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The Jews of Asia raise a tumult,

CHAP. XXI.

and seize upon Paul.

A D. cir. 60.

A. D. cir. 60.

cir, CCIX, 4.

23 As touching the Gentiles which people, and laid hands on him, A.M.cit.4064. An. Olyanp. believe, a we have written and con 28 Crying out, Men of Israel, help: An. Olymp.

cluded that they observe no such This is the man, that teacheth all cir. CCIX. A. thing, save only that they keep themselves from men every where against the people, and the law, things offered to idols, and from blood, and from and this place: and further brought Greeks also strangled, and from fornication.

into the temple, and hath polluted this holy place. 26 Then Paul took the men, and the next day 29 (For they had seen before with him in the purifying himself with them entered into the city & Trophimus an Ephesian, whom they suptemple, to signify the accomplishment of the posed that Paul had brought into the temple.) days of purification,

purification, until that an offering 30 And "all the city was moved, and the peoshould be offered for every one of them. ple ran together : and they took Paul, and drew

27 [ And when the seven days were almost him out of the temple : and forth with the doors ended, the Jews which were of Asia, when were shut. they saw him in the temple, stirred up all the 31 And as they went about to kill him, tidings

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that the law was abolished, as has already been remarked ;' Gentiles against the Jews, against the Mosaic law, and against he tolerated it till the time that the iniquity of the Jews was the temple and its services. filled up; and then, by the destruction of Jerusalem, he Brought Greeks also into the temple] This was a most swept every rite and ceremony of the Jewish law away, with deliberate and malicious untruth : Paul could accomplish no the besom of destruction.

purpose by bringing any Greek or Gentile into the temple; Verse 25. As touching the Gentiles] See the notes on and their having seen Trophimus, an Ephesian, with him, in chap. xv. and the additional observations at the end of that the city only, was no ground on which to raise a slander, chapter.

that must so materially affect both their lives. Josephus inVerse 26. To signify the accomplishment, &c.] Alayyeddwy forms us, War, lib. v. cap. 5. sect. 2. that on the wall which declaring the accomplishment, &c. As this declaration was separated the court of the Gentiles from that of the Israelites, made to the priest, the sense of the passage is the following,' was an inscription in Greek and Latin letters, which stated if we suppose Paul to have made an offering for himself, as that no stranger was permitted to come within the holy place, well as the four men. 6 The next day, Paul taking the four on pain of death. With such a prohibition as this before his men, began to purify, set himself apart, or consecrate him-eyes, was it likely that St. Paul would enter into the temple, self with them ; entering into the temple, he publicly de-' in company with an uncircumcised Greek? The calumny clared to the priests, that he would observe the separation of refutes itself. a Nazarite, and continue it for seven days, at the end of Verse 30. They took Paul] They tumultuously seized on which he would bring an offering for himself and the other him; and drew him out of the temple, out of the court of the four men, according to what the law prescribed in that Israelites, where he was worshipping : andthe doors were case.” But it is likely that Paul made no offering for himself, shut; the doors of the court of the Gentiles, probably to prevent but was merely at the expence of theirs. However we may Paul from getting any succour from his friends in the city; consider this subject, it is exceedingly difficult to account for for their whole proceedings shew that they purposed to mur. the conduct of James and the Elders, and of Paul, on this der him : they brought him out of the court of the Israelites, occasion. There seems to have been something in this trans- that court being peculiarly holy, that it might not be defiled action, which we do not fully understand.

by his blood; and they shut the court of the Gentiles, that Verse 27. The Jews which were of Asia] These pursued they might have the opportunity unmolested of killing him him with the most deliberate and persevering malice in every in that place ; for the court of the Gentiles was reckoned to place; and it appears that it was through them, that the be less holy than that of the Israelites. false reports were sent to, and circulated through Jeru Verse 31. The chief captain of the band] The Roman salem.

tribune, who had a troop of soldiers under him, which Verse 28. This is the man that teacheth, &c.] As much as lodged in general in the castle of Antonia, which was if they had said, This is the man concerning whom we wrote built at the angle where the northern and western por. to you; who in every place endeavours to prejudice the ticos of the outer-court of the temple were joined toge.

Paul about to be massacred,

THE ACTS.

is rescued by the chief captain.

A.M.cir. 4064.

