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821

4052 3808 4053 3809 4054

3810 4055

3811 4056

3812 4057 3813 4058 3814 4059 3815 4060 3816 4061 3817 4062 3818 4063 3819 4064 3820 4065 3821 4066

3822 4067 3823 4068 3824 4069 3825 4070

3826 4071 3827 4072 3828 4073 3829 4074

3830 4075 3831 4076

3832 4077

3833 4078 3834 4079 3835 4080

3836 4081

3837 4082 3838 4083 3839 4084 38-40 4085 38 11 4086 3842 4087 3813 4088 3841 4089 3845 4090 38 16 4091 38 17 4092 38 18 4093 38 19 4094 3850 4095 3851 4096 3852 4097 3853 4098 3854 4099 3855 4100 3856 4101 3857 4102 3658 4103 3859 4104 | 3860

795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 801 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 821 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 831 835 836 837 838 839 810 811 812 813 814 815 8 16 817

807
808
809
810
811
812
813
814
815
816
817
818
819
820
821
822
823
821
825
826
827
828
829
830
831
832
833
831
835
8.36
837
838
839
810
811
812
813
814
815
8 16
817
818
819
850
851

821 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 831 835 836 837 838 839 8-10 811 842 813 811 845 816 817 818 819 850 851 852

801 A.D.48
802 49
803 50
801 51
805 52
806 53
807 5+
808 55
809 56
810 57
811

58
812

59 813

60 811 61 815

62 816

63 817

64 818 65 819

66 820

67

68 822

69 823 70 824 71 825

72 826.

73 827 74 828

75 829

76 830

77 831

78 832 79 833

80 834 81 835 82 836 83 837

84 838 85 839 86 810 87 841

88
812 89
813 90
811 91
815

92
816 93
817 91
818 95
819
850 97
851 98
852 99
853 100

Aulus Vitellius, and Q. Vipsanius Publicola
A. Pompeius Longinus Gallus, and Q. Veranius
C. Antistius Vetus, and M. Suillius Nervilianus
Tib. Claudius Aug. V., and Serv. Corn. Ostitus
Publ. Corn. Sylla Faustus, and Lucius Salvius Otho Titianus
Decimus Junius Silanus, and Quintus Haterius Antoninus
M. Asinius Marcellus, and Manius Acilius Aviola
Nero Aug., and L. Antistius Vetus
Q. Volusius Saturninus, and P. Cornelius Scipio
Nero Aug. II., and L. Calpurnius Piso
Nero Aug. III., and Valerius Messala
L. Vipstanus Apronianus, and L. Fonteius Capito
Nero Aug. IV., and Cossus Cornelius Lentulus
C. Cæsonius Patus, and C. Petronius Turpilianus
P. Marius Celsus, and L. Asinius Gallus
C. Memmius Regulus, and L. Verginius Rufus
C. Lecanius Bassus, and M. Licinius Crassus
A. Licinius Nerva Silanus, and M. Vestinius Atticus
C. Lucius Telesinus, and C. Suetonius Paulinus
C. Fonteius Capito II., and C. Julius Rufus
C. Silius Italicus, and M. Galerius Trachalus
Serv. Sulpicius Galba Aug. II., and T. Vinius Rufinus
Titus Fl. Vespasianus Aug. II., and Titus Cæsar
Flav. Vespasianus Aug. III., and M. Cocceius Nerva
Vespasianus Aug. IV., and Titus Cæsar II.
Domitianus Cæsar II., and M. Valerius Messalinus
Vespasianus Aug. V., and Titus Cæsar III.
Vespasianus Aug. VI., and Titus Cæsar IV.
Vespasianus Aug. VII., and Titus Cæsar V.
Vespasianus Aug. VIII., and Titus Cæsar VI.
L. Ceionius Commodus, and Decimus Novius Priscus
Vespasianus Aug. IX., and Titus Cæsar VII.
Titus Aug. VII., and Domitianus Cæsar VII.
Lucius Flavius Silva Nonius Bassus, and Asinius Pollio Verrucosus
Domitianus Aug. VIII., and T. Flavius Sabinus
Domitianus Aug. IX., and Q. Petilius Rufus II.
Domitianus Aug. X., and Sabinus
Domitianus Aug. XI., and T. Aurelius Fulvus or Fulvius
Domitianus Aug. XII., and Ser. Corn. Dolabella Metellianus
Domitianus Aug. XIII., and A. Volusius Saturninus
Domitianus Aug. XIV., and L. Minucius Rufus
T. Aurelius Fulvus II., and A. Sempronius Attratinus
Domitianus Aug. XV., and M. Cocceius Nerva II.
M. Ulpius Trajanus, and M. Acilius Glabrio
Domitianus Aug. XVI., and Q. Volusius Saturninus
Pompeius Collega, and Cornelius Priscus
L. Nonius Torquat. Asprenas, and T. Sex. Magius Lateranus
Domitianus Aug. XVII., and T. Flavius Clemens
C. Antistius Vetus, and C. Manlius Valens
Nerva Aug. III., and L. Verginius Rufus III.
Nerva Aug. IV., and M. Ulpius Trajanus Cæsar II.
A. Cornelius Palma, and C. Sosius Senecio
Trajanus Aug. III., and M. Corn. Fronto III.

