« הקודםהמשך »
The Jews move
Festus against Pau.
A. M.cir, 406S.
An. Olymp. cir. CCX. 2.
A. D. cir. 62.
OW when Festus was come kept at Cæsarea, and that he himself A. M. cir. 4066.
into the province, after three would depart shortly thither.
days he ascended from Cæsarea to 5 Let them therefore, said he, which cir. ccx. 2 Jerusalem.
among you are able, go down with me, and ac2 . Then the high priest and the chief of the cuse this man, if there be any wickedness in Jews informed him against Paul, and besought him. him,
6 And when he had tarried among them more 3 And desired favour against him, that he than ten days, he went down. unto Cæsarea ; would send for him to Jerusalem, laying wait and the next day, sitting on the judgment seat, in the way to kill him.
commanded Paul to be brought. 4 But Festus answered, that Paul should be 7 And when he was come, the Jews which
• Ch. 24. 1. ver. 15.- ch. 23. 12, 15. sh. 18. 14. ver. 18.
& Or, as some copies read, no more than eight or ten days.
NOTES ON CHAP. XXV.
he did; and thus disappointed the malice of the Jews, and Verse 1. Now when Festus was come into the province] | fulfilled his own gracious design. By the province is meant Judea ; for after the death of He. Hle--would depart shortly]. So had the providence of rod Agrippa, Claudius thought it imprudent to trust the go- God disposed matters, that Festus was obliged to return vernment in the hands of his son Agrippa, who was then speedily to Cæsarea ; and thus had not time to preside in but seventeen years of age : therefore Cuspius Fadus was such a trial at Jerusalem. And this reason must appear sufsent to be procurator. And when afterwards Claudius had | ficient to the Jews ; and especially, as he gave them all ligiven to Agrippa the tetrarchate of Philip, that of Bataneaberty to come and appear against him, who were able to prove and Abila, he nevertheless kept the province of Judea more the alleged charges. immediately in his own hands, and governed it by procurators Verse 5. Let them--which among you are able] 'O sent from Rome. Josep. Ant. l. xx. cap. 7. sect. 1. Felix being ourato those who have authority; for so is this word often removed, Porcius Festus is sent in his place; and having come used by good Greek authors, and by Josephus. Festys seems to Cæsarea, where the Roman governor generally had his resi- || to have said : “ I have heard clamours from the multitude dence, after he had tarried three days, he went up to Jerusa- relative to this man ; but on such clamours, no accusation lem, to acquaint himself with the nature and complexion of should be founded : yourselves have only the voice of the the ecclesiastical government of the Jews; no doubt, for the multitude as the foundation of the request which you now purpose of the better administration of justice among them. make. I cannot take up accusations which may affect the
Verse 2. The high priest-informed him against Paul life of a Roman citizen, on such pretences. Are there any They supposed that, as Felix, to please them, on the resig- respectable men among you ; men in office and authority, nation of his government, had left Paul bound; so Festus, whose character is a pledge for the iruth of their depositions, on the assumption of it, would, to please them, deliver him who can prove any thing against him? If so, let these into their hand : but as they wished this to be done under come down to Cæsarea, and the cause shall be tried before the colour of justice, they exhibited a number of charges me, and thus we shall know whether he be a malefactor against Paul, which they hoped would appear to Festus al or not.” sufficient reason why a new trial should be granted ; aud he Verse 6. When he had tarried-more than ten days] The be sent to Jerusalem to take this trial. Their motive is men- strungeness of this mode of expression suggests the thought, tioned in the succeeding verse.