A. D. cir. 60. cir. CCIX. 4.

came unto the chief captain of the 35 And when he came upon the A. M. cir. 4064. An. Olymp. band, that all Jerusalem was in an stairs, so it was, that he was borne An. Olymp. uproar.

of the soldiers for the violence of the cir. ccix.4. 32 · Who immediately took soldiers and cen- | people. turions, and ran down unto them: and when 36 For the multitude of the people followed they saw the chief captain and the soldiers, they | after, crying, · Away with him. left beating of Paul.

37 1 And as Paul was to be led into the 33 Then the chief captain came near, and took || castle, he said unto the chief captain, May I him, and commanded him to be bound with || speak unto thee? Who said, Canst thou speak two chains; and demanded who he was, and Greek ? what he had done.

38 « Art not thou that Egyptian, A. M. cir. 1059. 34 And some cried one thing, some another || which before these days madest an An. Olymp. among the multitude: and when he could not uproar, and leddest out into the cir. CCIX.1. know the certainty for the tumult, he command- || wilderness four thousand men that were mured him to be carried into the castle.

derers ?

A. D. cir. 55.

a Ch. 23. 27. & 21.7.ver. 11. ch. 20. 23.

• Luke 23. 18. John 19. 15. ch. 29. 22. See ch. 5. 36.

ther. This castle was built by John Hyrcanus, high-priest Verse 36. Away with him.] That is, kill him; dispatch of the Jews : it was at first called Baris, and was the him ! for so much this phrase always means in the mouths of royal residence of the Asmoneans, as long as they reigned || a Jewish mob. See on Luke xxiii. 18. & John xix. 15. in Jerusalem. It was beautified by Herod the Great; and Verse 37. Canst thou speak Greek?] Claudius Lysias was called Antonia, in honour of his friend Mark Anthony. | not a Roman ; he had, as himself informs us, purchased his By this castle the temple was commanded, as it stood on citizenship of Rome, with a great sum of money ; (see chap. higher ground. Josephus describes this castle, War, B. v. xxii

. 28.) and it is very likely that he was but imperfectly chap. 5. sect. 8. “ As having four towers, from one of acquainted with the Latin tongue; and the tumult that was which the whole temple was overlooked; and that one of now made, and the discordant noise, prevented him from the towers was joined to the porticos of the temple, and had | clearly apprehending what was said ; and as he wished to a double pair of stairs from it, by which soldiers in the gar- | know the merit of the cause, he accosted Paul with 'EXÀ7,0151 rison were used to come down with their arms to the por- | YIYWOXEls ; dost thou understand Greek? And when he ticos, on the festival days, to keep the people quiet : for, as found that he did understand it, he proceeded to question the temple was a guard to the city, so this castle was a him as below. guard to the temple.” " It seems, therefore,” says Bp. Verse 38. Art not thou that Egyptian, &c.] The history Pearce, to me very plain, that the place where the Jews to which Claudius Lysias refers, is taken from Josephus, Ant. were about to kill Paul, was the court of the Gentiles, the lib. xx. cap. 7. sect. 6. and War, lib. ii. cap. 13. sect. 5. porticos being there; and that the chief captain came down and is in substance as follows: An Egyptian, whose name is there to his rescue.” The name of this chief captain or not known, pretended to be a prophet, and told his followtribune, was Claudius Lysias, as we learn from chap. ers that the walls of Jerusalem would fall down before xxiii. 26.

them, if they would assist him in making an attack on the Verse 32. Ran down unto them] Ran down the stairs to city. He had address enough to raise a rabble of 30,000 the porticos, mentioned above.

men, and with these advanced as far as the Mount of Verse 33. And took him] With great violence, according | Olives; but Felix the Roman governor, came suddenly upon to chap. xxiv. 7. probably meaning an armed force.

him, with a large body of Roman troops, both infantry and To be bound with two chains] To be bound between two cavalry : the mob was speedily dispersed, four hundred soldiers ; his right hand chained to the left hand of the one, || killed, two hundred taken prisoners, and the Egyptian himand his left hand to the right of the other. See the note self, with some of his most faithful friends escaped; of on chap. xii. 6.

whom no account was ever afterwards heard.' As Lysias Verse 35. And when he came upon the stairs] Those men- | found such an outcry made against Paul, he supposed that tioned in the note on ver. 31.

he must be some egregious malefactor; and probably that

He questions Paul, and permits

CHAP. XXI.

him to address the people.