96

APPENDIX TO TABLE II.

List of the years in which the Consuls were either changed, before the end of their term, or died while in office ;

together with the names of the Consuls who succeeded.

A. D.

7. P. Corn. Lent. Scipio and T. Qu. Crisp. Valerianus, July 1.
8. Lucius Apronius and Aul. Vibius Habitus, July 1.
9. M. Papius Mutilus and Q. Poppæus Secundus, July 1.
10. Serv. Corn. Lent. Maluginensis, July 1.
11. L. Cass. Longinus, July 1.
12. C. Visellius Varro, July 1.
16. P. Pomponius Græcinus, July 1.
18. L. Seius Tubero and C. Rubellius Blandus,
22. M. Cocc. Nerva and C. Vibius Rufinus.
23. Q. Jun. Blæsus succeeded to Pollio, July 1.
26. Q. Marcius Barea and T. Rustius Nummus Gallus, July 1.
29. Aulus Plautius and L. Nonius Asprenas, July 1.
30. C. Cassius Longinus and L. Nævius Surdinus, July 1.

31. Faust. Corn. Sylla and Sex. Tidius or Sextidius Catull. May 9; L. Fulcinius Trio, July 1; Pub. Memmius Regulus, October 1.

32. A. Vitellius succeeded to M. Furius Camillus Scribonianus, July 1.
33. L. Salvius Otho succeeded to Galba, July 1.
37. C. Caligula Imp. and Tiber. Claudius, July 1.

39. M. Sanquinius succeeded to Caius, Feb. 1; Cn. Domitius Corbulo, July 1; Domitius Africanus, or Afer, August 31.

41. Q. Pomponius Secundus succeeded Caius, January 7.
44. Manius Æmilius Lepidus succeeded Crispinus II.
46. Velleius Rufus and Ostorius Scapula.
48. L. Vitellius, July 1.
49. L. Memmius Pollio and Q. Allius Maximus, May 1.
51. C. Minutius Fundanus and C. Vettennius Severus, July 1; Titus Flavius Vespasianus, Nov. I.
62. L. Annæus Seneca and Trebellius Maximus, July 1.
65. Anicius Cerealis succeeded Vestinius, July 1.

69. Salvius Otho Aug. and L. Salv. Otho Titianus, Jan. 15; L. Verginius Rufus and Vopiscus Pompeius
Silvanus, March 1; Titus Arrius Antoninus and P. Marius Celsus II. May 1; C. Fabius Valens and Aulus
Alienus Cæcina, Sept. 1; Roscius Regulus succeeded Cæcina, Oct. 31 ; Cn. Cæcilius Simplex and C. Quintius
Atticus, Nov. 1.

70. M. Licinius Mutianus and Publius Valerius Asiaticus, July 1; L. Annius Barsus and C. Cæcina Pætus, Nov. 1.

71. Flav. Domitianus Cæsar I. and Cn. Pædius Castus, March 1.
74. Domitianus Cæsar III. succeeded Titus, July 1.
75. Domitianus Cæsar IV. and M. Licinius Mutianus III. July 1.
76. Domitianus Cæsar V. and T. Plautius Silvanus II. July 1.
77. Domitianus Cæsar VI. and Cn. Jul. Agricola, July 1.
79. M. Titius Frugi and Vitius Vinius or Vinidianus Julianus, July 1.
83. C. Valer. Messalinus succeeded Rufus.
94. L. Serg. Paullus succeeded Lateranus.
97. Cornelius Tacitus succeeded Rufus.

TABLE III.

CHRONOLOGY OF REMARKABLE EVENTS, EXTENDING FROM A. M. 3999 TO A. D. 100.

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A.M.A.U.C. B.C.
3999
748

Tiberius (afterwards emperor) is invested by Augustus with the tribunitian power for five years;

and soon after he retired to Rhodes.

Miraculous conception of John Baptist. 4000 749

Caius Cæsar, son of the emperor, the first who had the title of Princeps Juventutis, Prince of the

Youth. He was at this time fifteen years of age.
Miraculous conception of Jesus Christ.

Birth of John Baptist. 4001 750

Jesus Christ, the Son of God, born of the Virgin Mary, at Bethlehem in Judea.

