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The people become furious,

THE ACTS.

and attempt to destroy Paul.

A.M.cir. 4064.
A. D. cir. 60.

An. Olymp. cir. CCIX. 4.

A. D. cir. 60.
An. Olymp.

18 And “saw him saying unto me, send thee far hence unto the Gen- A.M. cir.4064. • Make haste, and get thee quickly tiles.

out of Jerusalem : for they will not 22 [ And they gave him audience cír. ccix. . receive thy testimony concerning me.

unto this word, and then lifted up their voices, 19 And I said, Lord, they know that I im- and said, “Away with such a fellow from the prisoned and a beat in every synagogue them earth : for it is not fit that 'he should live. that believed on thee :

23 And as they cried out, and cast off their 20 ° And when the blood of thy martyr Ste- clothes, and threw dust into the air, phen was shed, I also was standing by, and 24 The chief captain commanded him to be

consenting unto his death, and kept the rai- brought into the castle, and bade that he should ment of them that slew him.

be examined by scourging ; that he might know 21 And he said unto me, Depart : " for I will wherefore they cried so against him.

f

1 Ver. 14. Matt. 10. 14. ver. 4. d Matt. 10. 17. • ch. 7. 58. Luke 11. 48. ch. 8.1. Rom, 1. 32. ch. 9. 15. & 13. 2, 46, 47. & 18. 6. & 26. 17. Rom. 1. 5. & 11.13. & 15. 16.

Gal. 1. 15, 16. & 2. 7,8. Eph. 3. 7, 8. 1 Tim. 2. 7. 2 Tim. 1. 11. h ch. 21. 36.– ch. 25, 24.

likely that he refers to the first journey to Jerusalem, about glorious they may be, they have no glory comparatively, by three years after his conversion, chap. ix. 25, 26. and Gal. reason of that glory which excelleth. Next to Jesus Christ, i. 18.

St. Paul is the glory of the Christian church. Jesus is the I was in a trance] This circumstance is not mentioned | foundation ; Paul, the master-builder. any where else, unless it be that to which himself refers in Verse 22. They gave him audience unto this woril 2 Cor. xii. 2–4. when he conceived himself transported to Namely, that God had sent him to the Gentiles : not that the third heaven; and if the case be the same, the appear- they refused to preach the law to the Gentiles, and make ance of Jesus Christ to him, and the command given, are them proselytes ; for this they were fond of doing, so that circumstances related only in this place.

our Lord says, they compassed sea and land to make aprose. Verse 19. I imprisoned and beat in every synagogue] This lyte : but they understood the apostle as stating, that God shews what an active instrument Saul of Tarsus was, in the had rejected them, and called the Gentiles to be his peculiar hands of this persecuting priesthood ; and how very gene- people, in their place; and this they could not bear. rally the followers of Christ were persecuted, and how diffi Away with such a fellow] According to the law of Moses, cult it was at this time to profess Christianity.

he who attempted to seduce the people to any strange worVerse 20. When the blood of thy martyr Stephen was shed] | ship, was to be stoned, Deut. xiii. 15. The Jews wished to See on chap. vii. 58. viii. 1. All these things Paul alledged insinuate that the apostle was guilty of this crime, and that as reasons why he could not expect to be received by the therefore he should be stoned, or put to death. Christians; for how could they suppose that such a persecu

Verse 23. Cast of their clothes] Bp. Pearce supposes, tor could be converted ?