that our printed text is not quite correct in this place; and Verse 4. Festus answered, that Paul should be kept at this suspicion is confirmed by an examination of MSS. and Cæsarea] It is truly astonishing that Festus should refuse Versions : quecas OU TI NELOUS OXTW dena not more than this favour to the heads of the Jewish nation, which, to EIGHT on ten days, is the reading of ABC, several others those who were not in the secret, must appear so very rea- of great respectability, with the Coptic, Armenian, and sonable; and especially, as, on his coming to the government, Mulgate. Griesbach admits this reading into the text, and it might be considered an act that was likely to make him of it, professor White says, Lectio indubiè genuina : “ This popular; and he could have no interest in denying their is doubtless the genuine reading." request. But God had told Paul, that he should testify of Verse 7. The Jewsmaid many und grievous complaints bim at Rome; and he disposed the heart of Festus to act as || against Paul] As they must have perceived that the Roman
Paul answers for
himself before Festus.
A. D. cir. 62.
A. D. cir. 62.
came down from Jerusalem stood || to Jerusalem, and there be judged of A.M. Cor. 4086. "An. Olymp. round about, and laid many and these things before me? cir. ccx. *• grievous complaints against Paul,
10 Then said Paul, I stand at Cæsar's cir. ccx. 2. which they could not prove.
judgment-seat, where I ought to be judged : to 8 I While he answered for himself, Neither the Jews have I done no wrong, as thou very against the law of the Jews, neither against the well knowest. temple, nor yet against Cæsar, have I offended 11 For if I be an offender, or have comany thing at all.
mitted any thing worthy of death, I refuse 9 But Festus, willing to do the Jews a plea- || not to die : but if there be none of those sure, answered Paul, and said, “Wilt thou go up things whereof these accuse me, no man may
Mark 15. 3. Luke 23. 2, 10. ch. 24. 5, 13.bch. 6. 13. & 21. 12. &
c Ch. 24. 27. ver. 20.-- ver. 25.
ch. 18. 14. & 23. 29. &
governors would not intermeddle with questions of their law, | punishment, I do not wish to save my life by subterfuges ; &c. they no doubt invented some new charges, such as scdi- I am before the only competent tribunal; here my business tion, treason, &c. in order to render the mind of the go- should be ultimately decided. vernor evil affected towards Paul; but their malicious de No man may deliver me unto them.] The words of the signs were defeated, for assertion would not go for proof || apostle are very strong and appropriate. The Jews asked as before a Roman tribunal : this court required proof, and a favour, yuply, from Festus, that he would send Paul to the blood thirsty persecutors of the apostle could produce none. Jerusalem, ver. 3. Festus, willing to do the Jews xapw this
Verse 8. While he unstered for himself] In this in- favour, asked Paul if he would go to Jerusalem, and there stance St. Luke gives only a general account, both of the be judged, ver. 9. Paul says, I have done nothing amiss accusations and of St. Paul's defence. But, from the words either against the Jews or against Cæsar, therefore no man, in this verse, the charges appear to have been threefold. με δυναται αυτοις χαρισασθαι, can make a PRESENT of me 1. That he had broken the law. 2. That he had defiled the to them; that is, favour them so far as to put my life into temple. 3. That he dealt in treasonable practices : to all their hands, and thus gratify them by my death. Festus, in his of which he no doubt answered particularly; though we address to Agrippa, ver. 16. admits this, and uses the same form have nothing further here than this, Neither against the law of speech: It is not the custom of the Romans xa posechat of the Jews, neither against the temple, nor yet against Cæsar, I gratuitously, to give up any one, &c. Much of the beauty of have I offended any thing at all.
this passage is lost, by not attending to the original words. Verse 9. Willing to do the Jews a pleasure] This was See on ver. 16. merely to please them, and conciliate their esteem ; for he I appeal unto Cæsar.] A freeman of Rome, who had knew, that as Paul was a Roman citizen, he could not oblige been tried for a crime, and sentence passed on him, had a him to take a new trial at Jerusalem.