Wise men from the East, being guided by a star, come and worship the new-born King of the Jews. 4002 751 3 Herod the Great, king of Judea, orders all the male-children of Bethlehem, and its vicinity.

under two years of age, to be put to death, in order to destroy Jesus Christ, who was providen

tially carried into Egypt before this cruel edict was put into execution. 4003 752 2 Death of Herod the Great, in the 37th year of his reign. He is succeeded by his son Archelaus.

Death of Malthace, mother of Archelaus, king of Judea.

A. D.
4006 755 2 Death of Lucius, one of the sons of Augustus.
4007 756

Death of Caius Cæsar, son of Augustus, in consequence of a wound he had received in Armenia.
Augustus Cæsar is called Dominus, Lord, by the people; with which title he is displeased, and

publicly forbad it by an edict.
About this time the celebrated Pollio died at his country-house in Tusculum, aged eighty.
Augustus Cæsar, who had, ten years before, been appointed to the government of the Roman em.

pire, has the same conferred upon him for ten years more.
4COE) 757 4 Tiberius returns from Rhodes to Rome, and is adopted by Augustus.

Tiberius receives again the tribunitian power.
Cinna, grandson to Pompey, is charged with being the chief of a conspiracy against the emperor,

and afterwards pardoned.
The temple of Janus, after it had been closed ever since B. C. 8, is opened again on account of

fresh disturbances in Germany. Tiberius subdues the Caninetali, the Attuarii, the Bructeri, and the Cherusci, Germans, who had

revolted from the Romans.

Augustus, that he might raise a tax in Italy, accepts of the proconsular power. 4009 758 5 Tiberius extends his conquests to the Elbe, upon which the Germans sue for peace, which is

granted them. 4010 759 6 Revolt of the Pannonians and Dalmatians, against whom Tiberius and Germanicus are sent.

The Jews and Samaritans complain to Augustus of the tyranny of Archelaus. 4011 760 7 Archelaus, king of Judea, deposed; and his dominions reduced into the form of a Roman pro.

vince, and annexed to Syria. Coponius was the first governor of Judea. About this time Judas of Galilee arose, and drew away much people after him ; but he, and as

many as obeyed him, were dispersed. Acts v. 37.

TABLE III. Continued.

A.M.A.U.C. A.D.
4012 761

The Pannonians are again brought under subjection to the Romans.
Jesus Christ, twelve years of age, disputes with the doctors in the temple, who are astonished at

his understanding and answers.
4013 762 9 Ovid banished by Augustus to Tomos in Pontus.

Baton, the Dalmatian general, surrenders the town of Anduba to Germanicus, which puts an end

to the Dalmatian war. Memorable defeat of the Romans under P. Quintilius Varus, governor of Germany, by Arminius,

chief of the revolted Germans. 4014 763

Tiberius marches against the Germans; and, in the course of this and the following year, reduced

the Germans again under the Roman yoke; upon which a profound peace takes place in the

whole Roman world. 4015 764 11 Tiberius, in consequence of his very important services, is made by Augustus his colleague in the

empire, both in the civil and military government, August 28. 4016 765

12 Imperial edict against diviners and astrologers. 4017 766 13 Augustus Cæsar is again appointed emperor for ten years longer, the last prorogation expiring the

end of this year. 4018 767 14 Death of Augustus Cæsar (in the consulship of Sextus Pompeius and Sextus Apuleius) at Nola,

August 19, being 76 years of age, all but 35 days.
There are four epochs from which historians date the years of this emperor's reign. The first is

that of the second year of the Julian æra, or the 709th of Rome; when, after the death of
Julius Cæsar, coming from Macedonia into Italy, he took upon him the rank of emperor, with-
out making any change in the republic, and assembled by private authority some veteran sol.
diers. The second epoch is the third year of the Julian æra, or the 711th of Rome, when,
· after the death of the two consuls, Hirtius and Pansa, he entered into the consulate with Q.
Pedius, Sept. 22 ; or when, on the 27th of November following, he was declared triumvir with
Mark Antony, and Æmilius Lepidus. The third epoch is the third of September, A. U.C. 723,
and the 15th of the Julian æra, that is to say, on the day of the battle of Actium. The fourth
epoch is the following year, when, after the death of Antony and Cleopatra, he entered tri-
umphantly into Alexandria, the 29th of August, or the first day of the Ægyptian year. Thus
Augustus, according to the first epoch, reigned fifty-eight years, five months and four days.
This is the epoch which Josephus appears to have followed. According to the second epoch,
Augustus reigned fifty-five years, ten months, and twenty-eight days, if we reckon from the
time in which he was first made consul; or fifty-five years, eight months, and twenty-two days,
from his becoming one of the triumviri. It is from one of these two periods, that Suetonius,
Eusebius, Epiphanius, and some others, compute the fifty-six years which they assign to this
emperor. But the most common mode of computing the years of the reign of Augustus, is from

the buttle of Actium, from which time he lived and reigned forty-four years, all but thirteen days. Tiberius Nero Cæsar succeeds Augustus in the empire, August 19. Death of Julia, daughter of Augustus, in the sixteenth year of her exile. She was banished by

her father, on the charge of vicious and irregular conduct. 4019 768 15 Extraordinary overflowing of the Tiber, by which several houses are destroyed, and lives lost.