A. D. cir. 60.

A. D. cir. 60.

4. M. cir. 4064. 39 But Paul said, 'I am a man stood on the stairs, and beckoned A. M.cir. 4063. Au. Olymp. which am a Jew of Țarsus, a city in with the hand unto the people. And An. Olymp. cir. CCIX. *. Cilicia, a citizen of no mean city : when there was made a great si- cir. CCIX. 4. and, I beseech thee, suffer me to speak unto the lence, he spake unto them in the Hebrew people.

tongue, saying, 40 And when he had given him license, Paul

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Egyptian who had escaped, as related above. Learned men city among them, (the Ciliciuns.) And AMMIANUS Maragree that St. Luke refers to the same fact, of which Jo-cellinus, xiv. 8. says, Ciliciam Tarsus nobilitat, urbs persephus speaks; but there is a considerable difference between spicabilis : “Tarsus, a very respectable city, adorns Cilicia.” the numbers in Josephus, and those in Luke : the former Verse 40. Paul stood on the stairs] Where he was out of having 30,000, the latter only 4,000. The small number of the reach of the mob; and was surrounded by the Roman killed and prisoners, only 600 in all, according to Josephus, soldiers. leads us to suspect that his number is greatly exaggerated ; Beckoned with the hand] Waving the hand, which was as 600 in killed and prisoners of a mob of 30,000, routed the sign that he was about to address the people. So Virgil by regular infantry and cavalry, is no kind of proportion; says of Turnus, when he wished, by single combat between but it is a sufficient proportion to a mob of 4,000. Dean himself and Æveas, to put an end to the war: Aldridge has supposed that the number in Josephus was

Significatque manu, et magno sic incipit ore : originally 4,000, but, that ancient copyists, mistaking the

Parcite jam, Rutuli; et vos tela inhibete, Latini. Greek A delta, four, for A lambda, thirty, wrote 30,000, instead of 1000. See Ilaverkamp's edition, vol. ii. p. 177.

He beckoned with his hand, and cried out with a loud There is another way of reconciling the two historians,

voice, which is this : When this Egyptian impostor at first began to

Desist, ye Rutulians; and, ye Latins, cease from throw. make great boasts and large promises, a multitude of people,

ing your javelins. to the amount at least of 30,000, weary of the Roman Ile spake unto them in the Hebrew tongue] What was called yoke, from which he promised them deliverance, readily ar then the Hebrew, viz. the Chaldæo-Syriac ; very well ex. ranged themselves under his banners. As he performed no-pressed by the Codex Bezæ, Tn oorge dianextw, in their own thing that he promised, 26,000 of these had melted away dialect. before he reached Mount Olivet : this remnant the Romans Never was there a more unnatural division than that in attacked and dispersed. Josephus speaks of the number he this chapter: it ends with a single comma! The best divi. had in the beginning ; St. Luke, of those that he had when | sion would have been at the end of the 25th verse. he arrived at Mount Olivet.

That were murderers.? ] Eixaciwy: sicarii, assassins : they Paul's embarkation at Tyre is very remarkable. The simderived their name from sicu, a sort of crooked kuife, which | ple manner in which he was escorted to the ship by the disthey concealed under their garments, and privately stabbed ciples of Tyre, men, women, and children, and their affecthe objects of their malice. Josephus.

tionate and pious parting, kneeling down on the shore and Verse 39. I am a man which am a Jezo] A periphrasis for commending each other to God, are both impressive and edi. I am a Jew. See the note on chap. vii. 2.

fying. Nothing but Christianity could have produced such Of Tarsus--no mean city]. In the notes on chap. ix. 11. a spirit in persons, who now, perhaps for the first time, saw I have shewn that Tarsus was a city of considerable impor- each other in the flesh. Every true Christian is a child of tance, and in some measure a rival to Rome and Athens ; || God; and consequently, all children of God have a close and that because of the services rendered to the Romans by spiritual affinity. They are all partakers of the same Spirit, the inkabitants, Julius Cæsar endowed them with all the are united to the same Head; are actuated with the same rights and privileges of Roman citizens. When St. Paul hope, and are going to the same heaven. These, love one calls it no mean city, he speaks a language that was common another with pure hearts fervently: and these alone are cato those who have had occasion to speak of Tarsus. XENE- || pable of disinterested and lasting friendship. Though this Phon, Cyri Anabus. i. calls it TC217 Perywany xau sudawy.ora, kind of friendship cannot fail, yet it may err; and with ofa great and flourishing city. JOSEPHUS, Ant. lib. i. cap. 6. ficious affection endeavour to prevent us from bearing a nesect. 6. says, that it was trap' AUTOIS TWY TI O NEWY nation.cyw- cessary and most honourable cross. See verses 12, 13. It TATT LET FOTONOS ouoa, the metropolis and most renowned I should therefore be kept within scriptural bounds.