that shaking their upper garments, is all that is meant here; Verse 21. I will send thee far hence unto the Gentiles.] and that it was an ancient custom for men to do so, when This was the particular appointment of St. Paul : he was the highly pleased, or greatly irritated : but it is likely, that Apostle of the Gentiles ; for though he preached frequently some of them were now actually throwing off their clothes, to the Jews ; yet, to preach the gospel to the Gentiles, and in order to prepare to stone Paul. to write for the conversion and establishment of the Gentile Threw dust into the air] In sign of contempt, and by way world, were his peculiar destination. Hence we find him of execration. Shimei acted so in order to express his conand his companions travelling every where ; through Judeu, | tempt of David, 2 Sam. xvi. 13. where it is said, he cursed Phænicia, Arabia, Syria, Cilicia, Pisidia, Lycuonia, Pam- him as he went, and threw stones at him; or, as the margin, phylia, Galatia, Phrygia, Macedonia, Greece, Asia, the he dusted him with dust. Their throwing dust in the air, was Isles of the Mediterranean Sea, the Isles of the Ægean Sea, also expressive of extraordinary rage and vindictive malice. Italy; and some add Spain, and even Britain. This was The apostle being guarded by the Roman soldiers, was out oise diocese of this primitive bishop: none of the apostles of the power of the mob; and their throwing dust in the air, travelled, none preached, none laboured as this man; and, not only shewed their rage, but also their vexation, that they we may add, none was so greatly owned of God. The could not get the apostle into their power. Epistles of Peter, John, James, and Juile, are great and Verse 24. Examined by scourging] As the chief captain excellent ; but when compared with those of Paul, however I did not understand the Hebrew language, he was ignorant of the

Poul pleads his privilege of being

CHAP. XXII.

a Roman, and escapes being scorrged.

A. D. cir. 60.

to

A.M.CC. 1064: 25 I And as they bound him with unto hiin, Tell me, art thou a Ro- A.M.cir, 4064. Aa. Olymp. thongs, Paul said unto the centurion man? He said, Yea.

40. Olymp. cir. CCIX. 4. that stood by, * Is it lawful for you 28 And the chief captain answered, dir. ccix. ^. scourge a man that is a Roman, and uncon- | With a great sum obtained I this freedom. And demned ?

Paul said, But I was free born. 26 When the centurion heard that, he went 29 Then straightway they departed from him and told the chief captain, saying, Take which should have examined him : and the heed what thou doest: for this man is a Ro-chief captain also was afraid, after he knew that

he was a Roman, and because he had bound 27 Then the chief captain

came, and said him.

man.

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charge brought against Paul, and ignorant also of the defence that, for the affection which the people of Tarsus bare to which the apostle had made; and as he saw that they grew Julius Cæsar, and afterwards to Augustus, the latter caused more and more outrageous, he supposed that Paul must have their city to be called Juliopolis." The Greek text is as given them the highest provocation; and therefore he deter- follows“ UTW TCO inws TW Kaivost acotepw, xau di 'exeivox mined to put him to the torture, in order to find out the na. τω δευτερω δι Ταρσεις ειχαν, ωςε και Ιουλιοπολιν σφας απ' ture of his crime. The practice of putting people to the AUTOU LETOVOMari. To which I add, that Philo, de Virt. rack, in order to make them confess, has, to the disgrace of Vol. II. p. 687. Edit. Mang. makes Agrippa say to Caligula, human nature, existed in all countries.

φιλων ενιων πατριδας όλας της Ρωμαϊκης ηξιωσας πολιτειας» • Verse 25. And as they bound him, &c.] They were you have made whole countries, to which your friends belong, going to tie him to a post, that they might scourge him. to be citizens of Rome. See the rote on chap. xxi. 39. These

Is it lawful, &c.] The Roman law absolutely forbad the testimonies are of weight sufficient to shew that Paul, by binding of a Reman citizen. See the note on chap. xvi. 37. being born at Tarsus, might have been free-born, and a Ro

Verse 28. With a great sum obtained I this freedom.] So man. See Bp. Pearce, on Acts xvi. 37.

appears that the freedom, eren of Rome, might be pur Verse 29. After he knew that he was a Roman] He chased; and that it was sold at a very high price.