right to appeal to the emperor, if he conceived the sentence Verse 10. I stand at Cæsar's judgment-seat] Every to be unjust; but even before the sentence was pronounced, procurator represented the person of the emperor in the pro- he had the privilege of an appeal in criminal cases, if he vince over which he presided ; and, as the seat of govern- conceived that the judge was doing any thing contrary to the ment was at Cæsarea, and Paul was now before the tribunal laws. Ante sententiam appellari potest in criminali negotio, on which the emperor's representative sat; he could say, with si juder contra leges hoc fuciat.-Grotius. the strictest propriety, that he stood before Cæsar's judgment An appeal to the emperor was highly respected. The seat, where, as a freeman of Rome, he should be tried. Julian law condemned those magistrates, and others having
As thou very well knowest.] The record of this trial be- authority, as violaters of the public peace, who had put to fore Felix, was undoubtedly left for the inspection of Festus ; death, tortured, scourged, imprisoned, or condemned any for, as he left the prisoner to his successor, he must also | Roman citizen who had appealed to Cæsar. Lege Juliá de leave the charges against him, and the triul which he hadri publica damnatur, qui aliqua potestate præditus, Cirem Roundergone. Besides, Festus must be assured of his inno- munum ad Imperatorem appellantem necurit, necaride jusserit, cence, from the trial through which he had just now torserit, verberaverit, condemnaverit, in publica vincula duci passed.
jusserit. Pauli Recept. Sent. lib. v. t. 26. Verse 11. For if I be an offender] If it can be proved This law was so very sacred and imperative, that, in the that I bave broken the laws, so as to expose me to capital persecution under Trajan, Pliny would not attempt to put to
Festus confers with the council,
and admits Paul's appeal to Cæsar.
A. D. cir. 62.
A.M.cir. 4066. deliver me unto them. * I appeal | Bernice came unto Cæsarea to salute A. M. cir. 4065.
An. Olymp. cir. CCX. 2.
12 Then Festus, when he had con 14 And when they had been there cir. Cox. 2 ferred with the council, answered, Hast thou many days, Festus declared Paul's cause unto thie appealed unto Cæsar ? unto Cæsar shalt thou king, saying, “There is a certain man left in go.
bonds by Felix : 13 I And after certain days king Agrippa and 15 ° About whom, when I was at Jerusalem,
• Ch. 26. 32. & 28. 19.
• Ch.21. 27.
ne ver. 2, 3.
death Roman citizens who were proved to have turned Chris. s. 8, 11. This king was strongly attached to the Rotians; hence in his letter to 'Trajan, lib. x. Ep. 97. he says, mans, and did every thing in his power to prevent the Fuerunt alii similis amentiæ, quos quia cives Romani erant, Jews from rebelling against the Romans; and, when he annotavi in urbem remitiendos. “There were others guilty of could not prevail, he united his troops to those of Titus, similar folly, whom, finding them to be Roman citizens, I and assisted in the siege of Jerusalem : he survived the have determined to send to the city.” Very likely these had ruin of his country several years; see Bishop Pearce and appealed to Cæsar.
Calmet. Verse 12. Conferred with the council] From this cir Bernice, or as she is sometimes called Berenice, was sister cumstance, we may learn, that the appeal of Paul to Cæsar of this Agrippa, and of the Drusilla, mentioned chap. xxiv, was conditional ; else Festus could not have deliberated with She was at first married to her uncle llerod, king of Chalcis, bis council whether it should be granted; for he had no Jos. Antiq. lib. xix. cap. 9. s. 1. and, on his death, went power to refuse to admit such an appeal. We may, there to live with her brother Agrippa, with whom she was fore, understand Paul thus : “ I now stand before a tribunal violently suspected to lead an incestuous life. Juvenal, as where I ought to be judged ; if thou refuse to hear and try | usual, mentions this in the broadest manner-Sat. vi. ver. this cause ; rather than go to Jerusalem, I appeal to Cæsar.” | 155:Festus, therefore, consulted with the council, whether he Deinde Adamus notissimus, et Berenices should proceed to try the cause, or send Paul to Rome; and In digito factus pretiosior: hunc dedit olim it appears that the majority were of opinion that he should Barbarus incestæ, dedit hunc Agrima sorori. be sent to Cæsar,
Ilast thou appealed unto Cæsar, &c.] Rather, Thou hast “Next, a most valuable diamond, rendered more precious by appealed unto Cæsar, and to Cæsar thou shalt go. The being put on the finger of Berenice, a barbarian gave it to this Jews were disappointed of their hope ; and Festus got incestuous woman formerly; and Agrippa gave this to his his hand creditably drawn out of a business with which he sister.” Josephus mentions the report of her having criminal was likely to have been greatly embarrassed.