Achaia and Macedonia become provinces to Cæsar, having been governed before by Proconsuls.
War in Germany. Arminius makes the Cherusci take up arms against Germanicus. Drawn battle

bet ween the Romans and Germans.
4020 769 16 Battle of Idistavisus gained by the Romans over the Germans under Arminius.

Second battle gained by Germanicus over Arminius, in the neighbourhood of the Elbe.
The Angrivarians submit to the Romans.
Expedition of Germanicus against the Callans and Marsians, who immediately submit.

Conspiracy of Drusus Libo against Tiberius, discovered ; upon which the conspirator kills himself. 4021 770 17 | Triumph of Germanicus over the Cheruscans, the Cattans, the Angrivarians, and other nations

between the Rhine and the Elbe, May 26.

TABLE III. Continued.

A.M.A.U.C. A. D. 4021 770 17 Terrible earthquake in Asia, which overthrew twelve celebrated cities : among these was Sardis,

which suffered the most.

Death of Titus Livy, the historian, at Padua ; and of Ovid, in his exile in Scythia. 4022 771 18

About this time Rhascupolis, called also Rhascoporis, and Rhescuporis, king of Thrace, is de

prived of his kingdom, and banished.
About this time a new island made its appearance in the Archipelago, Pliny ii. 87.
Expedition of Germanicus into the East.
Zeno, the son of Polemon, ascends the throne of Armenia, through the favour of Germanicus.
The kingdoms of Cappadocia and Commagena reduced into the form of Roman provinces. Q. Ve-

ranius is made governor of the former, and Q. Servæus of the latter. 4023 772 19 Death of Germanicus. He is buried at Antioch.

Rhascupolis put to death at Alexandria.
Death of Arminius, general of the Germans, in the 37th year of his age.

Maroboduus, king of the Lombards, dethroned. 4024 773

20 Death of Sallust, the emperor's minister. He was grandson of a sister of Sallust the historian. 4025 774 21 Revolt in Gaul.

Sacrorir, chief of the Eduans, defeated by Silius, which puts an end to the Gallic war.
First African war under Tacfarinas, which commenced A. U. C. 770, finished this year, to the ad-

vantage of the Romans. Tacfarinas is driven into the desarts by Blesus the governor. 4026 775 22 Maluginensis removed from the government of Asia, on account of his being priest of Jupiter.

Pompey's theatre destroyed by fire about this time, and rebuilt by Tiberius.
Death of Junia, niece of Cato, sister of Brutus, and wife of Cassius. She had survived the bat-

tle of Philippi sixty-three years.

Death of Lucilius Longus, the emperor's most particular friend.
4027 776 23 The Pantomimes expelled Italy.
4028 777 24 The second war of Tacfarinas ended by Dolabella, in which Tacfarinas is slain.
4030 779 26 | Thrace, agitated by commotions, is reduced to submission by Poppeus Sabinus.

The emperor's final departure from Rome.
John Baptist began to baptize in Judea, about this time.
Pontius Pilate made governor of Judea, which office he held for ten years.
In the fifteenth year of the principality of Tiberius Cæsar, which was the twelfth of his monarchy,

Jesus Christ, thirty years of age, is baptized by John in Jordan, and enters upon his public

ministry 4031 780 27 Fifty thousand men are said to have been killed by the fall of an amphitheatre at Fidena.

Great fire in Rome, which consumed all the quarter of Mount Celius. 4032 781 28 John Baptist beheaded about this time, by order of Herod Antipas. 4033 782 29

Revolt of the Frisians, which is soon terminated.
The Jews, by the permission of Pontius Pilate, crucify Jesus Christ; who, on the third day after

his crucifixion, rises from the dead; and forty days after his resurrection ascends up into heaven.
Miserable death of Judas the traitor.
Peter's sermon on the day of Pentecost, by means of which three thousand persons are converted

to Christianity. 4034 783 30 Ananias and his wife Sapphira suddenly struck dead for their hypocrisy. 4035 784

31

Death of Nero, eldest son of Germanicus.
Stephen stoned to death by the Jews.
A great persecution of the followers of Christ at Jerusalem, takes place after the martyrdom of

Stephen.
4036 785 32 An angel sends Philip to baptize the Æthiopian eunuch.
4037 786 33 Galba, afterwards emperor, is consul this year.

Death of Drusus, son of Germanicus.
Conversion of Saul of Tarsus, afterwards called Paul.
The number of the followers of Christ greatly increase.

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