who was going to scourge him, durst not proceed to the But I was free born.] It has been generally believed that torture, when Paul declared himself to be a Roman. A the inhabitants of Tarsus, born in that city, had the same passage from Cicero, Orat. pro. Verr. Act. ii. lib. v. 64. rights and privileges as Roman citizens, in consequence of a throws the fullest light on this place-Ille, quisquis erat, charter or grant from Julius Cæsar. Calmet disputes this, i quem tu in crucem rapiebas, qui tibi esset ignotus, cum civem because Tarsus was a free not a colonial city; and he supposes se Romanum esse diceret, apud te Prætorem, si non effugium, that Paul's father might have been rewarded with the free- ne moram quidem mortis mentione atque usurpatione civitatis dom of Rome for some military services; and that it was in assequi potuit. “Whosoever he might be whom thou wert consequence of this that Paul was born free. But, that the hurrying to the rack, were he even unknown to thee, if he city of Tarsus had such privileges, appears extremely pro- said that he was a Roman citizen, he would necessarily obtain bable. In chap. xxi. 39. Paul says he was born at Tarsus from thee the Prætor, by the simple mention of Rome, if not in Cilicia, and in this chap. ver. 28. he says he was free-born; an escape, yet at least a delay of his punishment.” The and at ver. 26. he calls himself a Roman; as he does also | whole of the sixty-fourth and sixty-fifth sections of this oration, chap. xvi. 37. From whence it has been concluded, with which speak so pointedly on this subject, are worthy of conevery show of reason, that Tarsus, though no Roman colony, sideration. Of this privilege, he further says, Ib. in cap. Ivii. fet had this privilege granted to it, that its natives should Illa vox et exclamatio Civis Romanus sum, quæ sæpe multis in be citizens of Rome. Pliny, in Hist. Nat. lib. v. 27. tells | ultimis terris opem inter barbaros et salutem tulit, fc.--That us that Tarsus was a free city. And Appias, De Bello exclamation, I am a Roman citizon, which oftentimes has Civil. lib. v. p. 1077. Ed. Tollii, says that Anthony, Tapoeas brought assistance and safety, even among barbarians, in the ENEUBECOUS Dret, xai atenens coswy, made the people of Tarsus remotest parts of the earth, &c. free, and discharged them from paying tribute. Dio Cassius, PLUTARCH likewise, in his Life of Pompey, (Vol. III. lib. xlvii. p. 508. Edit. Reimar: further tells us, Adeo p. 445. Edit. Bryan.) says, concerning the behaviour of the Cæsari priori, et ejus gratia etiam posteriori, favebat Tar- | pirates, when they had taken any Roman prisoner, Exeivo de senses, ut urbem suam pro Tarso, JULIOPOLIX, vocaverint : || rv u@p151XOTATOV Xi 7. d. what was the most contumelious was

5 A

The chief captain orders the

THE ACTS.

council to appear against Paul.

A.M.cir. 4064.
A. D. cir. 60.

30 1 On the morrow, because he || manded the chief priests and all their A. M.cir. 4064. An. Olymp: would have known the certainty council to appear; and brought Paul An. Olymp. cir. CCIX. 4. wherefore he was accused of the down, and set him before them. Jews, he loosed him from his bands, and com

cir. CCIX. 4.

a Ch. 21. 34. & 23. 10, 28. & 25. 26.

b Matt. 26. 3, 59. & 27. 1, 2, 12. Psal. 125. 3.

this; when any of those whom they had made captives, cried 1. In his address to the council, Paul asserts that he is a Jew, out, Pemains erval, THAT HE WAS A ROMAN, and told them born of and among Jews; and that he had a regular Jewish his name, they pretended to be surprised, and be in a fright, || education: and he takes care to observe, that he had early and smote upon their thighs, and fell down (on their knees) || imbibed all the prejudices peculiar to his countrymen; and to him, beseeching him to pardon them! It is no wonder had given the fullest proof of this in his persecution of the then that the torturer desisted, when Paul cried out that he || Christians. Thus, his assertions, concerning the unprofitablewas a Roman ; and that the chief captain was alarmed, be ness of the legal ceremonies, could neither be attributed to cause he had bound him.