conversation with her brother Agrippa, 47/1975 ETICYOU TYS, Verse 13. King Agrippa) This was the son of Ilerod 07. r'zonow GUVYE: To shield herself from this scandal, she Agrippa, who is mentioned chap. xii. 1. Upon the death of persuaded Polemo, king of Cilicia, to embrace the Jewish his father's youngest brother Herod, he succeeded him in the religion, and marry her; this he was induced to do, on ackingdom of Chalcis, by the favour of the emperor Claudius ; | count of her great riches; but she soon left him, and he reJos. Antig. lib. xx. cap. 4. s. 2. and Bell. lib. ii. cap. 12. volted to heathenism ; see Jos. Autiq. lib. xx. cap. vii. s. 3.
Afterwards, Claudius removed him from that king. After this, she lived often with her brother, and her life was dom to a larger one, giving him the Tetrarchy of Philip, by no means creditable; she had, however, address to ingrawhich contained Trachonitis, Batanea, and Gaulonitis. lle tiate herself with Titus Vespasian, and there were even gave him, likewise, the Tetrarchy of Lysanias, and the pro- rumours of her becoming empress ------ propterque insigneni vince which Varus had governed, Jos. Antiq. lib. xx. cap. 6. i reginæ Berenices amorem, cui etiam nuptias pollicitus feres. 1. Beil. lib. ii. cap. 12. s. 8. Nero made a further addi- batur-Suet. in Vit. Titi. Which was prevented by the tion, and gave him four cities, Abila, Julias in Peræa, Tari. murmurs of the Roman people : Berenicen statim ab urbe chææ, and Tiberias in Galileo; Jos. Antiq. lib. xx. cap. 7. dimisit
, incitus invitam-Ibid. Tacitus also, list. lib. ii. S. 4. Bell. lib. ii. cap. 13. s. 2. Claudius gave him the cap. 1. speaks of her love intrigue with Titus. From all power of appointing the high-priest among the Jews; Joseph. accounts she must have been a woman of great address; and, Antiq. lib. xx. cap. 1. s. 3. and instances of his exercising upon the whole, an exceptionable character. this power may be seen in Joseph. Antiq. lib. xx. cap. 7. Verse 14. Declared Paul's causc unto the king] Festus
Festus states the case of
Paul to king Agrippa.
An. Olymp. cir. CCX. 2.
cir. CCX. 2.
A, M.cir.1066. the chief priests and the elders of the without any delay, on the morrow An. Olymp. Jews informed me, desiring to have I sat on the judgment-seat, and judgment against him.
commanded the man to be brought 16 « To whom I answered, it is not the man- | forth. ner of the Romans to deliver any man to die,
18 Against whom, when the accusers stood up, before that he which is accused have the ac- they brought none accusation of such things as cusers face to face, and have licence to an- I supposed : swer for himself, concerning the crime laid || 19
19 · But had certain questions against him of against him.
their own superstition, and of one Jesus, which 17 Therefore, when they were come hither,
was dead, whom Paul affirmed to be alive.
knew that Agrippa was better acquainted with such matters or not guilty. Ilere, in this favoured country, are no than he was; and he wished, in some sort, to make him a arbitrary imprisonments-no bastiles--no lettres de cachet. party in this business.
