacrilege? of babes, which hast the form of know 23 Thou that 'makest thy boast of the law,
a Matt. 3.9. John 8. 33. ch. 9. 6, 7. 2 Cor. 11. 29. b Mic. 3. 11. & Matt. 15. 14. & 23. 16, 17, 19, 24. John 9. 34, 40, 41.-obch. 6. 17. ch.9. 4. _ Isai. 45. 25. & 48.2. Jobin 8. 41. a Deut. 4.8. Ps. 147. | 2 Tim. 1. 13. & 3. 5. Ps. 50. 16, &c. Matt. 23. 3, &c. * Mal. 3.8. 19, 20. Le Or, triest the things that differ. Phil. 1. 10.
which they did not know the origin. Thus Sophocles, in in God as the object of your hope and dependance ; you the noble speech which he puts in the mouth of Antigone praise and magnify him; you account it your greatest
honour that he is your God; and that you worship him. τι νυν γε καχθες αλλ' αει ποτε
Verse 18. Knowest his will] Have been favoured with
a revelation of his own will, immediately from himself. “ Not now, nor yesterday, but evermore
The things that are more excellent] Ta diameçovia, the The laws have liv’d: nor know we whence they cane.” things that differ; that revelation which God has given of
Antig. ver. 463–4. himself, makes the nicest distinctions between right and
wrong; between vice and virtue ; shewing how you should These are the laws, Nouruz, which the Spirit of God wrote walk so as to please God; and, consequently, acquire the originally on their hearts; and which, in different forms, most excellent portion that human spirits can have on this they had committed to writing.
side heaven: for all these blessings ye acknowledge to reVerse 17. Behold, thou art called a Jew] What the ceive from your law, being instructed xatn Xouperos, being apostle had said in the preceding verses, being sufficient to catechised from your infancy in the knowledge of divine enforce conviction on the conscience of the Jew, he now things. throws off the cover, and openly argues with him in the most Verse 19. And art confident, &c.] In consequence of plain and nervous manner; asserting that his superior know all these religious advantages, ye believe that ye are able to tedge, privileges and profession, served only to aggravate teach others, and to be guides and lights to the bewildered, his condemnation. And that, in fact, he who under all darkened Gentiles, who may become proselytes to your his greater advantages transgressed the law of God, stood religion. condemned by the honest Gentile, who, to the best of his Verse 20. An instructor of the foolish, &c.] Ye believe knowledge, obeyed it. Dr. Taylor.
the Gentiles to be babes and fools, when compared with your. And restest in the law] Thou trustest in it for thy end. selves: that ye alone possess the only true knowledge ; that tess salvation. The word stavan.Qur, implies the strongest ye are the only favourites of heaven; and that all nations confidence of safety and security. Thou reposest thy whole, must look up to you as possessing the only form of knowBrust and confidence in this law.
ledge, topQwon 775 YYwoews, the grand scheme and draught And makest thy boast of God] That thou knowest his of all true science ; of every thing that is worthy to be nature and attributes, which are not known to the Gentiles. Searned: the system of eternal truth, derived from the law. The word rauxaran, implies the idea of exulting in any If, therefore, ye act not as becomes those who have such thing, as being a proper object of hope and dependance : and, eminent advantages, it must be to your endless disgrace and when referred to God, it points out that he is the sure cause infamy. of hope, dependance, joy, and happiness. And that it is the Verse 21. Thou therefore] Dr. Taylor has paraphrased Wighest honour to be called to know his name, and be em- | this, and the three following verses, thus - What signify ployed in His service. As if the apostle had said, you rejoice your pretensions to knowledge, and the office of teaching
Circumcision unprofitable to
those who break the law.
1. D: C1.53. through breaking the law dishonour
25 For circumcision verily pro- A. o.f.53. An. Olymp: est thou God ?
fiteth, if thou keep the law: but if An Olymp. 24 For the name of God is blas- | thou be a breaker of the law, thy cir- A.U.C.cir.811
. phemed among the Gentiles through you, as it is cumcision is made uncircumcision. a written,
26 Therefore if the uncircumcision keep the
cir. CCIX. 2. A.U.C.cir.811.