ignorunce nor indifference. Had a Gentile, no matter how Verse 30. He-commandedall their council to appear] | learned or eminent, taught thus, his whole teaching would Instead of cabely, to come, which we translate to appear;

have been attributed to ignorance, prejudice, and enry. God ouvežbety, to assemble, or meet together, is the reading of therefore, in his endless mercy, made use of a most eminent, ACE, nearly twenty others; the Æthiopic, Arabic, Vulgate, || learned, and bigotted Jew, to demonstrate the nullity of Chrysostom, and Theophylact; this reading Griesbach has the whole Jewish system, and shew the necessity of the received into the text : and it is most probably the true one: gospel of Jesus Christ. as the chief captain wished to know the certainty of the mat. 2. At the close of this chapter, Dr. Dodd has the following ter, he desired the Jewish council, or Sanhedrin, to assemble, l judicious remark :-66 As unrighteous as it was in the Roand examine the business thoroughly, that he might know of man officer, on this popular clamour, to attempt putting this what the apostle was accused; as the law. would not permit holy apostle to the torture; so reasonable was St. Paul's plea him to proceed against a Roman in any judicial way, but on as a Roman citizen, to decline that suffering. It is a pru. the clearest evidence : and as he understood that the cause dence worthy the imitation of the bravest of men, not to of their enmity was something that concerned their religion; throw themselves into unnecessary difficulties. True courage he considered the Sanhedrin to be the most proper judge, I widely differs from rash and heedless temerity ; nor are we and therefore commanded them to assemble ; and there is no under any obligation as Christians, to give up our civil pridoubt that himself, and a sufficient number of soldiers, took vileges, which ought to be esteemed as the gifts of God, to care to attend, as the person of Paul could not be safe in every insolent and turbulent invader. In a thousand cirthe hands of persons so prejudiced, unprincipled, and enraged. || cumstances, gratitude to God, and duty to men, will oblige

This chapter should end with the twenty-ninth verse, and us to insist upon them ; and a generous concern for those who the following should begin with the thirtieth ; this is the may come after us, should engage us to labour to transmit most natural division, and is followed by some of the most them to posterity improved rather than impaired." correct editions of the original text.

should be an article in the creed of every genuine Briton.

CHAPTER XXIII. Paul defending himself before the high priest, he commands him to be smitten on the mouth, 1, 2. Paul sharply

reproves him, and being reproached for this by one of the attendants, accounts for his conduct, 3—5. Seeing. that the assembly was composed of Pharisees and Sadducees, and that he could expect no justice from his judges, he asserts that it was for his belief in the resurrection, that he was called in question ; on which the Pharisees declare in his favour, 6–9. A great dissension arises, and the chief captain, fearing lest Paul should be pulled to pieces, brings him into the castle, 10. He is comforted by a dream, 11. More than forty persons conspire his death, 12–15. Paul's sister's son, hearing of it, informs the captain of the guard,

16—22. He sends Paul by night, under a strong escort of horse and foot, to Cæsarea, to Felix ; and with him a letter, stating the circumstances of the case, 23–33. They arrive at Cæsared, and Felix promises him a hearing when his accusers shall come down, 34, 35.

Paul beginning his defence, is

CHAP. XXIII.

smitten by order of the high priest.

A.M.cir.4061,
A. D. cir. 60.
An. Olymp.

A. D. cir. 60.

An. Olympi. cir. CCIX. 4. *

А

ND Paul, earnestly beholding judge me after the law, and com- A.M.cir. 4064.

the council, said, Men and mandest me to be smitten contrary to cir. CCIX. 4. brethren, “I have lived in all good the law? conscience before God until this day.

4 And they that stood by said, Revilest thou 2 And the high priest Ananias, commanded God's high priest? them that stood by liim, to smite him on the 5 Then said Paul, I wist not, brethren, mouth.

that he was the high priest : for it is written, 3 Then said Paul unto him, God shall smite . Thou shalt not speak evil of the ruler of thy thee, thou whited wall : for sittest thou to people.

Ch. 24. 16. I Cor. 4.4. 2 Cor. 1. 12. & 4. 2. 2 Tim. 1. 3. Heb. 13. 18.

1 1 Kings 22. 24. Jer. 20. 2. John 18. 22.

• Lev. 19.35. Deut. 25. 1, 2. John 7.51.—d ch. 24.17.- Exod. 22. 28.

Eccles. 10. 20. 2 Pet. 2. 10. Jude 8.

NOTES ON CHAP. XXIII.