Ler facit Regem : the law makes the king, says Bracton, Verse 15. Desiring to have judgment against him.] In- and the king is the grand executor and guardian of the stead of dixny judgment, zarzątny, condemnation, sentence of laws-laws, in the eyes of which, the character, property, death, is the reading of ABC. and several others; which is and life of every subject, are sacred. probably genuine. This is evidently the meaning of the Verse 18. They brought none accusation of such things as place, whichever reading we prefer. Nothing could satisfy | I supposed] It was natural for Festus, at the first view of these men but the death of the apostle. It was not justice things, to suppose that Paul must be guilty of some very they wanted, but his destruction.
atrocious crime. When he found that he had been twice Verse 16. It is not the manner of the Romans to deliver snatched from the hands of the Jews; that he had been any man to die] Xapišeobai Tiva av9swr.ov, to MAKE A PRE brought to Cæsarea as a prisoner, two years before; that he SENT of any man; gratuitously to give up the life of any had been tried once before the sanhedrin, and once before man, through facour or caprice. Here is a reference to the the governor of the province ; that he had now lain two subject discussed on verse 11.
years in bonds, aud that the high priest and all the heads of Before that, he which is accused, have the accusers face to the Jewish nation had united in accusing him, and whose face, &c.] For this righteous procedure, the Roman laws condemnation they loudly demanded; when, I say, he conwere celebrated over the civilized world. Appian, in his sidered all-this, it was natural for him to suppose the apostle to Hist. Roman. says, cu Ti RTLIOY opioi anfitns xatadinateofas. be some flagitious wretch ; but when he had tried the case, and It is not their custom to condemn men before they have been heard their accusations and his defence, how surprised was heard. And Philo De Præsid. Rom. says, Tote YOp xoivous he to find, That scarcely any thing that amounted to a crime εαυτους παρεχοντες δικαςας εξ ισου, και των κατηγορων και was laid to his charge; and that nothing that was laid to his απολογούμενων ακουομενοι, μηδενος ακριτου προκαταγινωσ- charge could be proted! κειν αξιουντες, εβραβευον ουτε προς εχθραν, ουτε προς χαριν, Verse 19. Questions of their own superstition] ITest 77,5 αλλα προς την φυσιν της αληθειας τα δοξαντα ειναι δικαια. ιδιας δεισιδαιμονιας ; φuestions concerning their oιn religion. “For then, by giving sentence in common, and hearing im- Superstition meant something as bad among the Romans, as partially both plaintiff and defendant, not thinking it right to it does among us; and is it likely that Festus, only a procondemn any person unheard, they decided as appeared to curator, should thus speak to Agrippa, a King, concerning them to be just ; without either enmity or favour, but accord- his own religion? He could not have done so without offering ing to the merits of the case.”-Sce Bp. Pearce. England the highest insult. The word asioidaip.ovidt must therefore can boast such laws, not only in her statute-books, but in simply mean Religion; the national creed, and the national constant operation in all her courts of justice. Even the ! worship, as I leave at large proved it to mean, in the obserking himself, were he so inclined, could not imprison, nor'; vations at the end of chap. xvii. punish a man without the regular procedure of the law; And of one Jesus, which wus dead, &c.] In this way does and twelve honest men, before whom the evidence has been this poor heathen speak of the death and resurrection of adduced, the case argued, and the law laid down and ex-Christ! There are many who profess Christianity that do plained, are ultimately to judge whether the man be guilty || not appear to be much farther enlightened.
Agrippa desires to hear Paul ;
he is accordingly brought before him.
A.M. cir. 4066.
cir. CCX. 2.