• 2 Sam. 12. 14. Isai. 52. 5. Ezek. 36. 20, 23.
o Gal. 5. 3.- Acts 10. 34, 35.
others; if you have no regard to your own doctrine? What them; and that, of all their abominations, the temple was are you the better for preaching against theft, if you are a the receptacle. In his Antiquities of the Jews, b. xx. c. 8. thief yourself? Or for declaring adultery unlawful, if you he says, The servants of the high-priests took away, by live in the practice of it? Or for representing idolatry violence, the tythes of the priests, so that many of them abominable, if you are guilty of sacrilege? What honours, || perished for want of food. Even their own writers acknow. or singular favours, do you deserve, if, while you glory in the || ledge that there were great irregularities and abominations law and your religious privileges, you dishonour God, and among the rabbins. discredit his religion by transgressing his law, and living in So Bereshith rabba, sect. 55. fol. 54.—“ Rabbi Abun open contradiction to your profession ? And this is more proposed a parable concerning a master, who taught his disthan supposition ; notorious instances might be produced ofciple not to pervert justice, and yet did it himself ; not to the fore-mentioned crimes, whereby the Jews of the present shew respect of persons, and yet did it himself; not to reage have brought a reproach upon religion among the Gen-ceive bribes, and yet received them himself; not to take tiles; as well as those Jews of former times, of whom the usury, and yet took it himself: the disciple replied prophet Ezekiel speaks, chap. xxxvi. 23, And I will sanctify Rabbi, thou teachest me not to take usury, and yet thou my great name, which was PROFANED among the HEATHEN; takest it thyself! Can that be lawful to thee which is forwhich ye have PROFANED in the midst of them."
bidden to me.?" That the Jewish priesthood was exceedingly corrupt in Verse 24. For the name of God is blasphemed, &c.] In the time of the apostle, and that they were so, long be- || Debarim rabba, sect. 2. fol. 251. it is said, “6 The rulers fore, is fully evident from the Sacred Writings, and from destroy the influence of their own words among the people; Josephus. The high-priesthood was a matter of commerce; and this is done, when a rabbin, sitting and teaching in the and was bought and sold like other commodities. Of this, || academy, says—do not take usury, and himself takes it; Josepbas gives many instances. The rapine of Eli's sons do not commit rapine, and himself commits it; do not steal, descended to several generations. Dr. Whitby well ob- and himself steals.” That they were exceedingly lax in serves, that of all these things mentioned by the apostle, their morals, the following fact proves : “Rabbi Ilai said, if the Jewish doctors were notoriously guilty; and of most of a man see that his evil propensities are likely to prevail them they were accused by our Lord. 1. They suid and against him, let him go to some place where he is not known, did not ; and laid heavy burthens upon others, which they and let him put on black clothes, and cover his head with a would not touch with their own fingers. Matt. xxiii. || black veil ; and then let him do whatsoever he pleases, lest the 3, 4.2. They made the house of God a den of thieves, || name of God should be publicly profaned.” Moed katon, Matt. xxi. 13. John ii. 16. 3. They were guilty of adultery, fol. 17. 1. In Sohar levit. fol. 31. col. 122. it is said, by unjust divorces, Matt. xix. 9. 4. Their polygamy was “On three accounts the Jews are obliged to remain in capscandalous : even their rabbins, when they came to any tivity-. Because they openly reproach the Shechinahplace, would proclaim Who will be my wife for a day? As || 2. Because they profane themselves before the Shechinahto idolatry, they were perfectly saved from it, ever since the 3. Because they turn away their faces from the Shechinah.” Babylonish captivity : but to this succeeded sacrilege, as is But it would be endless to collect from their history, the most evident in the profanation of the temple, by their com-proofs of the charges brought here against them by the merce transacted even within its courts. And their teaching apostle. See Whitby, Schoettgen and others. the people that even their aged parents might be left to Verse 25. For circumcision verily profiteth] It is a blessstarve, provided the children made a present to the temple, of ing to belong to the church of God, and wear the sign of the that which should have gone for their support. According covenant; provided the terms of the covenant are complied with. to Josephus, Bell. Jud. I. vi. c. 26. they were guilty of But if thou be a breaker of the law] If thou do not theft, treachery, adultery, sacrilege, rupine, and murder. observe the conditions of the covenant; the outward sigo is And he adds, that new ways of wickedness were invented by both without meaning and without effect. This was a mas.