Paul addresses the people, and

THE ACTS.

gives an account of himself,

CHAPTER XXII.

Paul, in his address to the people, gives un account of his birth and education, 1-3. His prejudices against

Christianity, 4–5. and of his miraculous conversion, and call to the apostleship, 6–21. The Jews hearing him say, that God had sent him to preach the gospel to the Gentiles, become exceedingly outrageous, and clamour for his life, 22, 23. The chief captain orders him to be examined by scourging; but he, pleading his privilege as a Roman citizen, escapes the torture, 21-29. The next day the chief captain brings Paul before the chief priests and their council, 30.

EN a brethren, and fathers, , 3 “I a man which am a An. Olymp.

hear ye my defence, which I Jew, born in Tarsus, a city in Cilicia, An. Olymp. make now unto you.

yet brought up in this city at the cir. ccix. 4. 2 (And when they heard that he spake in the feet of " Gamaliel, and taught according to the Hebrew tongue to them, they kept the more perfect manner of the law of the fathers, and silence : and he saith,)

was zealous toward God, as ye all are this day.

A.M.cir. 4064.
A. D. cir. 60.

MES

A.M.cir. 4061.
A. D. cir. 60.

cir. CCIX. 4.

& Ch. 7.2.ch. 21. 39. 2 Cor. 11. 29. Phil. 3. 5.

• Deut. 33. 3. 2 Kings 4.38. Luke 10. 39.

. Ch. 5. 34. ch. 26. 5. fch. 21. 20. Gal. l. 14.

& Rom. 10. 2.

NOTES ON CHAP. XXII.

It has been generally supposed that the phrase brought up Verse 1. Men brethren, and fathers] A Hebrew form at the fect, is a reference to the Jewish custom, viz. that the of expression for brethren und fathers : for two classes only disciples of the rabbins sat on low seats, or on the grouud, are addressed. See the note on chap. vii. 2.

whilst the rabbin himself occupied a lofty chair. But we Hear ye my defence] Mou the amon.0719.5, this apology of rather learn from Jewish authority, that the disciples of the mine ; in this sense the word apology was anciently under rabbins stood before their teachers, as Vitringa has proved in stood : hence the Apologies of the primitive Fathers, i. e. his treatise De Synag. Vet. lib. i. p. 1. cap. 7. Kypke, their defences of the Christian religion. And this is its pro- therefore, contends that mapa Tas Toôas at the feet, means the per literal meaning : but it is now used only as implying an same as Tychoy near, or before, which is not an unfrequent excuse for improper conduct. That this is an abuse of the mode of speech among both sacred and profane writers. term, requires no proof.

Thus in chap. iv. 35, 37, chap. v. 2. ETIGOUY TAPA TOUS TEOSAS Verse 2. When they heard that he spake in the IIebrew TWY ATC50%wv, they laid it at the apostles' fect, means only, tongue] He had probably been traduced by the Jews of they brought it to the apostles. So in 3 Maccab. iv. 7. Tacx Asia, as a mere Gentile, distinguished only by his virulence | Todas ran for a ony opuvTES HEILEY OY, they saw death already against the Jewish religion; which virulence proceeded from lying at their feet; that is, as the Syriac translator has prohis malice and ignorance.

perly rendered it, they saro death immediately before them. Verse 3. I um verily a man which am a Jew] A periphrasis | So Themistius, Or. 27. p. 341. who adds the term by which for, I am really a Jew : and his mentioning this, adds weight the phrase is explained, E57 xa Tavolov asu tu dorzuara to the conjecture in the preceding note. He shews that he op. Cavaly, ante pedes id semper et prope est, illi qui accipere could not be ignorant of the Jewish religion ; as he had the potest. Also Lucian De Conscr. Ilist. p. 669. WY TEAFA TO.25 best instructor in it, which Jerusalem could produce. OF ENEY X01. The refutation of which is at hand. The same

Yet brought up, &c.] Bp, Pearce proposes that this verse kind of form occurs in the llebrew, Exod. xi. 8. All the should be thus read and translated : but brought up in this people that are at thy feet, 75972 beraglaica, i. e. who are city; instructed at the feet of Gamaliel, according to the most with thee, under thy command, 2 Sam. xv. 16. And the king exact manner, being exceedingly zealous for the law of our went out, and all his household 1993 beraglaiv, at his fathers, as ye all are this day.