20 And because I doubted of such man, about whom all the multitude A. M.cir. 4066.
A. D. cir. 62. manner of questions ; I asked him of the Jews have dealt with me, both An. Olymp. cir. CCX... whether he would go to Jerusalem, at Jerusalem, and also here, crying, and there be judged of these matters.
that he ought. not to live any longer. 21 But when Paul had appealed to be reserved
25 But when I found that he had committed unto the hearing of Augustus, I commanded nothing worthy of death, 5 and that he himself him to be kept till I might send him to Cæsar. hath appealed to Augustus, I have determined
22 Then · Agrippa said unto Festus, I would to send him. also hear the man myself. To-morrow, said he, 26 Of whom I have no certain thing to write thou shalt hear him.
unto my lord. Wherefore, I have brought him 23 1 And on the morrow, when Agrippa was forth before you, and specially before thee, O come, and Bernice, with great pomp, and was king Agrippa, that, after examination had, I entered into the place of hearing, with the chief might have somewhat to write. 'captains, and principal men of the city; at Fes 27 For it seemeth to me unreasonable to send tus' commandment, Paul was brought forth. a prisoner, and not withal to signify the crimes
24 And Festus said, King Agrippa, and all laid against him. men which are here present with us, ye see this
* Or, I was doubtful how lo enquire hereof. Or, judgment.
e See ch. 9. 15.
4 Ver. 2, 3, 7. • ch. . .– ch. 2s. 9, 29, & 26. 31.
& Ver. 11. 12.
Verse 20, I doubted of such manner of questions] Such before, their father, for his PRIDE, was smitten of God, and as, whether he had broken their law, defiled their temple ; eaten up by worms! How seldom do the living lay any of or, whether this Jesus, who was dead, was again raised God's judgments to heart ! to life?
The place of hearing] A sort of audience-chamber, in Verse 21. Unto the hearing of Augustus] E15 TYY TOU the palace of Festus. This was not a trial of Paul; there Le casou grayywc1v; to the discrimination of the emperor. were no Jews present to accuse him, and he could not be For, although 062505 is usually translated Augustus, and tried but at Rome, as he had appealed to Cæsar. These the Roman emperors generally assumed this epithet, which grandees wished to hear the man speak of his religion, and signifies no more than the venerable, the august; yet here it in his own defence, through a principle of curiosity. seems to be used merely to express
Verse 26. I have no certain thing to write] Nothing al. reference to any of his attributes or titles.
leged against him has been substantiated. Verse 22. I would also hear the man myself.] A spirit Unto my lord] The title Kuçios Dominus, Lord, both of curiosity, similar to that of Herod, Luke xxiii. 8. Augustus and Tiberius had absolutely refused; and forbad,
As Herod, the father of this Agrippa, had been so active | even by public edicts, the application of it to themselves. an instrument in endeavouring to destroy Christianity, hav. | Tiberius himself was accustomed to say, that he was lord ing killed James, and was about to have put Peter to death only of his slaves, emperor or general of the troops, and also, had not God sent him to his own place; there is no prince of the senate. See Suetonius, in his life of this doubt that Agrippa had heard much about Christianity : and prince. The succeeding emperors were not so modest : they as to St. Paul, his conversion was so very remarkable, that affected the title. Nero, the then emperor, would have it; his name, in connection with Christianity, was known not and Pliny the younger is continually giving it to Trajan, in only throughout Judea, but through all Asia Minor and his letters. Greece. Agrippa, therefore, might naturally wish to see Verse 27. For it seemeth to me unreasonable, &c.] Every and hear a man, of whom he had heard so much.
reader must feel the awkward situation in which Festus Verse 23. With great pomp] Meta Tonirs Parracias ; || stood. He was about to send a prisoner to Rome, to appear with much phantasy, great splendour, great parade, superb before Nero, though he had not one charge to support against alendance, or splendid retinue : in this sense the Greek word him; and yet he must be sent, for he had appealed to Cæsar, is used by the best writers. Wetstein has very justly re He hoped therefore that Agrippa, who was of the Jewish marked, that these children of Herod the Great, made this religion, would be able to discern more particularly the pompous appearance in that very city where, a few years merits of this case ; and might, after hearing Paul, direct