To smite him on the mouth.] Because he professed to Verse 1. I have lived in all good conscience] Some have a good conscience, while believing on Jesus Christ, and people seem to have been unnecessarily stumbled with this propagating his doctrine. expression. What does the apostle mean by it? Why, that Verse 3. God shall smite thee, thou whited wall.] Thou while he was a Jew, he was one from principle of conscience; hypocrite! who sittest on the seat of judgment, pretending —that what he did, while he continued Jew, he did from the to hear, and seriously weigh the defence of an accused persame prin ciple :—that when God opened his eyes to see the son; who must in justice and equity be presumed to be innature of Christianity, he became a Christian, because God nocent, till he is proved to be guilty; and, instead of act. persuaded his conscience that it was right for him to become ing according to the law, commandest me to be smitten conone.—That, in a word, he was sincere through the whole trary to the law, which always has the person of the prisoner course of his religious life ; and his conduct had borne the under its protection ; nor ever suffers any penalty tờ be inmost unequivocal proofs of it. The apostle means, there- flicted but what is prescribed as the just punishment for the fore, that there was no part of his life in which he acted as offence. As if he had said, “ Thinkest thou that God will a dishonest or hypocritical man: and that he was now as suffer such an insult on his laws, on justice, and on humafully determined to maintain his profession of Christianity, nity, to pass unpunished ?" as he ever was to maintain that of Judaism, previously to his Verse 5. I wist not, brethren, that he was the high priest] acquaintance with the Christian religion.

After all the learned labour that has been spent on this subVerse 2. The high priest Ananias] There was a high ject, the simple meaning appears plainly to be this :priest of this name, who was sent a prisoner to Rome by St. Paul did not know that Ananias was high priest; he Quadratus, governor of Syria ; to give an account of the part had been long absent from Jerusalem'; political changes were he took in the quarrel between the Jews and the Samari. frequent ; the high priesthood was no longer in succession, tans ; see Joseph. Antiq. lib. xx. cap. 6. s. 8. but whether and was frequently bought and sold ; the Romans put he ever returned again to Jerusalem, says Dr. Lightfoot, is down one high priest and raised up another, as political rea. uncertain ; still more uncertain 'whether he was

sons dictated.

As the person of Ananias might have been stored to the office of high priest; and most uncertain of all, wholly unknown to him; as the hearing was very sudden, whether he filled the chair at the time Paul pleaded his, and there was scarcely any time to consult the formalities cause; which was some years after Felix was settled in the of justice; it seems very probable that St. Paul, if he ever government. But Krebs has proved, that this very Ananias, had known the person of Ananias, had forgotten him; and on being examined at Rome, was found innocent, returned to as, in a council or meeting of this kind, the presence of the Jerusalem, and was restored to the high priesthood ; see high priest was not indispensably necessary, he did not know Joseph. Antiq. lib. xx. cap. 9. s. 2. but of his death I find that the person who presided was not the Sagan, or high nothing certain. See Krebs on this place, (Observat. in priest's deputy, or some other person put into the seat for the Nov. Testament. è Flavio Josepho) who successfully contro- time being. I therefore understand the words above in their verts the opinion of Dr. Lightfoot, mentioned at the be- most obvious and literal sense. He knew not who the perginning of this note. There was one Ananias, who is said son was, and God's Spirit suddenly led him to denounce the to have perished in a tumult raised by his own son, about | divine displeasure against him. five years after this time ; see Jos. Antiq. lib. x. cap. 9. Thou shalt not speak evil of the ruler of thy people] If War. lib. ii. cap. 17.

I had known he was the high priest, I should not have pub.

ever re

Paul sets the Pharisees and

THE ACTS.

Sadducees into mutual opposition,

A.M. cir.4064.
A.D. eir. 60

A.M.cir. 4064.
A. D. cir. 60.

cir. CCI-X. 4.

cir. CCIX. 4.

6 I But when Paul perceived that

9 And there arose a great cry: An. Olymp. the one part were Sadducees, and the and the scribes that were of the An. Olymp.

other Pharisees, he cried out in the Pharisees' part arose, and strove, council, Men and brethren, “I am a Pharisee, saying, "We find no evil in this man: but if the son of a Pharisee: of the hope and resur- a spirit or an angel hath spoken to him, ' let us rection of the dead I am called in question. not fight against God.