feet ; that is, with him, in his company. See Kypke. Born in Tarsus] See the notes on chap. ix, 11. & xxi. 39. According to the perfect manner] That is, according to

Feel of Gamaliel] See a full account of this man in the that strict interpretation of the law; and especially the tranote on chap. v. 34.

ditions of the Elders, for which the Pharisees were remark

of his conversion,

CHAP. XXII.

and call to preach the gospel.

cir. CCIX. 4,

cir. CCIX. 4.

A. M. cir. 4064. 4 * And I persecuted this way unto mascus ; and there it shall be told A. M. cir. 4064. Ap. Oly mnp. the death, binding and delivering | thee of all things which are appointed An. Olymp. into prisons both men and women ;

for thee to do. 5 As also the high priest doth bear me witness, 11 And when I could not see for the glory of and all the estate of the elders : * from whom that light, being led by the hand of them that also I received letters unto the brethren, and were with me, I came into Damascus. went to Damascus, to bring them which were 12 And 'one Ananias, a devout man accordthere, bound unto Jerusalem, for to be pu- ing to the law, 5 having a good report of all the nished.

Jews which dwelt there, 6 And it came to pass, that, as I made my 13 Came unto me, and stood, and said unto journey, and was come nigh unto Damascus me, Brother Saul, receive thy sight. And the about noon, suddenly there shone from heaven same hour I looked up upon him. a great light round about me.

14 And he said, ' The God of our fathers 7 And I fell unto the ground, and heard a " hath chosen thee, that thou shouldest know his voice saying unto me, Saul, Saul, why perse-will, and ' seem that Just One, and "shouldest cutest thou me ?

hear the voice of his mouth. 8 And I answered, Who art thou, Lord ? And

15 For thou shalt be his witness unto all men he said unto me, I am Jesus of Nazareth, whom of P what thou hast seen and heard. thou persecutest.

16 And now why tarriest thou ? arise, and be 9 And they that were with me saw indeed baptized, and wash away thy sins, 'calling on the light, and were afraid ; but they heard not the name of the Lord. the voice of him that spake to me.

17 And it came to pass, that, when I was 10 And I said, What shall I do, Lord ? And come again to Jerusalem, even while I prayed the Lord said unto me, Arise, and go into Da- in the temple, I was in a trance ;

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able. That it is Pharisaism that the apostle has in view, Verse 6—13. As I made my journey, &c.] See the whole when he says he was taught according ancitray to the most of this account, and all the particular cireumstances, consi. exact manner, is evident ; and hence, in chap. xxvi. 5. he dered at large in the notes on chap. ix. 1, &c. and the obser. calls Pharisaism arpits50TYY, the most exact system : andvations at the conclusion of that chapter. under it, he was zealous towards God; scrupulously exact in Verse 14. And see that Just One] The Lord Jesus, called every part of his duty, accompanying this with reverence to the Just One, in opposition to the Jews, who crucified him the Supreme Being, and deep concern for his honour and glory. | as a malefactor : see the note on chap. vii. 52.

This is an Verse 4. I persecuted this way] Tauroy TYM ogov; this additional proof that Jesus Christ did actually appear unto doctrine, this way of worshipping God, and arriving at a Saul of Tarsus. state of blessedness. See on chap. ix. 2.

Verse 15. Thou shalt be his witness unto all] Thou Binding and delivering into prisons] See on chap. viii. 3. | shalt proclaim Christ crucified, both to Jews and Gentiles.

Verse 16. Arise and be baptized] Take now the proVerse 5. The high priest doth bear me witness, &c.] He fession of Christ's faith most solemnly upon thee, by being probably referred to the letters of authority, which he had baptized in the name of Father, Son, and Holy Spirit. received from the high priest ; and the whole estate of the Wash away thy sins, &c.] Let this washing of thy body elders, Tar TO TPEO CUTEÇ10%, the whole of the presbytery, that represent to thee the washing away of thy sins ; and know is, the sanhedrin : and it is likely that he had those letters that this washing away of sin can be received only by invokto produce. This zeal of his against Christianity, was an ing the name of the Lord. ample proof of his sincerity as a pharibaical Jew.

Verse 17. When I was come again to Jerusalem] It is

ix. 2.

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