7 And when he had so said, there arose à dis 10 I And when there arose a great dissension, sension between the Pharisees and the Saddu- || the chief captain, fearing lest Paul should have cees : and the multitude was divided.

been pulled in pieces of them, commanded 8 * For the Sadducees say that there is no re- the soldiers to go down, and to take him by surrection, neither angel, nor spirit : but the force from among them, and to bring him into Pharisees confess both.

the castle.

. Ch. 26. 3. Phil. 3. 3. ch. 24, 15, 21. & 26. 6. & 28. 20.-€ Matt.

92. 23. Mark 12. 18. Luke 20. 27.

4 Ch. 25. 25. & 26.31.- ch. 22. 7, 17, 18. ch. 5. 39.

licly pronounced this execration; for respect is due to his tion, because in opposition to the Sadducees, whom they ab. person for the sake of his office. I do not see that Paul in horred, as irreligious men. timates that he had done any thing through inadvertence ; Verse 8. The Sadducees say that there is no resurrection] nor does he here confess any fault; he states two facts : It is strange, since these denied a future state, that they ob. 1. That he did not know him to be the high priest. 2. That served the ordinances of the law; for they also believed the such an one, or any ruler of the people, should be reverenced. five books of Moses to be a revelation from God: yet they But he neither recalled nor made an apology for his words : had nothing in view but temporal good; and they understood he had not committed a trespass, and he did not acknowledge the promises in the law as referring to these things alone. In one. We must beware how we attribute either to him in the order, therefore, to procure them, they watched, fasted, prayed, case before us.

&c. and all this they did that they might obtain happiness Verse 6. I am a Pharisee, the son of a Pharisee] In- | in the present life. See the account of the Pharisees and stead of papiralou, of a Pharisee, ABC. some others, with Sadducees, Matt. iii. 7. and xvi. 1. the Syriac and Vulgate, have papiranwy, of the Pharisces ; Verse 9. The scribesarose, and strove] Aleuzey Ortog which, if acknowledged to be the genuine reading, would they contended forcibly--they came to an open rupture with alter the sense thus, I am a Pharisee, and a disciple of the Sadducees ; and, in order to support their own party the Pharisees, for so the word Son, is frequently under- | against them, they even admitted as truth, St. Paul's account stood.

of his miraculous conversion; and therefore they said, if a Of the hope and resurrection Concerning the hope of spirit or an angel hath spoken to him, &c. He had previously the resurrection; the xai and, being here redundant; indeed mentioned that Jesus Christ had appeared to him, when on it is omitted by the Syriac, all the Arabic, and the Æthiopic. his way to Damascus; and, though they might not be ready St. Peul had preached the resurrection of the dead, on the to admit the doctrine of Christ's resurrection; yet they could, foundation and evidence of the resurrection of Christ. For consistently with their own principles, allow that the Soul of this, he and the apostles were, some time before, imprisoned Christ might appear to him; and they immediately caught at by the high priest and elders, chap. iv. 1-3. and v. 17. be- this, as furnishing a strong proof against the doctrine of the cause they preached THROUGH Jesus, the resurrection of the Sadducees, who neither believed in angel nor spirit, while the dead. This they could not bear; for, if Jesus Christ rose Pharisees confessed both. from the dead, their malice and wickedness, in.putting him Let us not fight against God.] These words are wantto death, were incontrovertibly established.

ing in ABCE. several others, with the Coptic, ÆthioVerse 7. And the multitude was divided.] St. Paul, per- pic, Armenian, latter Syriac, Vulgate, and some of the ceiving the assembly to consist of Pharisees and Sadducees, Fathers. and finding he was not to expect any justice, thought it best Verse 10. The chief captain-commanded the soldiers to thus to divide the council, by introducing a question on go down. It appears that the chief captain was present durwhich the Sadducees and Pharisees were at issue. He did so ; | ing these transactions, and that he had a body of soldiers in and the Pharisees immediately espoused his side of the ques. readiness in the castle of Antonia ; and, it was from this,

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